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A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl., old forms ℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥) is a unit of liquid capacity equal to approximately 29.6 ml in United States customary units or approximately 28.4 ml in Imperial units. An Imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of a Imperial pint or 1⁄160 of an Imperial gallon, while a US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US liquid pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon.
The imperial gallon was originally defined as the volume occupied by 10 avoirdupois pounds of water at a temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit; the definition was later revised, expressing the same volume as 4.54609 litres, making the imperial fluid ounce 28.4130625 ml. The US gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches, making the US fluid ounce 29.5735295625 ml, or about 4% larger than the imperial unit. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, a unit of mass but the fluid ounce is sometimes referred to simply as an "ounce" in the context of liquid capacity.
The fluid ounce was originally the volume occupied by one ounce of some substance such as wine (in England) or water (in Scotland). The ounce in question varied depending on the system of fluid measure, such as that used for wine versus ale. Various ounces were used over the centuries, including the Tower ounce, troy ounce, avoirdupois ounce, and various ounces used in international trade such as Paris troy. The situation is further complicated by the medieval practice of "allowances" whereby a unit of measure was not necessarily equal to the sum of its parts. For example, the 364-pound woolsack had a 14-pound allowance for the weight of the sack and other packaging materials.
In 1824, the British Parliament defined the imperial gallon as the volume of ten avoirdupois pounds of water. The gallon was divided into four quarts and eight pints. Each pint was divided into four gills and twenty fluid ounces, that is, five ounces for each gill. Thus, the mass of an imperial fluid ounce of water is one avoirdupois ounce (28.4 g). The US fluid ounce is based on the US gallon, which is based on the wine gallon, used in England prior to 1824.
Definitions and equivalences
- Imperial fluid ounce
1 imperial fluid ounce = 1⁄160 imperial gallon = 1⁄40 imperial quart = 1⁄20 imperial pint = 1⁄5 imperial gill = 8 imperial fluid drams ≈ 28.4130625 millilitres (cm3) ≈ 1.733871455 cubic inches = 1 ounce avoirdupois of water at 62 °F (16.7 °C) ≈ 0.960759940 US fluid ounce
- US customary fluid ounce
1 US fluid ounce = 1⁄128 US gallon = 1⁄32 US quart = 1⁄16 US pint = 1⁄8 US cup = 1⁄4 US gill = 2 tablespoons = 6 teaspoons = 8 US fluid drams ≡ 1.8046875 cubic inches ≡ 29.5735295625 milliliters (or the same number of cubic centimetres (cm3)) ≈ 1.040842731 imperial fluid ounces ≈ 1.041 ounce avoirdupois (29.5 g) of water at 62 °F (16.7 °C)
- US food labelling fluid ounce
- US regulation 21 CFR 101.9(b)(5)(viii) also defines a fluid ounce as exactly 30 millilitres, but this is for use in nutrition labeling only.
- Other useful conversions
Given the definitions above, the number of US fluid ounces in one litre is:
- 1 fl oz⁄29.57353 ml × 1000 ml⁄l = 33.8140 fl oz⁄l
There are thus about 34 customary US fluid ounces in one litre.
Similarly, there are exactly 33 1⁄3 US food-labelling fluid ounces in a litre.
|16.39||1.00||0.58||0.55||1 cu in|
|28.41||1.73||1.00||0.96||1 Imp fl oz|
|29.57||1.80||1.04||1.00||1 US fl oz|
|30.00||1.83||1.06||1.01||"metric fl oz"|
|113.65||6.94||4.00||3.84||4 Imp fl oz|
|142.07||8.67||5.00||4.80||5 Imp fl oz|
|170.48||10.40||6.00||5.76||6 Imp fl oz|
|198.89||12.14||7.00||6.73||7 Imp fl oz|
|236.59||14.44||8.33||8.00||1/2 US pint|
|250.00||15.26||8.80||8.45||European beer glass|
|255.72||15.60||9.00||8.65||9 Imp fl oz|
|284.13||17.34||10.00||9.61||1/2 Imp pint|
|285.00||17.39||10.03||9.64||"metric half pint"|
|330.00||20.14||11.61||11.16||European beer bottle|
|340.96||20.81||12.00||11.53||12 Imp fl oz|
|345.00||21.05||12.14||11.67||"boutique" beer bottle|
|354.88||21.66||12.49||12.00||12 US fl oz|
|355.00||21.66||12.49||12.00||"metric 12 US fl oz"|
|425.00||25.94||14.96||14.37||"metric 3/4 pint"|
|426.20||26.01||15.00||14.41||3/4 Imp pint|
|473.18||28.88||16.65||16.00||1 US pint|
|568.26||34.68||20.00||19.22||1 Imp pint|
|738.74||45.08||26.00||24.98||26 Imp fl oz|
|750.00||45.77||26.40||25.36||3/4 litre (Australian "long neck")|
|757.68||46.24||26.67||25.62||1/6 Imp gallon|
|946.35||57.75||33.31||32.00||1 US quart|
|1,136.52||69.35||40.00||38.43||1 Imp quart|
|1,638.71||100.00||57.67||55.41||100 cu in|
|1,892.71||115.50||66.61||64.00||1/2 US gallon|
|2,273.05||138.71||80.00||76.86||1/2 Imp gallon|
|2,458.06||150.00||86.51||83.12||150 cu in|
|3,277.41||200.00||115.35||110.82||200 cu in|
|3,785.41||231.00||133.23||128.00||1 US gallon|
|4,096.77||250.00||144.19||138.53||250 cu in|
|4,546.09||277.42||160.00||153.72||1 Imp gallon|
|4,916.12||300.00||173.02||166.23||300 cu in|
|5,735.47||350.00||201.86||193.94||350 cu in|
|6,554.83||400.00||230.70||221.65||400 cu in|
|7,374.18||450.00||259.53||249.35||450 cu in|
|7,570.82||462.00||266.46||256.00||2 US gallons|
|8,193.53||500.00||288.37||277.06||500 cu in|
|9,012.89||550.00||317.21||304.76||550 cu in|
|9,092.18||554.84||320.00||307.44||2 Imp gallons|
|9,832.24||600.00||346.05||332.47||600 cu in|
References and notes
- Connor, R. D.; Simpson, Allen David Cumming; Morrison-Low, A. D.; National Museums of Scotland (2004). Weights and measures in Scotland: a European perspective. NMS. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-901663-88-4. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- "The Units of Measurement Regulations 1995 (Schedule)". 2000-09-20. Retrieved 2006-04-18.
- The imperial gallon was originally defined as the volume occupied by ten avoirdupois pounds of water at 62 °F (16.7 °C), weighed in air with brass weights.
- One US gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches.
- "Food and Drug Administration, HHS" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-04-18.