|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|(what is this?)|
Flunitrazepam // — also known as Narcozep, Rohypnol, Rohipnol, Roipnol, Rufies or Roofies — is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used as an hypnotic, sedative, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and skeletal muscle relaxant drug.
It was developed by a team led by Leo Sternbach at Hoffman La-Roche and produced from common precursors to 1,4-benzophenones, in 1963. A series of tests showed that an N-methyl & '2F-fluoro produced the most potent hypnotic of the series that started with an earlier Sternbach invention, nitrazepam.
In general, the prescription of flunitrazepam as a hypnotic is intended to be for short-term treatment of chronic or severe insomniacs not responsive to other hypnotics, especially in inpatients. It is considered to be one of the most effective benzodiazepine hypnotics on a dose basis. Just as with other hypnotics, flunitrazepam should be strictly used only on a short-term basis or in those with chronic insomnia on an occasional basis.
Flunitrazepam is classed as a nitro-benzodiazepine. It is the fluorinated N-methyl derivative of nitrazepam. Other nitro-benzodiazepines include nitrazepam (the parent compound), nimetazepam (methylamino derivative) and clonazepam (the chlorinated derivative).
Flunitrazepam has been referred to as a date rape drug because of its high potency and ability to cause strong amnesia. However, Robertson's study (in the 1990s) indicated that flunitrazepam was used in only around 1% of reported date rapes and 0.33% according to urine lab tests done (before 2001) by El Sohly.
- 1 Pharmacology
- 2 Mechanism of action
- 3 Pharmacokinetics
- 4 History
- 5 Interactions
- 6 Overdose
- 7 Other uses
- 8 Adverse effects
- 9 Regional use
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Benzodiazepines, including flunitrazepam, bind to most glial cell membranes with high affinity in mouse astrocytes. Flunitrazepam induces melanogenesis in B16/C3 mouse melanoma cell cultures via modulating high-affinity binding sites. Benzodiazepines, including flunitrazepam have been shown to act on benzodiazepine binding sites as Ca2+ channel blockers and significantly inhibit depolarization-sensitive calcium uptake in rat brain cell components. This has been conjectured as a mechanism for high-dose effects against seizures in a study.
Mechanism of action
The main pharmacological effects of flunitrazepam are the enhancement of GABA at the GABAA receptor. Like other benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam's pharmacological effects include sedation, muscle relaxation, reduction in anxiety, and prevention of convulsions.
Intermediate-half-life benzodiazepines (such as loprazolam, lormetazepam, and temazepam) are also useful for patients with difficulty in maintaining sleep; these may be preferable to long-half-life benzodiazepines, which typically cause next-day sedation and impairments.
While 80% of flunitrazepam that is taken orally is absorbed, bioavailability in suppository form is closer to 50%.
Flunitrazepam has a long half-life of 18–26 hours, which means that flunitrazepam's effects after nighttime administration persist throughout the next day. Residual "hangover" effects after nighttime administration of flunitrazepam, such as sleepiness and impaired psychomotor and cognitive functions, may persist into the next day. This may impair the ability of users to drive safely, and increase risks of falls and hip fractures.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
Flunitrazepam was first synthesized in 1972 by Roche in Europe and was used in hospitals when deep sedation was needed. It first entered the commercial market in Europe in 1975 as Rohypnol produced by Roche, and in the 1980s it began to be available in other countries. It first appeared in the US in late 1983 - mid 1984. It originally came in doses of 1 mg and 2 mg, but due to its potency and potential for abuse, most European countries changed their drug laws and limited the dose to 1 mg—in many countries, the maximum dose per package was limited to 20 or 30 mg. In Germany there had been two changes in availability during a short period in the late 1990s; the first one restricting the dose to 20 mg per package, and for a short time only 10 tablets with 2 mg were available. Soon another change in the German Narcotic Act limited the dose for each tablet to 1 mg, while ampoules containing the 2 mg solution were not changed by Roche and have been handled as a controlled narcotic like morphine. In the countries where flunitrazepam is available for prescription as both 1 mg and 2 mg tablets, such as the Netherlands, generic alternatives are available for the 2 mg tablets. However, in Asia and South America there are original 2 mg tablets from Roche still available.
The newly designed 1 mg tablets introduced in the late 1990s by Roche for the European market are identical in all countries, only the packaging and packaging size differs since there are different laws in each country. The new tablets are green (containing a blue coloring) and are pressed harder during manufacturing—so that the tablets can only dissolve quickly in hot liquids, while turning the drink a blue color and leaving a green residue in the beverage—were introduced to prevent use as a rape drug and abuse on the drug scene. However there have been only few reported cases in Europe where flunitrazepam was used as a rape drug and in most countries flunitrazepam is still offered as a generic drug with white tablets that can be dissolved easily.
In the 2000s some European countries started to treat flunitrazepam as a strong narcotic, for example Poland in 2004. The most recent change was the change in the German drug law regarding flunitrazepam; since November 2011 the drug is only available with a special narcotic prescription. German Rohypnol tablets disappeared almost overnight from the black market. However it took only a few weeks before organized crime became the major supplier for the drug on the black market, as in the United States. The tablets come from western European countries where it is still available with a normal prescription. Some users living on the borders are driving to these countries and buy the drug on the black market, since there are no border controls within the European Union.
Flunitrazepam is a drug that is frequently involved in drug intoxication, including overdose. Overdose of flunitrazepam may result in excessive sedation, or impairment of balance or speech. This may progress in severe overdoses to respiratory depression or coma and possibly death. The risk of overdose is increased if flunitrazepam is taken in combination with CNS depressants such as ethanol (alcohol) and opioids. Flunitrazepam overdose responds to the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil, which thus can be used as a treatment.
Presence in bodily fluids
Flunitrazepam can be measured in blood or plasma to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, provide evidence in an impaired driving arrest, or assist in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma flunitrazepam concentrations are usually in a range of 5-20 μg/L in persons receiving the drug therapeutically as a nighttime hypnotic, 10-50 μg/L in those arrested for impaired driving and 100-1000 μg/L in victims of acute fatal overdosage. Urine is often the preferred specimen for routine drug abuse monitoring purposes. The presence of 7-aminoflunitrazepam, a pharmacologically-active metabolite and in vitro degradation product, is useful for confirmation of flunitrazepam ingestion. In postmortem specimens, the parent drug may have been entirely degraded over time to 7-aminoflunitrazepam.
A 1989 journal on Clinical Pharmacology reports that benzodiazepines accounted for 52% of prescription forgeries, suggesting that benzodiazepines was a major prescription drug class of abuse. Nitrazepam accounted for 13% of forged prescriptions.
Flunitrazepam and other sedative hypnotic drugs are detected frequently in cases of people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines (anxiolytic or hypnotic) such as zolpidem and zopiclone (as well as cyclopyrrolones, imidazopyridines, and pyrazolopyrimidines) are also found in high numbers of suspected drugged drivers. Many drivers have blood levels far exceeding the therapeutic dose range suggesting a high degree of abuse potential for benzodiazepines and similar drugs.
In studies in Sweden, flunitrazepam was the second-most-common drug used in suicides, being found in about 16% of cases. In a retrospective Swedish study of 1587 deaths, in 159 cases benzodiazepines were found. In suicides when benzodiazepines were implicated, the benzodiazepines flunitrazepam and nitrazepam were occurring in significantly higher concentrations, compared to natural deaths. In four of the 159 cases, where benzodiazepines were found, benzodiazepines alone were the only cause of death. It was concluded that flunitrazepam and nitrazepam might be more toxic than other benzodiazepines. 
Drug-facilitated sexual assault
Flunitrazepam is known to induce anterograde amnesia in sufficient doses; individuals are unable to remember certain events that they experienced while under the influence of the drug. This effect could be particularly dangerous if flunitrazepam is used to aid in the commission of sexual assault; victims may be unable to clearly recall the assault, the assailant, or the events surrounding the assault.
It is difficult to estimate just how many flunitrazepam-facilitated rapes have occurred. Very often, biological samples are taken from the alleged victim at a time when the effects of the drug would already have passed and only residual amounts would remain in the body fluids. These residual amounts would be difficult, and sometimes impossible, to detect using standard screening assays used in most countries. If flunitrazepam exposure is to be detected at all, urine samples need to be collected within 72 hours and subjected to sensitive analytical tests. The problem is compounded by the onset of amnesia after ingestion of the drug, which causes the victim to be uncertain about the facts surrounding the alleged rape. This uncertainty may lead to critical delays or even reluctance to report the rape and provide appropriate biological samples for testing. If a person suspects that he or she is the victim of a flunitrazepam-facilitated rape, he or she should get laboratory testing for flunitrazepam as soon as possible. In recent news, it has been discovered that scientists can now detect flunitrazepam and related compounds in urine at least up to 5 days after administration of a single dose of Rohypnol and up to a month in hair.
An inability to remember events, including sexual encounters, is not conclusive evidence of having consumed a drugged drink: Psychotropic central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as alcohol can cause blackouts, sleepiness, and a reduction in inhibitions. Only a timely screening for flunitrazepam can demonstrate its use. It has been shown that alcohol alone is the psychotropic substance used in the vast majority of cases of alleged drug-facilitated date-rape. A recent study conducted by doctors in the UK found that none of the subjects reporting spiked drinks had any traces of flunitrazepam or other medications popularly believed to be associated with drug-assisted rape, such as GHB. However, flunitrazepam was prohibited for prescription under the NHS in 1992 (The National Health Service (General Medical Services). Rohypnol (1 mg) is available under private prescription. The study results, however, suggest that binge drinking is more commonly a factor in alleged drug-assisted rapes than pharmaceutical drugs.
In the United Kingdom, the use of flunitrazepam and other "date rape" drugs have been connected to stealing from sedated victims. An activist quoted by a British newspaper estimated that up to 2,000 individuals are robbed each year after being spiked with powerful sedatives, making drug-assisted robbery a more commonly reported problem than drug-assisted rape.
Adverse effects of flunitrazepam include dependence, both physical and psychological; reduced sleep quality resulting in somnolence; and overdose, resulting in excessive sedation, impairment of balance and speech, respiratory depression or coma, and possibly death. Because of the latter, flunitrazepam is commonly used in suicide. When used in pregnancy, it might cause hypotonia.
Discontinuation may result in the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued. Abrupt withdrawal may lead to a severe benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome characterised by seizures, psychosis, severe insomnia, and severe anxiety. Rebound insomnia, worse than baseline insomnia, typically occur after discontinuation of flunitrazepam even after short-term single nightly dose therapy.
Flunitrazepam produces a decrease in delta wave activity. The effect of benzodiazepine drugs on delta waves, however, may not be mediated via benzodiazepine receptors. Delta activity is an indicator of depth of sleep within non-REM sleep; increased levels of delta sleep reflects better quality of sleep. Thus, flunitrazepam and other benzodiazepines cause a deterioration in sleep quality. Cyproheptadine may be superior to benzodiazepines in the treatment of insomnia as it enhances sleep quality based on EEG studies. This may lead to somnolence.
Flunitrazepam may cause a paradoxical reaction in some individuals causing symptoms including anxiety, aggressiveness, agitation, confusion, disinhibition, loss of impulse control, talkativeness, violent behavior, and even convulsions. Paradoxical adverse effects may even lead to criminal behaviour.
Benzodiazepines such as flunitrazepam are lipophilic and rapidly penetrate membranes and, therefore, rapidly cross over into the placenta with significant uptake of the drug. Use of benzodiazepines including flunitrazepam in late pregnancy, especially high doses, may result in hypotonia, also known as floppy infant syndrome.
Flunitrazepam impairs cognitive functions. This may appear as lack of concentration, confusion and anterograde amnesia. It can be described as a hangover-like effect, with impairment of mental arithmetic abilities.
Impaired psychomotor functions is another adverse effect, affecting reaction time and driving skill. This may also be expressed as impaired coordination, impaired balance and dizziness.
Other adverse effects include:
- Slurred speech
- Gastrointestinal disturbances, lasting 12 or more hours
- Respiratory depression in higher doses
- Special precautions
Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, in alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals, and in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Impairment of driving skills with a resultant increased risk of road traffic accidents is probably the most important adverse effect. This side-effect is not unique to flunitrazepam but also occurs with other hypnotic drugs. Flunitrazepam seems to have a particularly high risk of road traffic accidents compared to other hypnotic drugs. Extreme caution should be exercised by drivers after taking flunitrazepam.
Flunitrazepam, similar to other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs, causes impairments in body balance and standing steadiness in individuals waking up at night or the next morning. Falls and hip fractures are frequently reported. The combination with alcohol increases these impairments. Partial, but incomplete tolerance develops to these impairments.
||This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (November 2010)|
- In Australia, prescription is restricted as a Schedule 8 medicine. It is used primarily for the treatment of severe insomnia that has not responded to other treatments. In some states, it is also manufactured in generic form by Alphapharm under the name Hypnodorm. As a Schedule 8 medicine, it is illegal to have this drug in possession without an authority prescription from a registered doctor.
- In France, Rohypnol is prescribed by physicians, it is under the maximum list, being prescribed only when other drugs will not do, prescription nonrenewable (a new doctor visit every time), and being available only in 7-pill, in theory one-week, packaging.
- In Germany, flunitrazepam is available for prescription as the Roche-Brand Rohypnol 1 mg Film-Coated Tablets and several generic 1 mg tablets (e.g., Fluninoc, Flunitrazepam ratiopharm, Flunitrazepam neuraxpharm).
- In Ireland, flunitrazepam is a Schedule 3 controlled substance with strict restrictions.
- In Japan, flunitrazepam is marketed by Japanese pharmaceutical company Chugai under the tradename Rohypnol, by Japanese pharmaceutical company Eisai under the name of Silece and by some manufacturers as generic drugs. Flunitrazepam is indicated for the treatment of insomnia as well as used for preanesthetic medication.
- In Mexico, Rohypnol is approved for medical use.
- In the Netherlands, flunitrazepam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription as 1 mg Rohypnol brand tablets by Roche, and as 1 mg and 2 mg generic tablets.
- In Singapore, flunitrazepam is a Class C controlled drug (Schedule II), making it illegal to possess without a proper medical prescription.
- In Slovenia, it is regulated as a Group III (Schedule 3) controlled substance under The Production and Trade in Illicit Drugs Act. About 20 years ago, Rohypnol was indicated for treatment of insomnia as well as used for preanesthetic medication, replaced mainly with Dormicum (midazolam), which has very similar properties.
- In South Africa, Rohypnol is classified as a schedule 6 drug. It is available by prescription only, and restricted to 1 mg doses. Travelers from South Africa to the United States are limited to a 30-day supply. The drug must be declared to US Customs upon arrival. If a valid prescription cannot be produced, the drug may be subject to Customs search and seizure, and the traveler may face criminal charges or deportation.
- In Sweden, the brand Rohypnol has been withdrawn from the domestic market. It is available under the name Flunitrazepam Mylan. It is listed as a List IV (Schedule IV) under the Narcotics Control Act (1968). Although it has for a long time been a first-line drug for the treatment of insomnia, it has seen a decline in prescriptions in recent years. Much more common are nitrazepam, but above all zopiclone and zolpidem.
- In the United Kingdom, the drug is available only by private prescription. Though Rohypnol was discontinued in 1986, Flunitrazepam use is still present in modern culture; among other uses, it is used in some hospitals to sedate patients undergoing colonoscopy.
- In the United States, the drug has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is considered to be an illegal drug.
Flunitrazepam is marketed by Roche most commonly under the trade name Rohypnol. It is also marketed in some countries under the trade names Flunitrazepam, Hipnosedon, Hypnodorm, Flunipam, Nilium, Vulbegal, Silece, Darkene, Ilman, Insom, Inervon and Fluscand. In street slang, the pharmaceutical is commonly referred to as a roofie (USA) or a roh'ie (Australia).
According to FDA Associate Director for Domestic and International Drug Control Nicholas Reuter:
- Flunitrazepam was "temporarily controlled in Schedule IV pursuant to a treaty obligation under the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. At the time flunitrazepam was placed temporarily in Schedule IV . . . there was no evidence of abuse or trafficking of the drug in the United States."
Rohypnol is currently under consideration to be rescheduled to Schedule I, and is already considered such in the States of Florida, Idaho, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.
In Australia, flunitrazepam is a schedule 8 drug, along with substituted amphetamines and opioid analgesics. All other benzodiazepines (except alprazolam) are schedule 4 drugs. Unauthorized possession of certain quantities of the drug is punishable by criminal sanctions in New South Wales under Schedule 1 of the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985.
On January 1, 2003, flunitrazepam was moved up one level in the schedule of controlled drugs in Norway, and, on August 1, 2004, the manufacturer Roche removed Rohypnol from the market there altogether.
The Dutch, British and French use a system called the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis for assessing whether drugs should be included in drug formularies based on clinical efficacy, adverse effects, pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and drug interactions. A Dutch analysis using the system found that flunitrazepam is unsuitable to be included in drug prescribing formularies.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flunitrazepam.|
- Date rape drugs
- Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
- Long-term effects of benzodiazepines
- Twilight sleep
- http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=3380 NCBI
- Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA (October 2008). "Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective". Current Drug Metabolism 9 (8): 827–44. doi:10.2174/138920008786049258. PMID 18855614.
- US Patent US 3203990 2-amino-2'-halo-5-nitro benzophenones
- Rickels, K. (1986). "The clinical use of hypnotics: indications for use and the need for a variety of hypnotics". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Suppl. 74 (S332): 132–41. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1986.tb08990.x. PMID 2883820.
- Robertson MD; Drummer OH (May 1995). "Postmortem drug metabolism by bacteria". Journal of Forensic Sciences 40 (3): 382–6. PMID 7782744.
- ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Lee, Luen F.; Holzhauer, Lynn B.; Salamone, Salvatore J. (2001). "Analysis of urine samples in cases of alleged sexual assault case history". Benzodiazepines and GHB: 127–144.
- Tardy M; Costa MF; Rolland B; Fages C; Gonnard P. (April 1981). "Benzodiazepine receptors on primary cultures of mouse astrocytes". Journal of Neurochemistry 36 (4): 1587–9. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1981.tb00603.x. PMID 6267195.
- Matthew E; Laskin JD; Zimmerman EA; Weinstein IB; Hsu KC; Engelhardt DL (June 1981). "Benzodiazepines have high-affinity binding sites and induce melanogenesis in B16/C3 melanoma cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 78 (6): 3935–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.6.3935. PMC 319688. PMID 6267610.
- Taft WC; DeLorenzo RJ (May 1984). "Micromolar-affinity benzodiazepine receptors regulate voltage-sensitive calcium channels in nerve terminal preparations" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81 (10): 3118–22. doi:10.1073/pnas.81.10.3118. PMC 345232. PMID 6328498.
- Oelschläger H. (July 4, 1989). "[Chemical and pharmacologic aspects of benzodiazepines]". Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 78 (27–28): 766–72. PMID 2570451.
- Cano J. P.; Soliva, M.; Hartmann, D.; Ziegler, W. H.; Amrein, R. (1977). "Bioavailability from various galenic formulations of flunitrazepam". Arzneimittelforschung 27 (12): 2383–8. PMID 23801. rohypnol.
- A list of Equivalent Doses of Benzodiazepines
- Vermeeren A. (2004). "Residual effects of hypnotics: epidemiology and clinical implications". CNS Drugs 18 (5): 297–328. doi:10.2165/00023210-200418050-00003. PMID 15089115.
- Hesse LM; Venkatakrishnan K, von Moltke, LL, Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ (1 February 2001). "CYP3A4 Is the Major CYP Isoform Mediating the in Vitro Hydroxylation and Demethylation of Flunitrazepam". Drug Metabolism & Disposition 29 (2): 133–40. PMID 11159802.
- Zevzikovas, A; Kiliuviene G; Ivanauskas L; Dirse V. (2002). "Analysis of benzodiazepine derivative mixture by gas-liquid chromatography". Medicina (Kaunas) 38 (3): 316–20. PMID 12474705.
- Jonasson B, Saldeen T (March 2002). "Citalopram in fatal poisoning cases". Forensic Science International 126 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00632-6. PMID 11955823.
- Jones AW, Holmgren A, Kugelberg FC. Concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results. Ther. Drug Monit. 29: 248-260, 2007.
- Robertson MD, Drummer OH. Stability of nitrobenzodiazepines in postmortem blood. J. For. Sci. 43: 5-8, 1998.
- R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 633-635.
- Bergman U; Dahl-Puustinen ML. (1989). "Use of prescription forgeries in a drug abuse surveillance network". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 36 (6): 621–3. doi:10.1007/BF00637747. PMID 2776820.
- Jones AW; Holmgren A; Kugelberg FC. (April 2007). "Concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 29 (2): 248–60. doi:10.1097/FTD.0b013e31803d3c04. PMID 17417081.
- Jonasson B, Jonasson U, Saldeen T (January 2000). "Among fatal poisonings dextropropoxyphene predominates in younger people, antidepressants in the middle aged and sedatives in the elderly". Journal of Forensic Sciences 45 (1): 7–10. PMID 10641912.
- Ericsson HR; Holmgren P, Jakobsson SW, Lafolie P, De Rees B. (November 10, 1993). "Benzodiazepine findings in autopsy material. A study shows interacting factors in fatal cases". Läkartidningen 90 (45): 3954–7. PMID 8231567.
- Drummer OH, Syrjanen ML, Cordner SM (September 1993). "Deaths involving the benzodiazepine flunitrazepam.". The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology 14 (3): 238–243. doi:10.1097/00000433-199309000-00012. PMID 8311057.
- Detection of "Date-Rape" Drugs in Hair and Urine, Final Report
- Hope, Jenny (February 16, 2007). "Drug rape myth exposed as study reveals binge drinking is to blame". Daily Mail (London).
- Thompson, Tony (December 19, 2004). "'Rape drug' used to rob thousands". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- "Bankrånare stärkte sig med Rohypnol?". DrugNews.
- "Mijailovic var påverkad av våldsdrog". Sydsvenskan.
- "Mijailovic var påverkad av våldsdrog". Expressen.
- Kales A; Scharf MB; Kales JD; Soldatos CR (April 20, 1979). "Rebound insomnia. A potential hazard following withdrawal of certain benzodiazepines". Journal of the American Medical Association 241 (16): 1692–5. doi:10.1001/jama.241.16.1692. PMID 430730.
- Tokunaga S; Takeda Y; Shinomiya K; Hirase M; Kamei C (February 2007). "Effects of some H1-antagonists on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats" (pdf). Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 103 (2): 201–6. doi:10.1254/jphs.FP0061173. PMID 17287588.
- Bramness JG, Skurtveit S, Mørland J (June 2006). "Flunitrazepam: psychomotor impairment, agitation and paradoxical reactions". Forensic Science International 159 (2–3): 83–91. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.06.009. PMID 16087304.
- Kanto JH (May 1982). "Use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy, labour and lactation, with particular reference to pharmacokinetic considerations". Drugs 23 (5): 354–80. doi:10.2165/00003495-198223050-00002. PMID 6124415.
- Hindmarch I (November 1977). "A repeated dose comparison of three benzodiazepine derivative (nitrazepam, flurazepam and flunitrazepam) on subjective appraisals of sleep and measures of psychomotor performance the morning following night-time medication". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 56 (5): 373–81. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1977.tb06678.x. PMID 22990.
- Authier, N.; Balayssac, D.; Sautereau, M.; Zangarelli, A.; Courty, P.; Somogyi, AA.; Vennat, B.; Llorca, PM.; Eschalier, A. (November 2009). "Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome". Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises 67 (6): 408–13. doi:10.1016/j.pharma.2009.07.001. PMID 19900604.
- Gustavsen I, Bramness JG, Skurtveit S, Engeland A, Neutel I, Mørland J (December 2008). "Road traffic accident risk related to prescriptions of the hypnotics zopiclone, zolpidem, flunitrazepam and nitrazepam". Sleep Medicine 9 (8): 818–22. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2007.11.011. PMID 18226959.
- Mets, MA.; Volkerts, ER.; Olivier, B.; Verster, JC. (Feb 2010). "Effect of hypnotic drugs on body balance and standing steadiness". Sleep Medicine Reviews 14 (4): 259–67. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.008. PMID 20171127.
- "Authorisation to Supply or Prescribe Drugs of Addiction: Flunitrazepam". Statutory Medical Notifications. Department of Health, Government of Western Australia. 13 August 2004. Archived from the original on 2006-08-28. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- "Guidelines for the Prescribing of Flunitrazepam" (PDF). Pharmaceutical Services Branch. New South Wales Health. August 2000. Archived from the original on 2006-03-19. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- Irish Statute Book, Statutory Instruments, S.I. No. 342/1993 — Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations, 1993
- "Kusuri-no-Shiori Drug Information Sheet". RAD-AR Council, Japan. July 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-11.
- Production of and Trade in Illicit Drugs Act (ZPPPD), Republic of Slovenia, Europa.eu, 22 December 1999. accessed 27 March 2011.
- Classification of controlled drugs, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), Europa.eu, 4 November 2008. accessed 27 March 2011.
- "Drug Wars - About Drugs". 11 October 2006.
- "UK Rohypnol: The date rape drug". BBC News Online. May 20, 1999. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- DEA Resources, For Law Enforcement Officers, Intelligence Reports, Rohypnol
- Rohypnol Fast Facts
- Annual Estimates Of Requirements Of Narcotic Drugs, Manufacture Of Synthetic Drugs, Opium Production And Cultivation
- "Date Rape" Drugs
- Bramness JG; Skurtveit S; Furu K; Engeland A; Sakshaug S; Rønning M. (February 23, 2006). "[Changes in the sale and use of flunitrazepam in Norway after 1999]". Tidsskr nor Laegeforen 126 (5): 589–90. PMID 16505866.
- Janknegt R, van der Kuy A, Declerck G, Idzikowski C; Van Der Kuy; Declerck; Idzikowski (August 1996). "Hypnotics. Drug selection by means of the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis (SOJA) method". PharmacoEconomics 10 (2): 152–63. doi:10.2165/00019053-199610020-00007. PMID 10163418.
- Inchem.org - Retrieved 2007-2-27
- Drugs Factfile on Rohypnol all you need to know
- Erowid Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) Vault
- Molecule of the Month
- Statement on "Date Rape" Drugs by Nicholas Reuter, M.P.H., Mar. 11, 1999.
- Club Drugs - Fact Sheet by Drug Policy Information Clearing House, United States.