|Molar mass||769.54 g·mol−1|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Fluo-3 is a fluorescence indicator of intracellular calcium (Ca2+). It is used to measure Ca2+ inside living cells in flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy using visible light excitation (compatible with argon laser sources operating at 488 nm). Fluo-3 is an essentially nonfluorescent compound, but upon binding of Ca2+ its fluorescence increases sharply with an emission maximum at 525 nm suitable for conventionally used detectors designed for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) measurements. This large change in fluorescence coupled with a good yield of photons provides very high contrast which allowed the detection of microscopic Ca2+ release events inside cells called "Calcium sparks". Whereas the salts of fluo-3 are unable to penetrate cells, loading can be achieved using its acetoxymethyl (AM) ester derivative. Once inside the cell, unspecific esterases cleave the ester effectively trapping fluo-3.
As calcium is a key second messenger within cells, the specific properties of fluo-3 enable researchers to investigate the time-resolved dynamics of intracellular signal transduction in a diverse range of cells.
- Cheng, H., Lederer, W.J. & Cannell, M.B., 1993. Calcium Sparks - Elementary Events Underlying Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Heart-Muscle. Science, 262(5134), pp.740–744. Available at: http://eutils.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&id=8235594&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks.
- Haugland, RP. Handbook of Fluorescent Probes and Research Products. Molecular Probes, 2010
- Gamsjäger, T. Flow Cytometry of Intracellular Calcium in Platelets. Grin, 2012
- Lambert, DG. Calcium Signaling Protocols. Humana Press, 2006