Fluorine deficiency

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Fluorine deficiency
Classification and external resources
ICD-9 269.3

Fluoride or fluorine deficiency is a disorder which may cause increased dental caries and possibly osteoporosis due to a lack of fluoride in the diet.[1][2] The extent to which the condition truly exists, and its relationship to fluoride poisoning has given rise to some controversy. Fluorine is not considered to be an essential nutrient, but the importance of fluorides for preventing tooth decay is well-recognized,[3] although the effect is predominantly topical.[4] Prior to 1981, the effect of fluorides was thought to be largely systemic and preeruptive, requiring ingestion.[5] A role in osteoporosis has been researched, but only the smallest of 3 trials (n=64) found a decrease in fractures, while the others found no difference (n=202) or an increase in fractures (n=354).[6]

Fluoride is considered essential in the development and maintenance of teeth by the American Dental Hygienists' Association.[7] Caries-inhibiting effects of fluoride were first seen in 1902 when fluoride in high concentrations was found to stain teeth and prevent tooth decay.[8]

Disputes over the essentiality of fluorine date back to the 19th century, when fluorine was observed in teeth and bones.[9] In 1973 a trial found reduced reproduction in mice fed fluorine-deficient diets, but a subsequent investigation determined that this was due to reduced iron absorption.[10]


  1. ^ "Fluorine". Merck. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  2. ^ "Fluoride in diet". MedlinePlus. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  3. ^ Olivares M and Uauy R (2004). "Essential nutrients in drinking-water (Draft)". WHO. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  4. ^ Pizzo G, Piscopo MR, Pizzo I, Giuliana G (September 2007). "Community water fluoridation and caries prevention: a critical review". Clin Oral Investig 11 (3): 189–93. doi:10.1007/s00784-007-0111-6. PMID 17333303. 
  5. ^ Aoba T, Fejerskov O (2002). "Dental fluorosis: chemistry and biology". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 13 (2): 155–70. doi:10.1177/154411130201300206. PMID 12097358. 
  6. ^ Boulétreau PH, Bost M, Fontanges E, et al (June 2006). "Fluoride exposure and bone status in patients with chronic intestinal failure who are receiving home parenteral nutrition". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (6): 1429–37. PMID 16762955. 
  7. ^ "Nutritional Factors in Tooth Development". ADHA. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  8. ^ "History of Dentistry in the Pikes Peak Region". Colorado Springs Dental Society. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  9. ^ Meiers P. Fluoride Research in the 19th and early 20th century . Retrieved 2009-1-4.
  10. ^ Tao S, Suttie JW (August 1976). "Evidence for a lack of an effect of dietary fluoride level on reproduction in mice". J. Nutr. 106 (8): 1115–22. PMID 939992. 

See also[edit]