|Systematic IUPAC name
|Main hazards||Extremely corrosive, Violent hydrolysis|
|H300, H310, H314, H330, H411|
|P260, P264, P273, P280, P284, P301+310|
|R-phrases||R26, R29, R35|
|S-phrases||(S1/2), S36/37/39, S45, S53, S60, S61|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Fluoroantimonic acid (systematically named fluoranium hexafluorostibanuide and fluoranium hexafluoridoantimonate(1−)) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula H
6 (also written H
6]). It is an ionic liquid created by reacting hydrogen fluoride (HF) with antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) in a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. It is the strongest known superacid, which has been demonstrated to protonate even hydrocarbons to afford carbocations and H2. Similar acids can be created by using excess antimony pentafluoride.
The reaction to produce fluoroantimonic acid is:
- 2 HF H2F+ + F−
- SbF5 + F− → SbF6−
The overall reaction is:
- SbF5 + 2 HF → SbF6− + H2F+
The second reaction is not in equilibrium, therefore the overall reaction is not in equilibrium. The reaction is exothermic.
The F−, produced by autoionization of hydrogen fluoride, reacts with SbF5 to yield the adduct SbF6−. In the fluoronium ion, hydrogen fluoride is coordinated to the hydrogen ion. The anion is classified as noncoordinating and is both a very weak nucleophile and a very weak base.
The acid is often said to contain "naked protons", but the "free" protons are, in fact, always bonded to hydrogen fluoride molecules to make the fluoronium cations (similar to the hydronium cation in aqueous solution). It is the fluoronium ion that accounts for fluoroantomonic acid's extreme acidity. Fluoroantimonic acid is 1016 (10 quadrillion) times stronger than 100% sulfuric acid. The protons easily migrate through the solution, moving from H2F+ to HF, when present, by the Grotthuss mechanism:
- H2F+ + HF HF + H2F+
Fluoroantimonic acid thermally decomposes at higher temperatures, generating hydrogen fluoride gas.
Two related products have been crystallised from HF-SbF5 mixtures, and both have been analyzed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. These salts have the formulas [H2F+][Sb2F11−] and [H3F2+][Sb2F11−]. In both salts, the anion is Sb2F11−. As mentioned above, SbF6− is weakly basic; the larger anion Sb2F11− is expected to be still weaker.
- Fluoroantimonic acid (1990) (H0 Value = −31.3)
- Magic acid (1974) (H0 Value = −19.2)
- Carborane superacid (1969) (H0 Value = −18.0)
- Fluorosulfuric acid (1944) (H0 Value = −15.1)
- Triflic acid (1940) (H0 Value = −14.9)
- (CH3)3CH + H+ → (CH3)3C+ + H2
- (CH3)4C + H+ → (CH3)3C+ + CH4
HF-SbF5 has been described as extremely corrosive, toxic, and moisture sensitive.
It reacts violently with water, producing hydrogen fluoride, dioxygen, and antimony (III) fluoride. It will fume in humid air.
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