Flutto-class submarine

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Субмарина Флутто.jpg
Class overview
Name: Flutto-class submarine
Builders: Odero Terni Orlando (OTO)
Cantieri Riuniti dell' Adriatico (CRDA)
Tosi
Operators:  Regia Marina
In commission: 1942–1967
Planned: 48
Completed: 13
General characteristics [1][2]
Type: Submarine
Displacement: 930 long tons (945 t) surfaced
1,093 long tons (1,111 t) submerged
Length: 63.15 m (207 ft 2.2 in)
Beam: 6.98 m (22 ft 10.8 in)
Draught: 4.87 m (15 ft 11.7 in)
Propulsion: 2 shafts
2 Diesel engines, 2,400 hp (1,800 kW)
2 Electric motors, 800 bhp (600 kW)
Speed: 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) surfaced
8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) submerged
Range: 5,400 nmi (10,000 km; 6,200 mi) at 8 kn (9.2 mph; 15 km/h) surfaced
80 nmi (150 km) at 4 kn (4.6 mph; 7.4 km/h) submerged
Test depth: 400 ft (120 m)
Complement: 49
Armament: 1 × 100 mm (4 in) gun
4 × 13.2 mm anti-aircraft guns
6 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes (4 bow, 2 stern)
12 torpedoes

The Flutto class were a large class of submarines built for the Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marina) during the Second World War.

The Flutto's were a development of the 600 Series of medium-sized, or seagoing, submarines. They were built to a partial double-hulled Bernardis design, influenced by war-time experience and construction adapted for mass construction. The Flutto's were good sea-boats with improved internal arrangements, hull strength, anti-aircraft armament and diving times. They are regarded as the best medium-displacement submarines built by Italy up to that time. A total of 48 submarines were ordered, in three series (referred to as “Types”). The name Flutto means “sea-billow”, and the Type I vessels were named for marine terms and sea-creatures. The Type II and Type III vessels all bore names of metals.

Type I[edit]

The first series of 12 vessels were laid down in 1941; six from CRDA, and three each from OTO and Tosi. Of these 10 were commissioned and saw action; two others were unfinished at the Italian armistice in September 1943 and work on them was abandoned. Of the 10 vessels which became operational, three were sunk by the Allies, and four scuttled at the armistice. These were all raised by the Germans and re-fitted, but all four were sunk in Allied air raids during 1944. Three others were surrendered to the Allies and survived the war. Two vessels, Grongo and Murena, fitted with containers for carrying Maiale manned torpedoes, for operations by the Decima MAS special operations force.

Type II[edit]

The second series of 24 were to the same design, though enlarged slightly to resolve trim problems highlighted in the first vessels. These were laid down in 1942, 15 from CRDA, six from OTO and three from Tosi. These constructions were overtaken by Italy’s collapse in September 1943, and none had been completed at that time. Most of these hulls fell into German hands, and work was continued on several, but none became operational before Germany’s surrender in 1945.

Type III[edit]

The third series were a copy of the Type II design, and were due to be started in 1943, but none had been laid down by the time of Italy’s surrender in September of that year. All were subsequently cancelled.

Ships[edit]

Type I

  • Cernia: Tosi : work suspended Sept 1943 at armistice; laid up 1944
  • Dentice: Tosi : work suspended Sept 1943 at armistice; laid up 1944
  • Flutto: Launched CRDA 19.11.42: sunk 11.7.43 by British MTB’s
  • Gorgo: Launched CRDA 31.1.42: sunk 21.5.43 by US destroyer Nields
  • Grongo: Launched OTO 6.5.43 scuttled Sept 43 at armistice. Raised by Germans as UIT 20, destroyed in air raid 1944
  • Marea: Launched CRDA 10.12.42 surrendered to Allies Sept 43
  • Murena: Launched OTO 11.4.43 scuttled Sept 43 at armistice. Raised by Germans as UIT 16, destroyed in air raid 1944
  • Nautilo: Launched CRDA 20.3.43 scuttled Sept 43 at armistice. Raised by Germans as UIT 19, destroyed in air raid 1944
  • Sparide: Launched OTO 21.2.43 scuttled Sept 43 at armistice. Raised by Germans as UIT 15, destroyed in air raid 1944
  • Spigola: Tosi : work suspended Sept 1943 at armistice. Broken up 1948
  • Tritone: Launched CRDA 3.1.42: sunk 19.1.43 by destroyer Antelope and corvette Port Arthur
  • Vortice: Launched CRDA 23.2.43: surrendered to Allies Sept 43

Type II

  • Aluminio: OTO: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Antinomio: OTO: unfinished at armistice, broken up by Germans
  • Bario: CRDA: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans, launched 23.1.44 UIT 7. Scuttled May 45
  • Cromo: CRDA: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Ferro: CRDA: unfinished at armistice, continued by Germans as UIT 12 destroyed unfinished May 45
  • Fosforo: OTO: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Litio: CRDA: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans, launched 19.2.44 as UIT 8. Scuttled May 45
  • Manganese: OTO: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Piombo: CRDA: Unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans as UIT 13, destroyed unfinished May 45
  • Potassio: CRDA: Unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans as UIT 10, destroyed unfinished May 45
  • Rame: CRDA: Unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans as UIT 11, destroyed unfinished May 45
  • Silicio: OTO: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Sodio: CRDA: unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans, launched 16.3.44 as UIT 9. Scuttled May 45
  • Zinco: CRDA: Unfinished at armistice Sept 43, continued by Germans as UIT 14, destroyed unfinished May 45
  • Zolfo: OTO: Unfinished at armistice Sept 43, broken up by Germans
  • Amianto: Tosi: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Magnesio: Tosi: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Cadmio: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Tridio: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Mercurio: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Oro: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Ottone: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Ruthenio: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled
  • Vanadio: CRDA: not laid down before armistice; cancelled

Type III

(All vessels: Not laid down before armistice; cancelled)
  • Attinio
  • Azoto
  • Bromo
  • Carbonio
  • Elio
  • Molibdeno
  • Osmio
  • Osigeno
  • Plutonio
  • Radio
  • Selenio
  • Tungsteno

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bagnasco p164
  2. ^ Conway p310

References[edit]

.*Bagnasco, E :Submarines of World War Two (1977) ISBN 0 85368 331 X

. *Conway : Conways All the Worlds Fighting Ships 1922-1946 (1980) ISBN 0 85177 146 7