Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign tumor of the liver (hepatic tumor), which is the second most prevalent tumor of the liver (the first is hepatichemangioma). It is usually asymptomatic, rarely grows or bleeds, and has no malignant potential. This tumour was once often resected because it was difficult to distinguish from hepatic adenoma, but with modern multiphase imaging is usually now diagnosed by strict imaging criteria and not resected.
Ultrasound of malformed vessels within the fibrous scar of FNH.
Focal nodular hyperplasia's most recognizable gross feature is a central stellate scar seen in 60–70% of cases. Microscopically, a lobular proliferation of bland-appearing hepatocytes with a bile ductular proliferation and malformed vessels within the fibrous scar is the most common pattern. Other patterns include telangiectatic, hyperplastic-adenomatous, and lesions with focal large-cell dysplasia. Rarely, these lesions may be multiple or can occur as part of a syndrome with hemangiomas, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, hepatic adenomas, fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, vascular malformations of the brain, meningiomas, and/or astrocytomas.