Fogo, Cape Verde
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|Native name: Dja r’ Fogu
Nickname: Ilha do vulcão (island of the volcano)
|Area||476 km2 (183.8 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||2,829 m (9,281 ft)|
|Highest point||Pico do Fogo|
|Concelhos (Municipalities)||Mosteiros, Santa Catarina do Fogo, São Filipe|
|Largest city||São Filipe (pop. Sao Filipe)|
The island is located between the islands of Santiago and Brava. Practically the whole island is an active volcano that has been periodically active, last erupting in 1995, forming a new crater called Pico Pequeno. Its largest feature is a 9 km wide caldera, which has walls 1 km high. The caldera has a breach in its eastern rim, and a large peak rises in the centre. The central cone forms the highest point of the island and its summit is about 100 m higher than the surrounding wall of the caldera. Lava from the volcano has reached the eastern coast of the island within historical times.
A small village, called Chã das Caldeiras, exists within the caldera of the volcano, and the residents are periodically evacuated during eruptions.
The island's main city is São Filipe, near which is an airport. First settled in the 1480s, it is largely an agricultural island. The islands also houses schools, a gymnasium, banks, a post office, some hotels and squares (praças).
Fogo has fertile land in the southwest with a slope of about 10 to 15 degrees. The north and the east are steep. The island rises abruptly from the ocean, which can be as deep as 5,300 m at a distance of 5 km from the shoreline. The exception is to the west, where the island is connected to another seamount; further west in Brava.
The slopes in the northeastern part are green and grassy all-year round. The rest of the mountain is dry and barren. One of the southernmost islands in Cape Verde, Fogo receives the most precipitation. The creeks and streams are dry all-year round.
São Filipe's buildings use classic Portuguese colonial architecture. Mosteiros in the northeast is the island's second most important town.
A violent eruption took place in 1680. The mountain of the island was visible over hundreds of kilometres and lasted for a few years. It was during this eruption that the island earned its name.
Main ash cone of Pico do Fogo,
called Pico Grande
Chã das Caldeiras and main ash cone, Fogo. NASA satellite image, 2009.
There are various endemic plants on Fogo:
- Cravo-brabo (Erysimum caboverdiana)
- Língua-de-vaca (Echium vulcanorum)
- Losna (Artemisia gorgonum), a medical plant with a bitter taste.
- Tortolho (Euphorbia tuckeyana).
The Portuguese settled the island in 1500. The island used to have slavery. Emigration started in 1850, mainly to North America. The 1910 civil revolution in Portugal drew aristocracy and large landowners back to Portugal and left civilians behind. A small museum on Fogo explains many of these connections.
There was also an eruption in 1995
The economy of the island is based on agriculture and fishing, with coffee and wine among the main products. Many private households live off remittances from emigrants in the US and other countries as the island has a substantial diaspora. Many emigrants send some money to their relatives in the island even if the senders and receivers no longer know each other. Tourism is steadily becoming popular. The volcano is the island's major attraction but many visitors also come to see relatives. The historic city of São Filipe and Chã das Caldeiras in the volcanic crater receive the bulk of visitors.
Parishes and Settlements 
- Achada, also Achada Furnas
- Achada Grande
- Chã das Caldeiras
- Cova Figueira
- Cova Matinho
- Curral Grande
- Estancía Roque
- Figueira Pavão
- Fonte Aleixo
- Monte Grande
- Monte Largo
- Ponta Verde
- Ribeira Ilhéu
- Santo António
- São Filipe
- São Jorge
- São Lourenço
- Vicente Dias
- Campana de baixo
- Campana de cima
Notable residents 
- Henrique Teixeira de Sousa
- Pedro Pires
- Pedro Monteiro Cardoso - escritor, poeta, kriolista
- Joaquim Manuel Andrade (Dr. Azágua) - académico, poeta, kriolista
- João José Lopes da Silva (Jota-Jota) - combatente, académico
- Júlio Lopes Correia- - ex-presidente da câmara dos Mosteiros, Ministro e 1º VP da Assembleia Nacional e do PAICV
Sporting teams 
- ABC de Patim
- Achda Fluminense
- Botafogo - São Filipe
- Cutelinho FC
- Desportivo de Cova Figueira
- Lapinha FC
- Luz Verde
- Nó Pintcha dos Mosteiros
- União de São Lourenço
- Vulcânicos - São Filipe
- Reitmeier, Pitt: Cabo Verde, p.385. Bielefeld 2009.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fogo (Cape Verde)|
- Informations and impressions from Fogo
- University of Massachusetts - information and images from Fogo
- Photos of Fogo