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A Foley catheter is a flexible tube that is often passed through the urethra and into the bladder. The tube has two separated channels, or lumens, running down its length. One lumen is open at both ends, and allows urine to drain out into a collection bag. The other lumen has a valve on the outside end and connects to a balloon at the tip; the balloon is inflated with sterile water when it lies inside the bladder, in order to stop it from slipping out. Foley catheters are commonly made from silicone rubber or natural rubber.
The name comes from the designer, Frederic Foley, a surgeon working in Boston, Massachusetts in the 1930s. His original design was adopted by C. R. Bard, Inc. of Murray Hill, New Jersey, who manufactured the first prototypes and named them in honor of the surgeon.
Foley catheters come in several sub-types: "Coudé" (French for elbowed) catheters have a 45° bend at the tip to allow easier passage through an enlarged prostate. "Council tip" catheters have a small hole at the tip which allows them to be passed over a wire. "Three way" or "triple lumen" catheters have a third channel, which is used to infuse sterile saline or another irrigating solution. These are used primarily after surgery on the bladder or prostate, to wash away blood and blood clots.
A major problem with Foley catheters is that they have a tendency to contribute to urinary tract infections (UTI). This occurs because bacteria can travel up the catheters to the bladder where the urine can become infected. To combat this, the industry is moving to antiseptic coated catheters. This has been helpful, but it has not completely solved this major problem. An additional problem is that Foley catheters tend to become coated over time with a biofilm that can obstruct the drainage. This increases the amount of stagnant urine left in the bladder, which further contributes to the problem of urinary tract infections. When a Foley catheter becomes clogged, it must be flushed or replaced.
When Foley catheters are used
In the urinary tract
Foley catheters are used during the following situations:
- On patients who are anesthesized or sedated for surgery or other medical care
- On comatose patients
- On some incontinent patients
- On patients whose prostate is enlarged to the point that urine flow from the bladder is cut off. The catheter is kept in until the problem is resolved.
- On patients with acute urinary retention.
- On patients who are unable due to paralysis or physical injury to use either standard toilet facilities or urinals.
- Following urethral surgeries
- Following ureterectomy
- On patients with kidney disease whose urine output must be constantly and accurately measured
- Before and after cesarean sections
- Before and after hysterectomies
- On patients who had genital injury
A Foley catheter can also be used to ripen the cervix during induction of labor. When used for this purpose, the procedure is called extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI). In this procedure, the balloon is inserted behind the cervical wall and inflated, such for example with 30 mL per hour. The remaining length of the catheter is pulled slightly taut, and taped to the inside of the woman's leg. The inflated balloon applies pressure to the cervix, as the baby's head would prior to labour, causing it to dilate. As the cervix dilates over time, the catheter is readjusted to again be slightly taut, and re-taped to maintain pressure on the cervix. When the cervix has dilated sufficiently, the catheter simply drops out.[dead link]
There are several risks when using a Foley catheter (or catheters generally), including:
- The balloon can break while the catheter is being inserted. In this case, the healthcare provider will remove all the balloon fragments.
- The balloon might not inflate after it is in place. In some institutions, the healthcare provider will check the balloon inflation before inserting the catheter into the urethra. If the balloon still does not inflate after its placement into the bladder, it will be discarded and replaced with a new catheter.
- Urine stops flowing into the bag. The healthcare provider will check for correct positioning of the catheter and bag or for obstruction of urine flow within the catheter tube.
- Urine flow is blocked. The Foley catheter will be discarded and replaced with a new catheter.
- The urethra begins to bleed. The healthcare provider will monitor the bleeding.
- Introduction of an infection into the bladder. The risk of infection in the bladder or urinary tract increases with the number of days the catheter is in place.
- If the balloon is opened before the Foley catheter is completely inserted into the bladder, bleeding, damage and even rupture of the urethra can occur. In some individuals, long-term permanent scarring and strictures of the urethra could occur.
- Defective catheters may be supplied, which break in situ. The most common fractures occur near the distal end or at the balloon.
- Catheters can be pulled out by patients while the balloon is still inflated, leading to major complications or even death. This may occur when patients are mentally impaired (e.g. they have Alzheimer's) or are in a mentally altered state (e.g. they are coming out of surgery).
- For obstructed prostates due to BPH: The Spanner Prostatic stent
- Intermittent self catheterization 
- Foley, FE (1937). "A hemostatic bag catheter: one piece latex rubber structure for control of bleeding and constant drainage following prostatic resection". J Urol 38: 134–9.
- Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary
- Guinn, D. A.; Davies, J. K.; Jones, R. O.; Sullivan, L.; Wolf, D. (2004). "Labor induction in women with an unfavorable Bishop score: Randomized controlled trial of intrauterine Foley catheter with concurrent oxytocin infusion versus Foley catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion with concurrent oxytocin infusion". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 191 (1): 225–229. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2003.12.039. PMID 15295370.
- WHO article on induction of labour
- December 18, 2012. "Foley Catheter Causes, Symptoms, Treatment - Foley Catheter Risks on eMedicineHealth". Emedicinehealth.com. Retrieved 2012-12-19.
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