Folin–Ciocalteu reagent

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The Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (FCR) or Folin's phenol reagent or Folin–Denis reagent, also called the gallic acid equivalence method (GAE), is a mixture of phosphomolybdate and phosphotungstate used for the colorimetric in vitro assay of phenolic and polyphenolic antioxidants.[1] It is named after Otto Folin, Vintilă Ciocâlteu, and Willey Glover Denis.

Absorbance of different concentrations of tyrosine reacted with Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent are detected at 660 nm

The reagent does not only measure phenols, and will react with any reducing substance. It therefore measures the total reducing capacity of a sample, not just phenolic compounds. This reagent is part of the Lowry protein assay, and will also react with some nitrogen-containing compounds such as hydroxylamine and guanidine.[2] The reagent has also been shown to be reactive towards thiols, many vitamins, the nucleotide base guanine, the trioses glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone, and some inorganic ions. Copper complexation increases the reactivity of phenols towards this reagent.[3]

This reagent is distinct from Folin's reagent, which is used to detect amines and sulfur-containing compounds.

A 1951 paper entitled "Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent"[4] was the most cited paper in the 1945–1988 Science Citation Index, with 187,652 citations[5]

Physiologic significance[edit]

Because it measures anti-oxidant capacity in vitro, the reagent has been used to assay foods and supplements in food science. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) used to be the industry standard for antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices and food additives.[6][7] However, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) withdrew these ratings in 2012 as biologically invalid, stating that no physiological proof in vivo existed to support the free-radical theory.[8] Consequently, the ORAC method, derived only in in vitro experiments, is no longer considered relevant human diets or biology.

The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay is an alternative in vitro measurements of antioxidant capacity.[9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singleton, Vernon L.; Orthofer, Rudolf; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M. (1999). "[14] Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin–ciocalteu reagent" 299. p. 152. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1. 
  2. ^ Ikawa M, Schaper TD, Dollard CA, Sasner JJ (2003). "Utilization of Folin–Ciocalteu phenol reagent for the detection of certain nitrogen compounds". J. Agric. Food Chem. 51 (7): 1811–5. doi:10.1021/jf021099r. PMID 12643635. 
  3. ^ Everette, Jace D.; Bryant, Quinton M.; Green, Ashlee M.; Abbey, Yvonne A.; Wangila, Grant W.; Walker, Richard B. (2010). "Thorough Study of Reactivity of Various Compound Classes toward the Folin−Ciocalteu Reagent". J. Agric. Food Chem. 58 (14): 8139. doi:10.1021/jf1005935. PMID 20583841. 
  4. ^ Oliver H. Lowry,Nira J. Rosebrough,A. Lewis Farr, and Rose J. Randall (1951). "Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent". J. Biol. Chem. 193 (1): 265–275. PMID 14907713. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ Cao G, Alessio H, Cutler R (1993). "Oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assay for antioxidants". Free Radic Biol Med 14 (3): 303–11. doi:10.1016/0891-5849(93)90027-R. PMID 8458588. 
  7. ^ Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Prior R (2001). "Development and validation of an improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe". J Agric Food Chem 49 (10): 4619–26. doi:10.1021/jf010586o. PMID 11599998. 
  8. ^ "Withdrawn: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of Selected Foods, Release 2 (2010)". United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  9. ^ Prior R, Wu X, Schaich K (2005). "Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements". J Agric Food Chem 53 (10): 4290–302. doi:10.1021/jf0502698. PMID 15884874. 

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