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Folk costume (also regional costume, national costume, or traditional garment) expresses an identity through costume, which is usually associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can also indicate social, marital and/or religious status. Such costumes often come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for festivals and formal wear.
Following the outbreak of
romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable. Their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, and enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism.
In areas where contemporary Western fashions have become usual, traditional garments are often worn at special events or celebrations; particularly those connected with cultural traditions, heritage or pride.
In modern times, there are instances where traditional garments are required by law. In
Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of and gho kera for men, and kira toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage. In Saudi Arabia, women are also required to wear the abaya in public.
West Africa [ edit ]
Benin - lace Dashiki suit and Aso Oke Hat (male), lace Buba and wrapper set (female)
Gambia - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Ghana - Kente cloth, Ghanaian smock, and Fila (male), Kente kaba and slit set(female)
Guinea - Boubou (male), Kaftan (female)
Liberia - Dashiki suit and Kufi (male), Buba and skirt set (female)
Mali - Grand boubou and Kufi (male), Bògòlanfini-style Kaftan (female)
Niger - Babban riga (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
Nigeria - Agbada and Aso Oke Hat (male), Buba and wrapper set (female)
Senegal - Senegalese kaftan and Kufi (male), Kaftan (female)
North Africa [ edit ]
Algeria : Binouar ( Sétif), Bikhmar ( Ouargla), Blouza ( Oran), Burnous ( Algérie), Caftan ( Algérie), Caftan El-Bey ( Algérie), Chemsa ( Jijel), Fergani ( Constantine), Gandoura ( Algérie), Gandoura Annabiya ( Annaba), Ghlila ( Algiers), Haïek ( Algérie), Jellaba ( Algérie), Karakou ( Algiers), Kachabia ( Djelfa et Lagouat), Labsa Kbaylia ( Kabylie), Labsa M'zabia ( M'zab), Labsa Naïlia ( Ouled Naïl), Labsa Touratia ( Hoggar), Lefa we dlala ( Annaba), Melhfa Chaouïa ( Aures), Melhfa Sahraouia ( Tindouf), Mlaya (Est algérien), Sarouel ( Algérie), Sarouel Mdawer ( Algiers)
Egypt - Galabeya
Libya - Jellabiya
Morocco - Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha (male), Takchita (female)
Mauritania - Darra'a (male), Melhfa Sahraouia (female)
Sudan - Jalabiyyah, Taqiyyah, and Turban (male), Toob, a cotton women's dress (female)
Horn of Africa [ edit ]
woman in traditional attire
Central Africa [ edit ]
African Great Lakes [ edit ]
Southern Africa [ edit ]
Americas [ edit ]
Argentina - Gaucho costume
Bermuda - Bermuda shorts
Bolivia - Poncho, Chullo
Brazil - Each region has its own traditional costume. Cangaçeiro costumes for the northeast, Baiana and Abadá for Bahia, Brazilian carnival costumes for the southeast area, Amazonian clothes for many northern and central states and Gaucho costumes for Rio Grande do Sul.
Canada - Tuque, Ceinture fléchée, Parka, Capote, Moccasins, Mukluks
Chile - Huaso costume
Colombia - Sombrero Vueltiao, ruana, white shirt, trousers and espadrilles (male), Sombrero Vueltiao, blouse, pollera and espadrilles (female); every region has its own specific design of a national costume.
Cuba - Guayabera, Khaki pants, Panama hat (male), Guayabera dress (female)
Dominican Republic - Chacabana
Ecuador - Poncho, Panama hat
Guatemala - Huipil, Corte skirt, Tocado, Todosantero suit.
Guyana - Shirt jacket (male), Booboo (female)
Haiti - Karabela dress (female), Shirt jacket (male)
Jamaica - Bandana skirt and peasant blouse (female), Bush jacket (male)
Mexico - Charro suit, Huipil, Rebozo, Sarape, Sombrero; every state has its own design of a national costume; the Guayabera and the Huipil of Yucatán are good examples.
Panama - Pollera
Peru - Chullo, Poncho
Puerto Rico - Guayabera, Pantalons, and Panama hat (male), Trajes (dress) (Female)
St. Lucia - Madras dress
Suriname - Shirt-jac (male), Kotomisse (female)
Trinidad - Shirt-jac (male), Booboo (female)
United States - Various forms of Native American clothing. Western wear, derived from original American pioneer clothing, is traditional dress in Texas, the Southwest, and many rural communities in the Western US, including cowboy hats, Western shirts, boots, jeans, prairie skirts, and bolo ties. Traditional Southern wear includes white seersucker suits and string ties for men, and sun hats and large dresses for women. Summer residents of Nantucket will often wear Nantucket Reds. Amish, some sects of Mormon fundamentalism and the Pennsylvania Dutch preserve traditional 19th century clothing styles.
Uruguay - Gaucho costume
Venezuela - Liqui liqui, pelo e' guama hat.
Central Asia [ edit ]
East Asia [ edit ]
South Asia [ edit ]
Afghanistan - Pashtun dress: Afghan cap, turban, Shalwar Kameez (male), Qemis, Khet partug (female); formerly Burqa (female)
Bangladesh - Kurta (men), Lungi (men), Sari (women), Dupatta (women), Sherwani (men)
Sri Lanka - Dhoti, Sari
Maldives - Dhivehi libaas (women) Sarong, long sleeved white shirt (men)
Bhutan - Gho (male) and Kira (female)
Nepal - Daura-Suruwal, (male) and Gunyou Cholo (female); Traditional Newar clothing
Pakistan - Churidar, Peshawari pagri, Sherwani [1 ] Shalwar Kameez; [2 ]
India - Achkan, Dhoti, Kurta (male) and Sari (female)
Southeast Asia and Pacific [ edit ]
Australia - Khaki shorts, slouch hat, bush jacket, Blundstones, Driza-Bone, Aboriginal Australian tribal dress
Brunei - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung, Tudung (female)
Cambodia - Sampot, Apsara, Sabai, Krama
Cook Islands - Pareo
East Timor - Tais cloth clothing
Fiji - Sulu, Tapa cloth
French Polynesia - Pareo
Hawaii - Aloha shirt, Muumuu
Indonesia - Batik cloth Sarong, Beskap, Blangkon or Songkok (male), Kebaya, Songket, Tudung (female), Bakiak (both)
Laos - xout lao, suea pat, pha hang, pha biang, sinh
Malaysia - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kurung (female)
Myanmar - Longyi, Gaung baung
New Zealand - Māori Flax Skirts
Papua New Guinea - Various Indigenous costumes, especially Sepik, Huli and Trobriand Islander.
Philippines - Barong Tagalog (male) and Baro't saya (female)
Samoa - Lavalava, Puletasi
Singapore - Baju Melayu (male), Baju Kebaya (female)
Thailand - chut thai: Thai female: Thai Chakkri, Thai male: Suea Phraratchathan, Both genders: chong kraben and sabai.
Tonga - tupenu and ta'ovala
Vietnam - Áo Dài, Áo Tứ Thân, Áo Bà Ba.
Northern caucasus folk costumes
Costumes of peasants from Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Germany
Abkhazia - Chokha
Albania - Albanian Traditional Clothing
Andorra - Barretina, espadrilles
Austria - Tracht, Dirndl
Bulgaria - Every town has its own design of a national costume ( nosia), with different types of clothing items traditional for each of the ethnographic regions of the country. [3 ] [4 ]
Chechnya - Chokha, Taqiyah (cap)
Croatia - Croatian national costume, Lika cap, Sibenik cap
Czech Republic - Kroje
Denmark - Folkedragt
Faroe Islands - Føroysk klæði
Finland - Every region has its own specific design of national costume. ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
France - Beret, Breton shirt, Alsatian costume, Breton costume
Georgia - Chokha (Every region has its own specific design of Chokha)
Germany - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. For example, Bavaria: Tracht, Lederhosen, Dirndl
Greece - Fustanella, Ancient Greek clothing: Peplos, Chiton
Greenland - Parka
Hungary - National costumes of Hungary
Iceland - Þjóðbúningurinn
Italy - Italian folk dance costumes, Coppola, black or dark brown Waistcoat, Roman clothing: Toga, Stola
Kosovo - Traditional clothing of Kosovo
Ireland - Aran sweater, Grandfather shirt, flat cap, Irish walking hat, Aran Tam, Leine, brogues
Liechtenstein - Tracht, Dirndl
Macedonia - Macedonian national costume
Malta - Għonnella (Faldetta)
Netherlands - Dutch cap, Klompen, poffer ( North Brabant)
Norway - Bunad; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Ossetia - Chokha
Poland - National costumes of Poland, Kontusz, Czapka Rogatywka
Portugal - Every region has its own specific design of a national costume. Nazarena and minhota are two examples.
Romania - Romanian dress
Russia - Sarafan, Kokoshnik, Kosovorotka, Ushanka, Valenki; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka
Serbia - Serbian dress, Šajkača, Opanci
Slovakia - Kroj ( embroidered traditional dress)
Slovenia - Gorenjska noša ( Upper Carniola)
Spain - Every autonomous region has its own national costume.
Sweden - Sverigedräkten; 18th century: Nationella dräkten; ( Sami) Gákti, Luhkka for colder weather
Ukraine - National costumes of Ukraine: Vyshyvanka, Sharovary, Żupan, Ukrainian wreath
Greater Middle East [ edit ]
Palestinian family wearing typical
Modern Bedouin from Saudi Arabia with turban and
Gulf States - Similar to Saudi Arabia; these states have elaborate women's dresses known as Thobe al-Nashal.
Israel - Tembel hat, Biblical sandals, Jewish religious clothing: Rekel, Bekishe, Kippah, Tichel.
Iran - Kurta, Pajama, dark-colored Sherwani, Turban, Chador, Giveh, Galesh
Iraq - Assyrian clothing, Keffiyeh, Bisht
Jordan - Keffiyeh, Royal Guard costume.
Lebanon - Tantour
Kurdistan - Sirwal (pants), Kurdish clothing.
Palestine - Keffiyeh, Taqiyah (cap), Palestinian costumes.
Saudi Arabia - Thawb, Ghutrah, Agal, Bisht, Abaya
Turkey - Fez, Kaftan, Shalvar .
Yemen - Similar to Saudi Arabia, but with the addition of an ornate jambiya, an izaar and leather bandoliers for the men's costume.
See also [ edit ]
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Gallery [ edit ]
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