Fonseca, La Guajira
|Motto: "Siempre de la Mano con el Pueblo"
"Always by the People"
Location of the town and municipality of Fonseca in the Department of La Guajira.
|• Mayor||Pedro Manjarrez Fragoso (ASI)|
|• town||662 km2 (256 sq mi)|
|• Urban||4.8 km2 (1.9 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11.8 m (38.7 ft)|
Fonseca is a town and municipality located in the Colombian Department of La Guajira. The town celebrates the Festival del Retorno in honor of St Augustine with religious celebrations, vallenato music events and others.
The municipality of Fonseca has a total area of 622 km² at an altitude over sea level of 11 m over sea level at the seat of the municipality. The municipality is on a depression in the valley of the Ranchería River which flows through the municipality from west to east, between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and the Serranía del Perijá.
Fonseca limits to the north with the municipality of Riohacha and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range; to the south with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and the Serranía del Perijá mountains; to the east with the municipality of Barrancas and to the west narrowly with the municipality of San Juan del Cesar.
The average temperature throughout the year is of 28°Cº variating only between the two rainy seasons and two dry seasons or by altitude due to the mountainous environment.
Agustín Fonseca was the leader of a group of adventurers who settled by the Ranchería river, but in a rainy season the river flooded the area bringing diseases. They moved to a dryer place on what is supposedly the present-day main plaza of Fonseca. José Agustín Parodi Ovalle was a captain in the Spanish military and arrived by orders of the Spanish monarchy.
In 1773 the settlement of Fonseca was registered as jurisdiction of the Province of Santa Marta. On June 13, 1829 Fonseca became a municipality of the Intendencia of La Guajira by Decree 1954. Fonseca became a municipality of the Department of La Guajira in 1954.
Colombian armed conflict
Since the 1970s Barrancas has been influenced by the Colombian armed conflict because of its strategic location between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, the Serranía del Perijá mountain ranges and the border with Venezuela. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) through its Caribbean Bloc's 59th, 19th and 41st fronts and the National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrilla Gustavo Palmesano Front have practiced selective assassinations, kidnappings, extortions, forcedly recruitments, town sieges, arms and illegal drugs trafficking among others against the Colombian government and the civilian population.
The United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) appeared in the area in the early 2000s led by alias Jorge 40. After a violent presence in the area but also dissipating the guerrillas presence, the AUC demobilized in 2006.
The municipality seat of Fonseca has some 32 neighborhoods mostly houses. The municipality also has three corregimientos; Conejo, El Hatico and Sitio Nuevo. Eight police inspections: Bangañitas, El Confuso, Los Altos, Sabaneta, Los Pondores, Cardonal, Trigo and Cañaboba. Some twenty veredas: El Porvenir, El Potrero, Jaguey, Puyalito, El Puy, Potrerito, Los Toquitos, Hatico Viejo, La Yaya, San Agustín, Puerto López, Las Bendiciones, Las Marimondas, Las Colonias, La Villa, Guamachal, Mamarongo, El Chorro and Mamonal. There is one indigenous reserve called Resguardo Indígena de Mayabangloma.
Population data pertaining to the municipality of Fonseca from the year 2000 to 2004.
- (Spanish) Colombian Registry of the Civil State: 2007 election results
- (Spanish) Observatorio del Caribe Colombiano: Grupo Regional de investigación en economía y competitividad en el Caribe colombiano by Weildler Guerra, Paola Quintero, Jorge Quintero and Ana María Maldonado
- (Spanish) Government of La Guajira: Geography of Fonseca
- (Spanish) Fonseca Developing Plan 2004: Area and Location
- (Spanish) Fonseca: Geography
- (Spanish) Fonseca: Climate
- (Spanish) Fonseca: History
- (Spanish) Government of La Guajira: History of Fonseca
- (Spanish) Government of Colombia - Human rights in La Guajira
- (Spanish) Fonseca Development Plan 2004: Sub-duvisions
- (Spanish) Fonseca Development Plan 2004: demography
- (Spanish) mifonseca.net: Festival del Retorno
- (Spanish) Fonseca official website
- (Spanish) Gobernacion de La Guajira - Fonseca
- (Spanish) mifonseca.com - Festival del Retorno in Fonseca