Fontaine-de-Vaucluse

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Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
Fontaine de Vaucluse.jpg
Fontaine-de-Vaucluse is located in France
Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
Coordinates: 43°55′23″N 5°07′37″E / 43.9231°N 5.127°E / 43.9231; 5.127Coordinates: 43°55′23″N 5°07′37″E / 43.9231°N 5.127°E / 43.9231; 5.127
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Vaucluse
Arrondissement Avignon
Canton Isle-sur-la-Sorgue
Intercommunality Pays des Sorgues et des Monts de Vaucluse
Government
 • Mayor (2001–2008) Christian Tallieux
Area
 • Land1 7.14 km2 (2.76 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 • Population2 685
 • Population2 density 96/km2 (250/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 84139 / 84800
Elevation 68–652 m (223–2,139 ft)
(avg. 80 m or 260 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Fontaine-de-Vaucluse (La Fònt de Vauclusa or simply Vauclusa in Occitan) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

Heraldry[edit]

The coat of arms of the village of Fontaine-de-Vaucluse is:

"Blue, with a Trout and a silver shadow, poised horizontally." (Malte-Brun, in France Illustrated, book V, 1884)

Blason ville fr Fontaine-de-Vaucluse (Vaucluse).svg

Geography[edit]

Fontaine-de-Vaucluse ("spring of Vaucluse") is built around a spring in a valley at the foot of the Vaucluse Mountains, between Saumane and Lagnes, not far from L'Isle-sur-la-Sorgue. It is named after the spring, the source of the River Sorgue.

Fontaine-de-Vaucluse

Hydrography[edit]

The fountain, or spring, of Vaucluse, situated at the feet of a steep cliff 230 metres high, is the biggest spring in France. It is also the fifth largest in the world with an annual flow of 630 million cubic metres.[1]

Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
The Sorgue, Fontaine-de-Vaucluse

History[edit]

This village of 600 inhabitants was once called Vaucluse or the closed valley (Vallis Clausa in Latin) and it gave its name to the French department of Vaucluse. Several trails indicate human occupation in the area since the neolithic era. Its spring has been the object of a major cult since Antiquity, and the Sorgue was used as a trade route by the Phoenicians of Massalia and later the Romans. Following some major discoveries from two cave dives by the SSFV, two archaeological sites under the protection of the SRA PACA has allowed more than 1600 antique coins from the first century BC to the 5th century AD to be brought back up to the surface. In the Middle Ages, a hermit supposedly lived in the spot.Eventually, he performed miracles that led to his being consecrated as Bishop of Cavaillon. His successor, Walcaudus, received the consent of the ruling counts of the area to settle monks there. A monastery was constructed, but was ruined by the 11th century. Clement, the Bishop of Cavaillon, ordered its reconstruction by Isarn, abbot of Sainte-Victoire. The poet Petrarch made it his preferred residence in the 14th century, writing "The illustrious source of the Sorgue, famous for itself long ago became even more famous by my long stay and my songs. " - Petrarch, Seniles, X, 2 .

The poet left in 1353 after his son's death. The village was razed shortly afterward by bandits, who withdrew at the sight of the intimidating episcopal seat (?). A museum stands on the spot of Petrarch's house today. Following this attack, the village and valley fell into oblivion. Thought of as a wild place, it was avoided through the 16th and 17th centuries. Vaucluse was again popularized by a duel between the famous Honoere Gabriel Riqueti and Louis-Francois de Galiffet. A letter published by Riqueti brought fame to the area again, and a column was built to honour Petrarch in the eighteenth century. In 1946, Jacques Cousteau and another diver were almost killed while searching for the bottom of the spring. An air compressor used to fill their tanks had taken in its own exhaust fumes and produced carbon monoxide - nearly killing them before they could return to the surface from a depth of approximately 100 meters.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population:

1962 : 615
1968 : 698
1975 : 532
1982 : 604
1990 : 580
1999 : 610
2006 : 685

Places and monuments[edit]

Château de Fontaine de Vaucluse
La porte du Château, Fontaine-de-Vaucluse
  • The principal point of interest is the source of the Sorgue to the foot of a cliff 240 metres high: Its average flow is 22 m3 / second, the highest in France, and can attain 110 m3 after the snow melts. It wasn't until 1985 that the mystery of its origin was partially revealed: in effect, the lowest point is at -308m depth attained by a robot belonging to the Spelunking Society of Fontaine de Vaucluse. The spring is the only exit point of a subterranean basin of 1200 km2 that collects the water from Mount Ventoux, the Vaucluse mountains and from the Lure mountain.
  • Ruins of the castle of the Bishop of Cavaillon
  • Ancient paper mill
  • Museum of the Resistance
  • Petrarch museum (on the site of his former house)
  • Santon museum

Personalities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]