Ball (association football)

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Adidas Telstar-style ball, with the familiar black and white truncated icosahedron pattern.

A soccer ball, or association football ball is the ball used in the sport of association football. The name of the ball varies according to whether the sport is called "football", "soccer", or "association football". The ball's spherical shape, as well as its size, weight, and material composition, are specified by Law 2 of the Laws of the Game maintained by the International Football Association Board. Additional, more stringent, standards are specified by FIFA and subordinate governing bodies for the balls used in the competitions they sanction.

Early footballs began as animal bladders or stomachs that would easily fall apart if kicked too much. As time went on, footballs developed into what they look like today. This was possible with the help of people like Charles Goodyear and Domenico Nobili, who introduced rubber and their discoveries of vulcanisation to the design of footballs. Today, technological research is ongoing to develop footballs with improved performance.

History[edit]

Leather ball used in the football tournament at the 1936 Summer Olympics.

In 1863, the first specification for footballs were laid down by the Football Association. Previous to this, footballs were made out of inflated leather, with later leather coverings to help footballs maintain their shapes.[1] In 1872 the specifications were revised, and these rules have been left essentially unchanged as defined by the International Football Association Board. Differences in footballs created since this rule came into effect has been to do with the material used in their creation.

Footballs have gone through a dramatic change over time. During medieval times balls were normally made from an outer shell of leather filled with cork shavings.[2] Another method of creating a ball was using animal bladders for the inside of the ball making it inflatable. However, these two styles of creating footballs made it easy for the ball to puncture and were inadequate for kicking. It was not until the 19th century that footballs developed into what a football looks like today.

Vulcanization[edit]

In 1838, Charles Goodyear and Domenico Nobili introduced the use of rubber and their discoveries of vulcanisation, which dramatically improved the football.[3] Vulcanization is the treatment of rubber to give it certain qualities such as strength, elasticity, and resistance to solvents. Vulcanization of rubber also helps the football resist moderate heat and cold. Vulcanization helped create inflatable bladders that pressurise the outer panel arrangement of the football. Charles Goodyear's innovation increased the bounce ability of the ball and made it easier to kick. Most of the balls of this time had tanned leather with eighteen sections stitched together. These were arranged in six panels of three strips each.[4][5]

Reasons for improvement[edit]

During the 1900s, footballs were made out of rubber and leather which was perfect for bouncing and kicking the ball; however, when heading the football (hitting it with the player's head) it was usually painful. This problem was most probably due to water absorption of the leather from rain, which caused a considerable increase in weight, causing head or neck injury. Another problem of early footballs was that they deteriorated quickly, as the leather used in manufacturing the footballs varied in thickness and in quality.[4]

Present developments[edit]

Adidas Torfabrik football used in the Bundesliga in 2011

Elements of the football that today are tested are the deformation of the football when it is kicked or when the ball hits a surface. Two styles of footballs have been tested by the Sports Technology Research Group of Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering in Loughborough University; these two models are called the Basic FE model and the Developed FE model of the football. The basic model considered the ball as being a spherical shell with isotropic material properties. The developed model also utilised isotropic material properties but included an additional stiffer stitching seam region.

Future developments[edit]

Companies such as Umbro, Mitre, Adidas, Nike and Puma are releasing footballs made out of new materials which are intended to provide more accurate flight and more power to be transferred to the football.[6]

Construction[edit]

Today's footballs are more complex than past footballs. Most modern footballs consist of twelve regular pentagonal and twenty regular hexagonal panels positioned in a truncated icosahedron spherical geometry.[2] Some premium-grade 32-panel balls use non-regular polygons to give a closer approximation to sphericality.[7] The inside of the football is made up of a latex bladder which enables the football to be pressurised. The ball's panel pairs are stitched along the edge; this procedure can either be performed manually or with a machine.[3] The size of a soccer ball is roughly 22 cm (8.65 inches) in diameter for a regulation size 5 ball. Rules state that a size 5 ball must be 68 to 70 cm in circumference. Averaging that to 69 cm and then dividing by π gives about 22 cm for a diameter.

The ball's weight must be in the range of 410 to 450 grams (14 to 16 oz) and inflated to a pressure of between 0.6 and 1.1 bars (8.5 and 15.6 psi) at sea level.[8]

There are a number of different types of football balls depending on the match and turf including: training footballs, match footballs, professional match footballs, beach footballs, street footballs, indoor footballs, turf balls, futsal footballs and mini/skills footballs.[9]

Suppliers[edit]

Many companies throughout the world produce footballs. The earliest balls were made by local suppliers where the game was played. It is estimated that 40% of all footballs are made in Sialkot, Pakistan, with other major producers being China and India.[10]

As a response to the problems with the balls in the 1962 FIFA World Cup, Adidas created the Adidas Santiago[11] – this led to Adidas winning the contract to supply the match balls for all official FIFA and UEFA matches, which they have held since the 1970s, and also supplied match balls for the 2008 Olympic Games.[12] They also supply the ball for the UEFA Champions League which is called the Adidas Finale.

FIFA World Cup[edit]

The following footballs were used in the FIFA World Cup finals tournaments:

World Cup Ball(s) Image Manufacturer Additional information Refs
1930 Tiento
(first half)
T-model
(second half)
1930 World Cup Final Ball Uruguay.jpg 1930 World Cup Final ball Argentina.jpg Two different balls were used in the final: Argentina supplied the first-half ball (the 'Tiento') and led 2–1 at the break; hosts Uruguay supplied the second-half ball (the 'T-Model' which was larger and heavier)[11] and won 4–2. [11][13]
1934 Federale 102 Federale 102.jpg ECAS (Ente Centrale Approvvigionamento Sportivi), Rome [14]
1938 Allen Allen-1938.jpg Allen, Paris [15]
1950 Duplo T Duplo T-1950.jpg Superball [16]
1954 Swiss World Champion Swiss World Champion-1954.jpg Kost Sport, Basel The first 18-panel ball. [13][17]
1958 Top Star Top Star-1958.jpg Sydsvenska Läder och Remfabriken, Ängelholm (aka "Remmen" or "Sydläder") Chosen from 102 candidates in a blind test by four FIFA officials. [18][19]
1962 Crack
Top Star
Crack-1962.jpg Senor Custodio Zamora H., San Miguel, Chile
Remmen
The Crack was the official ball. Referee Ken Aston was unimpressed with the Chilean ball provided for the opening match, and sent for a European ball, which arrived in the second half. Various matches used different balls, with the apparent rumour the European teams didn't trust the locally produced ball[11] [11][13][18][20]
1966 Challenge 4-star Challenge 4-star-1966.jpg Slazenger 18-panel ball in orange or yellow. Selected in a blind test at the Football Association headquarters in Soho Square. [13][21]
1970 Telstar Adidas Telstar Mexico 1970 Official ball.jpg Adidas Telstar was the first 32-panel black-and-white ball used in the FIFA World Cup finals. Only 20 were supplied by adidas. A brown ball (Germany-Peru) and a white ball (first half of Italy-Germany) were used in some matches. [13][22]
1974 Telstar Durlast Fifaworldcup1974.JPG Adidas [13]
1978 Tango Adidas Tango Argentina (River Plate) 1978 cup Official ball.jpg Adidas [13]
1982 Tango España Adidas Tango España.jpg Adidas [13]
1986 Azteca Adidas Azteca Mexico 1986 Official ball.jpg Adidas First fully synthetic FIFA World Cup ball and first hand-sewed ball [13]
1990 Etrusco Unico World Cup 1990 Football.jpg Adidas [13]
1994 Questra[23] Adidas Questra USA 1994 Official ball.jpg Adidas [13]
1998 Tricolore Adidas First multi-coloured ball at a World Cup finals tournament [13]
2002 Fevernova Adidas First World Cup ball with a triangular design. [13]
2006 Teamgeist Teamgeist Ball World Cup 2006 Brazil vs. Croatia.jpg Adidas The Teamgeist is a 14-panel ball. Each match at the World Cup finals had its own individual ball, printed with the date of the match, the stadium and the team names.[12] It was replaced for the final match by the gold-coloured Teamgeist Berlin. [13]
Teamgeist Berlin Teamgeist Ball World Cup 2006 Finale.jpg
2010 Jabulani Adidas This ball has 8 panels. The ball for the final match was the gold Jo'bulani (picture on the left), which was named after "Jo'burg", a standard South African nickname for Johannesburg, site of the final. [13][24]
Jo'bulani Ball was used in the 2010 FIFA World Cup Final
2014 Brazuca Adidas This is the first FIFA World Cup ball named by the fans. The ball has been made of six polyurethane panels which have been thermally bonded. [25]
Brazuca Final Rio

European Football Championship[edit]

The following balls were used in the UEFA European Football Championship over the years:[26]

Championship Official football Manufacturer Additional information
1968 Telstar Elast Adidas This the first championship use of this ball[11]
1972 Telstar Adidas
1976 Telstar Adidas
1980 Tango Italia Adidas
1984 Tango Mundial Adidas
1988 Tango Europa Adidas
1992 Etrusco Unico Adidas This was the same ball used as in the 1990 FIFA World Cup.
1996 Questra Europa Adidas
2000 Terrestra Silverstream Adidas
2004 Roteiro Adidas
2008 Europass Adidas
2012 Tango 12 Adidas

Olympic Games[edit]

The following balls were used in the football tournament of the Olympic Games (note this list is incomplete):

Olympic Games Official football Manufacturer Additional information
1984 Olympic Games Adidas Tango Sevilla Adidas
1988 Olympic Games Adidas Tango Séoul Adidas
1992 Olympic Games Adidas Etrusco Unico Adidas
1996 Olympic Games Adidas Questra Olympia[27] Adidas
2000 Olympic Games Adidas Gamarada[11] Adidas The aboriginal word for friendship, variation of the Adidas Terrestra Silverstream[11]
2004 Olympic Games Adidas Pelias Adidas
2008 Olympic Games Adidas Teamgeist 2 Magnus Moenia Adidas Variation of the Teamgeist, with Magnus Moenia meaning 'walls of the great' in Latin[28]
2012 Olympic Games Adidas The Albert Adidas Variant of the Adidas Tango 12

League balls[edit]

The following lists the most up-to-date balls used in various club football competitions:

Ball League Name
Nike Incyte & Ordem(2014-15) England Premier League
Adidas Torfabrik Germany Bundesliga
Nike Incyte Spain La Liga
Puma King Ball Chile Primera Division
Nike Ordem Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
Nike Incyte Italy Serie A
Adidas BallPro Ligue 1 France Ligue 1
Adidas Argentum Argentina Argentine Primera División
Adidas Cafusa Russia Russian Premier League
Adidas Brazuca Portugal Liga Sagres
Nike Incyte Turkey Süper Lig
Adidas Brazuca Greece Super League Greece
Nike Maxim Romania Liga I
Mitre Delta V12 Scotland Scottish Premiership
Adidas Brazuca Japan J. League Division 1
Adidas Tango 12 South Korea K-League
Puma Bulgaria Bulgarian A PFG
Puma Poland Ekstraklasa
Adidas Brazuca United States/Canada Major League Soccer
Nike Incyte China Chinese Super League
Nike Incyte Australia A-League
Nike Maxim & Incyte(2014-15) India I-League
Mitre REVOLVE FL Wales Welsh Premier League
Nike Maxim Malaysia Malaysia Super League
Derbystar Brillant APS Netherlands KNVB Eredivisie
Adidas Brazuca Norway Tippeligaen

Unicode[edit]

Unicode 5.2 introduces the glyph ⚽ (U+26BD SOCCER BALL), representable in HTML as ⚽ or ⚽.[29] The addition of this symbol follows a 2008 proposal by Karl Pentzlin.[30]

References[edit]

  1. ^ football World – Early History (Accessed 9 June 2006)
  2. ^ a b Price, D. S., Jones, R.Harland, A. R. 2006. Computational modeling of manually stitched footballs. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers – Part L — Journal of Materials: Design & Applications. Vol. 220 Issue 4, p259-268.
  3. ^ a b Materials Science and Engineering: A Volume 420, Issues 1–2, 25 March 2006, Pages 100–108
  4. ^ a b Viscoelasticity of multi-layer textile reinforced polymer composites used in footballs. Journal of Materials Science. Volume 43, Number 8 / April 2008. 2833–2843.
  5. ^ "Oldest Soccer Ball". soccerballworld.com. 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  6. ^ football World – 2000 and Beyond (Accessed 9 June 2006)
  7. ^ Eastaway, Rob; Haigh, John (2005-10-15). "Balls; and why theyaren't quite spherical". How to Take a Penalty: The Hidden Mathematics of Sport. Robson. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9781861058362. 
  8. ^ "Laws of the Game 2013/2014". www.fifa.com. FIFA. 
  9. ^ Soccer Balls, Soccer, 2013-10-14. Retrieved: 2013-10-14.
  10. ^ wright, tom (28 April 2010). "A Soccer Sore Point". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 June 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h The Blizzard: Issue 6. 2012. ISBN 978-1-908940-06-3. 
  12. ^ a b football World – Team Geist (Accessed 9 June 2006)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "The Footballs during the FIFA World Cup". Football Facts. FIFA. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  14. ^ Matteo. ""Federale 102". 1934 Italia World Cup Ball" (in Spanish first=Renato). balones-oficiales.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  15. ^ ""Allen". 1938 France World Cup Ball" (in Spanish and English accessdate=17 September 2011). balones-oficiales.com. 
  16. ^ ""Super Duplo T". 1950 Brazil World Cup Official Matchball". balones-oficiales.com language=Spanish and English. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "1954 Switzerland World Cup Official Matchball" (in Spanish and English). balones-oficiales.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  18. ^ a b Norlin, Arne (2008). "Bollen "Made in Sweden"". 1958: När Folkhemmet Fick Fotbolls-VM (in Swedish). Malmo: Ross & Tegner. pp. 130–6. ISBN 978-91-976144-8-1. 
  19. ^ "Top Star 1958" (in Spanish and English). balones-oficiales.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  20. ^ Matteo, Renato (11 June 2010). ""Crack". 1962 Chile World Cup Official Matchball". balones-oficiales.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  21. ^ Matteo, Renato (11 June 2010). ""Slazenger Challenge 4-star". 1966 England World Cup Official Matchball". balones-oficiales.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  22. ^ Brown balls are visible in Getty Images photos of matches in the Estadio Nou Camp, [[León, Guanajuato|]]:
  23. ^ football World – Adidas Questra (Accessed 9 June 2006)
  24. ^ "The adidas JO'BULANI – Official Match Ball for the final of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa". FIFA. Retrieved 17 September 2011. 
  25. ^ "adidas Brazuca – Name of Official Match Ball decided by Brazilian fans". FIFA. Retrieved 2012-09-03. 
  26. ^ football World – European Football Championship balls(Accessed 9 June 2006)
  27. ^ "A Few Good Balls – "Adidas Gamarada 2000 Sydney Olympics"". Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  28. ^ "AFGB: 2008 Olympics". Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  29. ^ "Miscellaneous Symbols Range: 2600–26FF" (PDF). Unicode Consortium. 2009. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  30. ^ Pentzlin, Karl (2 April 2008). "Proposal to encode a SOCCER BALL symbol in Unicode" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-03-14. 

External links[edit]