Football in Germany

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Allianz Arena in Munich, venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup opening game
Supporters choreography for the German Football Association club 1. FC Union Berlin

Association football is the most popular sport in Germany.[1] The German Football Association (German: Deutscher Fußball-Bund or DFB) is the sport's national governing body, with 6.6 million members (roughly eight percent of the population) organized in over 26,000 football clubs. There is a league system, with the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga on top. The winner of the Bundesliga is crowned the German football champion. Additionally, there are national cup competitions, most notably the DFB-Pokal (German Cup) and DFL-Supercup (German Supercup).[2]

On an international level, Germany is one of the most successful football nations in the world. The Germany national football team has won three FIFA World Cups (1954, 1974, 1990) as well as a record three UEFA European Championships (1972, 1980, 1996). The Germany women's national football team has won two FIFA Women's World Cups (2003, 2007) and a record eight UEFA European Women's Championships (1989, 1991, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2013). Germany is the only nation that has won both the men's and women's World Cup and European Championship. Germany was the host of the 1974 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 1988 and the 2006 FIFA World Cup and the 1989 UEFA European Women's Championship, 1995 UEFA European Women's Championship, 2001 UEFA European Women's Championship, and 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup.

History[edit]

First football clubs[edit]

The Dresden English Football Club is considered the first modern football club in Germany. It was founded in 1874 by Englishmen living and working around Dresden. In the following 20 years the game achieved a growing popularity. Football clubs were founded in Berlin, Hamburg and Karlsruhe.[3]

Foundation To World War I[edit]

On 28 January 1900, representatives from 86 football clubs from in and outside Deutsches Reich met in the restaurant Mariengarten in Leipzig, founding the DFB. The founding meeting was led by E. J. Kirmse, chairman of the Leipziger Fussball Verband (Leipzig Football Association). Ferdinand Hueppe, representing the DFC Prague, was elected first president of the DFB.

Already some years before 1900, associations like the Bund Deutscher Fussballspieler or Deutscher Fussball und Cricket-Bund were founded, but they were limited to smaller areas of the Deutsches Reich area, in that cases to areas around Berlin. The first championship beyond municipal areas was held in 1898 from the Verband Sueddeutscher Fussball-Vereine (Association of South German football clubs), later affiliated with the DFB.

The German national football team represents Germany in international football competitions since 1908. It is controlled by the German Football Association DFB, the governing body of football in Germany.

Inter-war period[edit]

After the war, Germany was occupied in three states. The DFB and its team continued in what was called West Germany, while the Saarland and East Germany fielded separate teams for some years.

East and West[edit]

East vs. West: 1974 World Cup game[edit]

The FIFA World Cup 1974 was staged in West Germany, and both German teams were drawn in the same group in the first round. Meeting on 22 June 1974 in a politically charged match in Hamburg, East Germany beat West Germany 1–0, on a goal by Jürgen Sparwasser. Both German teams advanced to the second round anyway. The GDR team was eliminated there, while the DFB team eventually went on to win the tournament.

Reunification[edit]

In the year of German reunification (1990), West Germany secured its third World Cup as West and East Germans celebrated together. The present-day German national team is identical to the team informally called West Germany from 1949 to 1990 team, as the German Football Association was again recognized by FIFA after WW2. Nothing has changed in 1990 except enlarged membership due to the access of East German states and players, thus the continuity in the German logo and uniform style as well as references to Germany's three World Cup and European Cup titles. Thus, all references to a "former West German team" are false - this team still exists, called Germany.

Germany's greatest triumph since 1990 has been the 1996 European Championship, secured in England with players from both the former West, including (Jürgen Klinsmann as captain) and East (Matthias Sammer) as anchor of the defence.

New millennium[edit]

The greatest successes for German team in the new millennium have been their second place finish to Brazil at the 2002 World Cup in South Korea and Japan and a second place at the 2008 European Championship. There was also a third place at the 2006 World Cup in Germany and in addition another third place at World Cup 2010. Germany's women have achieved even greater success, winning both the 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup in the USA and the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup in China.

German Football Association[edit]

The national association is the German Football Association (or Deutscher Fußball-Bund) headquartered in Frankfurt.

The DFB was founded in 1900 in Leipzig, by the representatives of 86 clubs. Today, the association has some 26,000 member clubs which field 170,000 teams with over 2 million players: these numbers include 870,000 female members and 8,600 women's teams. With over six million member the DFB is the world's largest sports federation.

National team[edit]

Men's[edit]

The German national football team represents Germany in international football competitions since 1908. It is controlled by the German Football Association (DFB), the governing body of football in Germany. They have won three FIFA World Cups and have been runners up on four occasions.

Since the 1954 World Cup, the German national team has been outfitted by the German firm adidas. For home games, the German team wears white jerseys, black shorts and white socks in honour of the Prussian colours. Along with black both red and gold, the other two colours of the German flag, have been included in the strip over the years.

Traditionally, the Germans have worn green jerseys, white shorts and green socks as their alternate strip. In recent years, however, the Germans have changed their away strip to grey in 2002–2003, black in 2004 and recently to red. The Germans wore red as their alternate colour in the 2006 World Cup.

The German national team during the 2006 World Cup was coached by former captain Jürgen Klinsmann. Since 12 July 2006, former Assistant Coach Joachim Löw has coached the national team. Its current captain is Bayern Munich defender Philipp Lahm.

Women's[edit]

The German women's national football team, also organised by the DFB, are two-time world champions, having won the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2003 under past coach Tina Theune-Meyer and 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup under current coach Silvia Neid. They are the first women's team to have successfully defended a World Cup. They have also won eight UEFA Women's Championships (1989, 1991, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2013), which includes six consecutive titles. Germany is the only nation to have won both the men's and women's World Cup and European Championship.

The Germany women's team are also the first to have won a World Cup at senior level, either for men or women, without conceding a single goal, having done so in 2007. Nadine Angerer was the goalkeeper who managed this feat.

Home stadiums[edit]

The national teams play in various stadiums throughout Germany. The cities of Düsseldorf, Munich, Dortmund and Berlin are some of the more popular locations.

FIFA World Cup[edit]

The Germany national football team has won three FIFA World Cups and have been the runners up on four other occasions. The three World Cup championships are commemorated by the three stars above the German national team logo on the team's jerseys. Germany hosted the World Cups in 1974 and in 2006.

The women's national team has won two FIFA Women's World Cups, commemorated by two stars above the crest on their jerseys. Germany hosted the 2011 Women's World Cup.

FIFA World Cup 1954[edit]

The Wankdorf Stadion in Bern saw 60,000 people cram inside to watch the Final between West Germany and Hungary, a rematch of a first round game, which Hungary had won 8–3. In response to his team's earlier thrashing at the hands of the Hungarians, legendary West German coach Sepp Herberger made key tactical adjustments in his team's lineup prior to the Final. Shortly before the match, it had started raining - in Germany this was dubbed "Fritz-Walter-Wetter" (Fritz Walter Weather) because the German team captain Fritz Walter was said to play his best in rainy weather.

The Final saw the legendary Ferenc Puskás playing even though he was not fully fit. Despite this he put his team ahead after only 6 minutes and, with Zoltan Czibor adding another two minutes later, it seemed destined that the pre-tournament favourites would take the title.

However, with a goal from Max Morlock on the tenth minute and Helmut Rahn on the nineteenth before halftime, the tide began to turn in the Germans' favor. The second half saw misses from the Hungarian team as well as a disallowed goal from Puskás with 2 minutes left.

Rahn then scored again to make the score 3–2. As he was scoring the goal, the popular German reporter Herbert Zimmermann gave the most famous German piece of commentary of all time - "Rahn schiesst - TOR!" ("Rahn shoots - GOAL!") - while the Hungarian reporter burst into tears. The game would become known as the "Das Wunder von Bern" (the "Miracle of Bern") in German lore and would be the basis for a successful movie released in 2003.

FIFA World Cup 1974[edit]

The FIFA World Cup 1974 was held in West Germany.

Led by legendary libero Franz Beckenbauer, keeper Sepp Maier, playmaker Paul Breitner, and strikers Uli Hoeneß and "Der Bomber" Gerd Müller (Germany's all-time leading scorer with 68 goals in 62 games), Germany won its second World Cup by defeating the Netherlands in the final, 2–1, behind goals by Breitner and Müller. The Final was famous for the battle between Kaiser Franz (Beckenbauer) and King Johann (Cruyff).

The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup, was awarded. The previous trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, was won for the third time by Brazil in 1970 and awarded permanently to the Brazilians.

FIFA World Cup 1990[edit]

In a tournament which included a memorable clash with rival Holland, Germany defeated Argentina, 1–0, on an Andreas Brehme penalty kick, to win its third World Cup title. With its third title (and three second place finishes), West Germany became the most successful World Cup nation for 4 years, until Brazil won their 4th Championship in 1994. West German team manager Franz Beckenbauer became the second footballer, after Mario Zagallo of Brazil, to become World Champion as a player (in 1974) and as team manager. In doing so, Beckenbauer also became the first captain of a winning team to later manage a winning squad.

FIFA Women's World Cup 2003[edit]

The 2003 FIFA Women's World Cup was held in the United States (changed from China due to the SARS epidemic) and won by Germany, who defeated Sweden by 2–1 in extra time. Earlier in the semifinals they had disposed of the defending champions and hosts, the United States, 3–0.

FIFA World Cup 2006[edit]

Football fans at the Olympic Park in Munich during a 2006 World Cup match

Germany hosted the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Thirty-two nations competed in the tournament, with matches played in a dozen cities ranging from Hamburg in the north to Munich in the south; Leipzig was the only former East city to hold matches (the matches at Berlin were held at former West Berliner territory). The opening match (Germany vs Costa Rica) was held on 9 June in the Allianz Arena in Munich, with Germany defeating Costa Rica 4–2. The final match took place in Olympiastadion Berlin one month later between Italy and France. The match was drawn 1–1 at full-time and after extra time. Zinedine Zidane was controversially sent off for headbutting Italy's Marco Materazzi with 10 minutes to go before the match went into penalties. France lost to Italy in the shootout 5–3.

Germany defeated Portugal 3–1 in the third place play off at the Gottlieb-Daimler-Stadion in Stuttgart on 8 July. Miroslav Klose won the Golden Boot for the highest goalscorer of the tournament with 5 goals. Lukas Podolski received the Best Young Player Award.

FIFA Women's World Cup 2007[edit]

The 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup was held in China and won by Germany, who became the first women's team to successfully defend the title. In the opening match in Shanghai, Germany beat Argentina by a record 11–0. Nadine Angerer, the key goalkeeper, went unbeaten the entire tournament. In the final at Shanghai, Germany beat Brazil, 2–0.

Birgit Prinz became the all-time top World Cup goalscorer with 14 goals total.

2010 FIFA World Cup[edit]

Germany finished third for the second consecutive time, behind Spain and the Netherlands. Germany was the team that scored the most goals in the FIFA World Cup 2010, with three 4-goal hauls. They lost to only two teams, Serbia and Spain. Thomas Müller won the Golden Shoe and Best Young Player award.

FIFA Women's World Cup 2011[edit]

The 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup was held in Germany. The competition kicked off with two matches on 26 June—the first in Sinsheim pitting France and Nigeria, followed by the official opening match in Berlin featuring Germany and Canada.

UEFA European Championship[edit]

Germany have won three European Championship (1972, 1980 and 1996), but made poor showings in the last two competitions held in 2000 and 2004. The German team also placed second in the 1976, 1992 and 2008 championships.

UEFA Euro Cup 1972[edit]

In Euro 1972, a young West German team that would go on to win the World Cup two years later captured the first of its three European Cup titles. In the two-leg quarter-finals, Germany first crushed England, 3–1, in Wembley Stadium on 29 April 1972, then closed the door by earning a 0-0 draw in Berlin. The Germans then advanced to the finals in Belgium, where they defeated the host nation, 2–1, in the semifinal and the Soviet Union, 3–0, in the final to capture their first major championship since the Miracle of Bern.

"This is the best team we ever had," stated former coach Helmut Schön in the hour of his triumph. In admiration of the German effort, the French L’Equipe wrote: "Brussels witnessed the rehabilitation of attacking football." The Times noted: "Germany has the most talented football team on the continent."

UEFA Euro Cup 1980[edit]

Only 8 years passed before the Germans secured their next title. After defeating Czechoslovakia, Holland, and Greece in the opening round, Germany got past Belgium, 2–1, in the final through two goals by Horst Hrubesch. This tournament would be the first of many for midfielder Lothar Matthäus, who would retire after Euro 2000 as Germany's most capped (experienced) player with 150 national team appearances.

Euro 96[edit]

In 1996, Germany won perhaps its most memorable European Championship and its first major championship since reunification. Led by captain Jürgen Klinsmann on offense and Matthias Sammer on defense, the Germans easily defeated the Czech Republic, 2–0, and Russia, 3-0, in the first round. A hard-fought 0–0 draw against Italy completed the first round and saw Germany through to the quarterfinals, where it defeated Croatia 2–1.

This victory set the stage for a classic battle against England, again in Wembley Stadium, in the tournament semifinals. After England jumped in front with a goal in the third minute, the Germans - playing without injured captain Klinsmann - fought back and equalized behind a Stefan Kuntz goal in the 16. minute. Both teams fought through the remainder of regulation and two sudden-death 15-minute overtime periods without scoring, leading to a dramatic penalty kick shootout. In the shootout, German keeper Andreas Köpke held England's sixth attempt, allowing Andreas Möller to stun the Wembley faithful and send Germany through to the final.

In the final, Germany fell behind the same Czech squad it had defeated earlier in the tournament on a controversial (bad) penalty kick decision. Nonetheless, the Germans displayed their usual fighting spirit and tied the game on substitute Oliver Bierhoff's 73. minute header. Regulation ended in a 1–1 tie. Five minutes into the first sudden-death overtime, it was again Oliver Bierhoff who led the Germans to victory with his historic golden goal. Largely because of his outstanding defensive efforts in the tournament, Matthias Sammer was voted "Europe's Player of the Year" after the finals.

Football competitions[edit]

Bundesliga[edit]

The country's main football competition is the 18-team Bundesliga. Bayern Munich has won a record of twenty-two championships since the formation of the league in 1963. Hamburger SV is the only team to have played in every Bundesliga season. The second-tier league is known as the 2. Bundesliga. A 3. Liga, to be run directly by the DFB instead of the DFB-affiliated German Football League (DFL, from the German Deutsche Fußball Liga) which operates the two Bundesligen, was introduced in 2008.

German Cup[edit]

The German Cup (German: "DFB-Pokal", Deutscher Fußball Bund-Pokal) is a national football tournament held annually since 1952. It is the second most important national title in German football after the Bundesliga championship.

Each football club which participates in the German football league system is entitled to enter the tournament. The clubs of the lower leagues play in regional qualification rounds, with the winners joining the teams of the Bundesliga and 2.Bundesliga in the main round of the tournament in the following year. Each elimination is determined by a single game held on the ground of one of the two participating teams. Since 1985 the final has been held each year at the Olympic Stadium in Berlin. Bayern Munich has won the cup a record 12 times.

The Tschammer-Pokal was the predecessor to today's cup competition. It was introduced in 1934-35 and contested until 1944.

Divided after World War II, Germany had two cup competitions with East German sides competing for the East German Cup (German: "FDGB-Pokal", Freier Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund-Pokal or Free German Trade Union Federation Cup). Introduced in 1949, the cup was contested annually until 1991 when the tournament was ended in the wake of German re-unification and the merger of the football leagues of the two Germanys.

Participation in European competition[edit]

Under current co-efficient rankings, Germany are guaranteed at least four UEFA Champions League spots and three UEFA Europa League spots. Clubs finishing first, second and third in the Bundesliga are put into the group stage of the Champions League and the club finishing fourth is placed in the play-off round of the Champions League. The fifth- and sixth-place finishers enter the Europa League, respectively in the play-off round and third qualifying round. The winner of the DFB Cup also enters the play-off round of the Europa League. However, if the winner of the DFB Cup has already been granted a place in the Champions League through league standings, then the runner-up will be granted a place in the third qualifying round of the Europa League. If the DFB Cup winner (or the runner-up in case the winner has already qualified to Champions League) is qualified for the Europa League through league standings, then the seventh-place team in the Bundesliga will be awarded a place in the third qualifying round of the Europa League. Germany may qualify for an additional Europa League spot through UEFA's Fair Play draw.

Foreign players in Germany[edit]

There are many foreign football players in the German professional football leagues. In November 2009 there were 249 foreign players in the 1. Bundesliga, or 45% of all players. In the 2. Bundesliga, there are 145 foreign players, with a ratio of 31%.[4] In the 3. Liga, the foreigner ratio is 15%.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "German football: Tor! Tor! Tor!". The Economist. 2013-05-25. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  2. ^ "A wonderful history of German football clubs in Europe: 1960 til now". Anorak. 2013-10-03. Retrieved 2013-10-07. 
  3. ^ Andreas Wittner (2006-07-04). "Als die Engländer noch dauernd siegten". Die Welt (in (German)). Welt.de. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  4. ^ 1. Fragen zum Thema Spielbetrieb DFL Deutsche Fußball Liga GmbH, 2010
  5. ^ Kicker Sonderheft Saison 2009/10

External links[edit]