Foot binding

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Foot binding (also known as "Lotus feet") was the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to prevent further growth. The practice possibly originated among upper-class court dancers during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Imperial China (10th or 11th century), but spread in the Song Dynasty and eventually became common among all but the lowest of classes. Foot binding became popular as a means of displaying status (women from wealthy families who did not need them to work could afford to have their feet bound) and was correspondingly adopted as a symbol of beauty in Chinese culture.

The Manchu Emperor Kangxi tried to ban footbinding in 1664 but failed.[1] In the 1800s (19th century), Chinese reformers challenged the practice but it was not until the early 20th century that foot binding began to die out, partly from changing social conditions and partly as a result of anti-foot binding campaigns.[2] Foot-binding resulted in lifelong disabilities for most of its subjects, and few elderly Chinese women still survive today with disabilities related to their bound feet.[3]



A shoe for bound feet. The ideal length for a bound foot was 8 centimetres (3 in).

There are many suggestions for the origin of footbinding.[4] One story relates that during the Shang Dynasty, the concubine Daji, who was said to have clubfoot, asked the Emperor to make footbinding mandatory for all girls so that her own feet would be the standard of beauty and elegance. Another story tells of a favorite courtesan of Emperor Xiao Baojuan, Pan Yu'er 潘玉儿 who had delicate feet, dancing bare feet over a platform inlaid with gold and pearls decorated with lotus flower design. The emperor expressed admiration and said that "lotus springs from her every step!" (步步生蓮), a reference to the Buddhist legend of Padmavati under whose feet lotus springs forth. This may have given rise to the terms "golden lotus" or "lotus feet" used to describe bound feet, there is however no evidence that Pan Yu'er ever bound her feet.[5] The general consensus is that the practice is likely to have originated from the time of Emperor Li Yu (Southern Tang Dynasty, just before the Song Dynasty).[1] Emperor Li Yu asked his concubine Yao Niang (窅娘) to bind her feet in white silk into the shape of the crescent moon, and performed a lotus dance ballet-like on the points of her feet.[4] Yao Niang was described as so graceful that she 'skimmed on top of golden lotus'.[1] This was then replicated by other upper-class women and the practice spread.[6]

The practice of foot binding became popular during the Song Dynasty, and the earliest known writings on footbinding appeared. In the twelfth century, Zhang Bangji (张邦基) considered that a bound foot should be arched-shape and small.[7][8] A thirteenth century writer Che Ruoshui (車若水) however complained that "little children not yet four or five years old, who have done nothing wrong, nevertheless are made to suffer unlimited pain to bind [their feet] small. I do not know what use this is".[9][10] Evidence from archaeology indicated that footbinding was practiced among the wives and daughters of officials in the thirteenth century. However, the style of bound feet found in the Song Dyansty tombs, where the big toe was bent upwards, appears to be different to the norm in subsequent centuries, and the excessive smallness of the feet, the "three-inch golden lotus", may be a later development.[11][12] The practice became increasingly common in the following centuries among the gentry families, later spreading to the general population.[13] By the end of the Song Dynasty, men would drink from a special shoe whose heel contained a small cup. During the Yuan Dynasty, some would also drink directly from the shoe itself. This louche practice was called "toast to the golden lotus" and lasted until the late Qing Dynasty.[4]

By the 19th century, it was estimated that 40-50% of Chinese women had bound feet, and among upper class Han Chinese women, the figure was almost 100%.[3] The Hakka people however were unusual among Han Chinese in not practicing foot binding at all.[14] Most non-Han Chinese people, such as the Manchus, Mongols and Tibetans, did not bind their feet, however, some non-Han ethnic groups do. Foot binding was practiced by the Hui Muslims in Gansu Province,[15] the Dungan Muslims, descendants of Hui from northwestern China who fled to central Asia, were also seen practicing foot binding up to 1948.[16] In southern China, in Guangzhou the westerner James Legge encountered a mosque which had a placard denouncing foot binding, saying Islam did not allow it since it constituted violating the creation of God.[17]

Bound feet became a mark of beauty and was also a prerequisite for finding a husband. It also became an avenue for poorer women to marry into money; for example, in Guangdong in the late 19th century, it was customary to bind the feet of the eldest daughter of a lower-class family who was intended to be brought up as a lady. Her younger sisters would grow up to be bond-servants or domestic slaves and, when old enough, either the concubines of rich men or the wives of laboring men, able to work in the fields alongside them. In contrast, the tiny, narrow feet of the "ladies" were considered beautiful and made a woman's movements more feminine and dainty, and it was assumed these eldest daughters would never need to work. Women, their families, and their husbands took great pride in tiny feet, with the ideal length, called the “Golden Lotus”, being about 8 centimetres (3 in) long.[18] This pride was reflected in the elegantly embroidered silk slippers and wrappings girls and women wore to cover their feet. Walking on bound feet necessitated bending the knees slightly and swaying to maintain proper movement and balance, a dainty walk that was also considered erotic to some men.[19]

Variation in practice[edit]

Foot binding, however, was practiced in varying forms. In Sichuan, a less severe form, called "cucumber foot" (huanggua jiao) due to its slender shape, folded the four toes under but did not force up the heel and taper the ankle.[20][21] Not all women were always bound - some women once bound remained bound all through their lives, but some were only briefly bound, and some were bound until their marriage.[22]

Manchu women were forbidden to bind their feet by an edict from the Emperor after the Manchu started their rule of China in 1644.[23] However, few complied with the edict. As its prevalence increased, the Manchus, wanting to emulate the particular gait that bound feet necessitated, invented their own type of shoe that caused them to walk in a similar swaying manner. These "flower bowl" shoes sat on a high platform generally made of wood, or had a small central pedestal. Bound feet became an important differentiating marker between Manchu and Han women.[citation needed]

A comparison between a woman with normal feet (left) and a woman with bound feet in 1902

Many women with bound feet were in fact able to walk and work in the fields, albeit with greater limitation than their non-bound counterparts. In the 19th and early 20th century, dancers with bound feet were very popular, as were circus performers who stood on prancing or running horses. Women with bound feet in one village in Yunnan Province even formed a regional dance troupe to perform for tourists, though age has since forced the group to retire. In other areas, women in their 70s and 80s could be found providing limited assistance to the workers in the rice fields well into the 21st century.[3]


In 1874, 60 Christian women in Xiamen called for an end of the practice and it was championed by the Woman's Christian Temperance Movement in 1883, and advocated by missionaries including Timothy Richard, who thought that Christianity could promote equality between the sexes.[24] Educated Chinese began to see that this aspect of their culture did not reflect well on their progress in the modern world; Social Darwinists argued that it weakened the nation, since enfeebled women supposedly produced weak sons; and feminists attacked the practice because it caused women to suffer.[25] In 1883, Kang Youwei founded the first Anti-Footbinding Society to combat the practice.[26] At the turn of the 20th century, well-born women such as Kwan Siew-Wah (known in the West as Brigitte Kwan), a pioneering feminist, advocated for the end of foot-binding. The Empress Dowager Cixi issued an anti-foot binding edict in 1902, at first to little effect.[27]

In Taiwan the practice is discouraged by the ruling Japanese since the beginning of their rule, and from 1911 to 1915 it was gradually made illegal.

In 1912, the new Republic of China government banned foot binding. Although the practice of foot binding began to decline in the modern era, it continued to be widely practiced until the 1930s.[28] In 1928, a census in rural Shanxi found that 18% of women had bound feet.[20] The practice was also stigmatized in Communist China, and by the 21st century, only a few elderly women in China still have bound feet. In 1999, the last shoe factory making lotus shoes, Zhiqiang Shoe Factory in Harbin, closed.[29][30]


A bound foot
A bound foot
A bandaged bound foot
A bandaged bound foot

The process was started before the arch of the foot had a chance to develop fully, usually between the ages of 4 and 9. Binding usually started during the winter months since the feet were more likely to be numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme.[31]

First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood; this was intended to soften the foot and aid the binding. Then, the toenails were cut back as far as possible to prevent in-growth and subsequent infections, since the toes were to be pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. Cotton bandages, 3 m long and 5 cm wide (10 ft by 2 in), were prepared by soaking them in the blood and herb mixture. To enable the size of the feet to be reduced, the toes on each foot were curled under, then pressed with great force downwards and squeezed into the sole of the foot until the toes broke.

The broken toes were held tightly against the sole of the foot while the foot was then drawn down straight with the leg and the arch forcibly broken. The bandages were repeatedly wound in a figure-eight movement, starting at the inside of the foot at the instep, then carried over the toes, under the foot, and around the heel, the freshly broken toes being pressed tightly into the sole of the foot. At each pass around the foot, the binding cloth was tightened, pulling the ball of the foot and the heel together, causing the broken foot to fold at the arch, and pressing the toes underneath.

The girl's broken feet required a great deal of care and attention, and they would be unbound regularly. Each time the feet were unbound, they were washed, the toes carefully checked for injury, and the nails carefully and meticulously trimmed. When unbound, the broken feet were also kneaded to soften them and the soles of the girl's feet were often beaten to make the joints and broken bones more flexible. The feet were also soaked in a concoction that caused any necrotic flesh to fall off.[25]

An X-ray of two bound feet
Schema of an x-ray comparison between an unbound and bound foot

Immediately after this pedicure, the girl's broken toes were folded back under and the feet were rebound. The bindings were pulled even tighter each time the girl's feet were rebound. This unbinding and rebinding ritual was repeated as often as possible (for the rich at least once daily, for poor peasants two or three times a week), with fresh bindings. It was generally an elder female member of the girl's family or a professional foot binder who carried out the initial breaking and ongoing binding of the feet. It was considered preferable to have someone other than the mother do it, as she might have been sympathetic to her daughter's pain and less willing to keep the bindings tight.[31]

The most common problem with bound feet was infection. Despite the amount of care taken in regularly trimming the toenails, they would often in-grow, becoming infected and causing injuries to the toes. Sometimes for this reason the girl's toenails would be peeled back and removed altogether. The tightness of the binding meant that the circulation in the feet was faulty, and the circulation to the toes was almost cut off, so any injuries to the toes were unlikely to heal and were likely to gradually worsen and lead to infected toes and rotting flesh.

If the infection in the feet and toes entered the bones, it could cause them to soften, which could result in toes dropping off; although, this was seen as a benefit because the feet could then be bound even more tightly. Girls whose toes were more fleshy would sometimes have shards of glass or pieces of broken tiles inserted within the binding next to her feet and between her toes to cause injury and introduce infection deliberately. Disease inevitably followed infection, meaning that death from septic shock could result from foot-binding, and a surviving girl was more at risk for medical problems as she grew older.

At the beginning of the binding, many of the foot bones would remain broken, often for years. However, as the girl grew older, the bones would begin to heal. Even after the foot bones had healed, they were prone to re-breaking repeatedly, especially when the girl was in her teenage years and her feet were still soft. Older women were more likely to break hips and other bones in falls, since they could not balance securely on their feet, and were less able to rise to their feet from a sitting position.[32]

Appeal and interpretations[edit]

A woman with her feet unwrapped

Bound feet were once considered intensely erotic in Chinese culture, and a woman with perfect lotus feet was likely to make a more prestigious marriage. Qing Dynasty sex manuals listed 48 different ways of playing with women's bound feet. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes" and wrappings. Feng Xun is recorded as stating, "If you remove the shoes and bindings, the aesthetic feeling will be destroyed forever"—an indication that men understood that the symbolic erotic fantasy of bound feet did not correspond to its unpleasant physical reality, which was therefore to be kept hidden.[25] The fact that the bound foot was concealed from men's eyes was considered to be sexually appealing. On the other hand, an uncovered foot would also give off a foul odour, as various saprobic microorganisms would colonize the unwashable folds.

For men, the primary erotic effect was a function of the lotus gait, the tiny steps and swaying walk of a woman whose feet had been bound. Women with such deformed feet avoided placing weight on the front of the foot and tended to walk predominantly on their heels. As a result, women who underwent foot-binding walked in a careful, cautious, and unsteady manner.[31] Additionally a common male fantasy was that the unusual gait tended to strengthen the vaginal muscles.[33]

An attribute of a woman with bound feet was the limitation of her mobility, and therefore, her inability to take part in politics, social life and the world. Bound feet rendered women dependent on their families, particularly their men, and became an alluring symbol of chastity and male ownership, since a woman was largely restricted to her home and could not venture far without an escort or the help of watchful servants.[34]

However, some scholars reject the theories that bound feet in China were considered more beautiful, or that it was a means of male control over women, a sign of class status, and a chance for women to marry well. They also argued foot binding was important in hard work, and can be seen as a way by the mothers to tie daughters down, and train them in the handwork and keep them close at hand.[35][36] It has also been argued that while the practice started out as a fashion, it persisted because it became an expression of Han identity after the Mongols invaded China in 1279 as it was then practiced only by Han women.[29][9] During the Qing Dynasty, attempts were made by the Manchus to ban the practice but failed.

In literature, film, and television[edit]

The bound foot has played a prominent part in many media works, both Chinese and non-Chinese, modern and traditional. These depictions are sometimes based on observation or research and sometimes on rumors or supposition. Sometimes, as in the case of Pearl Buck's The Good Earth (1931), the accounts are relatively neutral, implying a respect for Chinese culture and assuming that it is not the role of outsiders to promote reform. Sometimes the accounts seem intended to rouse like-minded Chinese and foreign opinion to abolish the custom, and sometimes the accounts imply condescension or contempt for China.[37]

  • Flowers in the Mirror (1837) by Ju-Chen Li includes chapters set in the "Country of Women", where men bear children and have bound feet.[38]
  • The Three-Inch Golden Lotus (1994) by Feng Jicai[39] presents a satirical picture of the movement to abolish the practice, which is seen as part of Chinese culture.
  • In the film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958), Ingrid Bergman portrays British missionary to China Gladys Aylward who is assigned as a foreigner the task by a local Mandarin to unbind the feet of young women, an unpopular order that the civil government had failed to fulfill.
  • Ruthanne Lum McCunn wrote a biographical novel A Thousand Pieces of Gold (1981, adapted into a 1991 film), about Polly Bemis, a Chinese American pioneer woman. It describes her feet being bound, and later unbound, when she needed to help her family with farm labour.
  • Emily Prager's short story "A Visit from the Footbinder", from her collection of short stories of the same name (1982), describes the last few hours of a young Chinese girl's childhood before the professional footbinder arrives to initiate her into the adult woman's life of beauty and pain.
  • Lisa Loomer's play The Waiting Room (1994) deals with themes of body modification. One of the three main characters is an 18th-century Chinese woman who arrives in a modern hospital waiting room seeking medical help for complications resulting from her bound feet.
  • Lensey Namioka's novel Ties that Bind, Ties that Break (1999) follows a girl named Ailin in China who refuses to have her feet bound, which comes to affect her future.
  • In Kim Stanley Robinson's alternate history novel The Years of Rice and Salt (2002), Kang Tongbi is an apparently typical Chinese upper-class woman whose feet are bound. The hardships of women with bound feet are referenced several times, and after nearly losing her life during a flood due to her inability to walk or climb normally, a heavily pregnant Kang tells her husband that if their baby is a daughter, there will be no footbinding.
  • Lisa See's novel Snow Flower and the Secret Fan (2005) is about two Chinese girls who are destined to be friends. The novel is based upon the sacrifices women make to be married and includes the two girls being forced into getting their feet bound. The book was adapted into a 2011 film directed by Wayne Wang.
  • Feng Shui (2004) is a Filipino horror movie about an old, cursed bagua mirror haunted by the malevolent soul of a foot-bound Chinese woman. The mirror showers luck and prosperity to its owner, but as an exchange, the foot-bound woman brings death to those who are near her. A sequel was released on December 25, 2014 as the official entry to the 2014 Metro Manila Film Festival.
  • In the Green Witch Arc of the manga Black Butler, the 11-year-old female character Sieglinde Sullivan practices foot binding in accordance with the Green Witch tradition and must have her servant carry her wherever she goes.[40]
  • In season 1, episode 4 ("The Fourth Step") of the 2014 Netflix series Marco Polo, the chancellor of the Song dynasty binds his niece's feet while the girl's mother is away.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "Chinese Foot Binding". BBC. 
  2. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2010). 'Cambridge Illustrated History of China (2nd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 160–161. 
  3. ^ a b c Lim, Louisa (19 March 2007). "Painful Memories for China's Footbinding Survivors". Morning Edition. National Public Radio. 
  4. ^ a b c Marie-Josèphe Bossan (2004). The Art of the Shoe. Parkstone Press Ltd. p. 164. ISBN 978-1859958032. 
  5. ^ Dorothy Ko (2002). Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for Bound Feet. University of California Press. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-0520232846. 
  6. ^ Victoria Pitts-Taylor, ed. (2008). Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body. Greenwood. p. 203. ISBN 978-0313341458. 
  7. ^ Dorothy Ko (2008). Cinderella's Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding. University of California Press. p. 111-115. ISBN 978-0520253902. 
  8. ^ "墨庄漫录-宋-张邦基 8-卷八". 
  9. ^ a b Valerie Steele, John S. Major (2000). China Chic: East Meets West. Yale University Press. p. 38-40. ISBN 978-0300079319. 
  10. ^ 车若水. "脚气集". 
  11. ^ Dorothy Ko (2008). Cinderella's Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding. University of California Press. p. 187-191. ISBN 978-0520253902. 
  12. ^ Dorothy Ko (2002). Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for Bound Feet. University of California Press. p. 21-24. ISBN 978-0520253902. 
  13. ^ Valerie Steele, John S. Major (2000). China Chic: East Meets West. Yale University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0300079319. 
  14. ^ Lawrence Davis, Edward (2005). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Routledge, p. 333.
  15. ^ James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. EDINBURGH: T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved January 1, 2011. (Original from Harvard University)
  16. ^ Touraj Atabaki, Sanjyot Mehendale; Sanjyot Mehendale (2005). Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora. Psychology Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-415-33260-6. Retrieved January 1, 2011. 
  17. ^ James Legge (1880). The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity. LONDON: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 111. Retrieved June 28, 2010. (Original from Harvard University)
  18. ^ Manning, Mary Ellen (10 May 2007). "China's "Golden Lotus Feet" - Foot-binding Practice". Retrieved 29 January 2012. 
  19. ^ Janell L. Carroll (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. p. 8. ISBN 978-0495604990. 
  20. ^ a b Simon Montlake (November 13, 2009). "Bound by History: The Last of China's 'Lotus-Feet' Ladies". Wall Street Journal. 
  21. ^ Hill Gates (2014). Footbinding and Women's Labor in Sichuan. Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 978-0415525923. 
  22. ^ Hill Gates (2014). Footbinding and Women's Labor in Sichuan. Routledge. p. 20. ISBN 978-0415525923. 
  23. ^ Elliott, Mark C. (2001). The Manchu Way: the Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-8047-3606-0. 
  24. ^ Vincent Goossaert; David A. Palmer (15 April 2011). The Religious Question in Modern China. University of Chicago Press. pp. 70–. ISBN 978-0-226-30416-8. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  25. ^ a b c Levy, Howard S. (1991). The Lotus Lovers: The Complete History of the Curious Erotic Tradition of Foot Binding in China. New York: Prometheus Books. p. 322. 
  26. ^ Guangqiu Xu (2011). American Doctors in Canton: Modernization in China, 1835-1935. Transaction Publishers. p. 257. ISBN 978-1412818292. 
  27. ^ "Cixi Outlaws Foot Binding", History Channel
  28. ^ Favazza, Armando R. Bodies under Siege: Self-mutilation, Nonsuicidal Self-injury, and Body Modification in Culture and Psychiatry (2011), p. 118.
  29. ^ a b Amanda Foreman (February 2015). "Why Footbinding Persisted in China for a Millennium". Smithsonian. 
  30. ^ Dorothy Ko (2008). Cinderella's Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0520253902. 
  31. ^ a b c Jackson, Beverley. Splendid Slippers: A Thousand Years of. 
  32. ^ Cummings, S. & Stone, K. (1997) "Consequences of Foot Binding Among Older Women in Beijing China", in: American Journal of Public Health EBSCO Host. Oct 1997
  33. ^ "One Thousand Years of Chinese Footbinding: Its Origins, Popularity and Demise- Marie Vento"
  34. ^ Fairbank, John King (1986). The Great Chinese Revolution, 1800 - 1985. New York: Harper & Row. p. 70. 
  35. ^ Colleen Walsh (December 9, 2011). "Unraveling a brutal custom". Harvard Gazette. 
  36. ^ Hill Gates (2014). Footbinding and Women's Labor in Sichuan. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415525923. 
  37. ^ Patricia Ebrey, "Gender and Sinology: Shifting Western Interpretations of Footbinding, 1300–1890," Late Imperial China 20.2 (1999): 1-34.
  38. ^ Ruzhen Li (1965). Flowers in the Mirror. translation by Lin Tai-yi. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-00747-5. 
  39. ^ Jicai, Feng & Wakefield, David (Translator) (1994). The Three Inch Lotus. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  40. ^ Kuroshitsuji (Black Butler) manga; Chapter 89, page 22


  •  This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The religions of China: Confucianism and Tâoism described and compared with Christianity, by James Legge, a publication from 1880 now in the public domain in the United States.

Further reading[edit]

  • Dorothy Ko, Cinderella’s Sisters: A Revisionist History of Footbinding. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.
  • Dorothy Ko, Every Step a Lotus: Shoes for Bound Feet (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001). Catalogue of a museum exhibit, with extensive comments.
  • Dorothy Ko, "Perspectives on Foot-binding," ASIANetwork Exchange, Vol. XV, No. 3, Spring 2008 [1]. Comments on the craft of shoemaking among women.
  • Eugene E.Berg, MD, Chinese Footbinding. Radiology Review – Orthopaedic Nursing 24, no. 5 (September/October) 66–67
  • Fan Hong (1997) Footbinding, Feminism and Freedom. London: Frank Cass
  • The Virtual Museum of The City of San Francisco, Chinese Foot Binding - Lotus Shoes’’
  • Ping, Wang. Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China. New York: Anchor Books, 2002.
  • Collection of bound foot shoes Article on Yang Shaorong, collector of bound foot shoes. Includes images of peasant/winter models and western-style models.