Force d'action navale
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|Naval Action Force
Force d'action navale
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The Force d'action navale (FAN, Naval Action Force) is the 12,000-man and about 100-ship strong backbone of the French Navy. As of 2006, it is commanded by Vice-Amiral d’Escadre Philippe Sautter.
The ships are divided into seven categories:
- The aeronaval group, which has the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle at its core
- The amphibious group, directed by "Projection and Command vessels" (currently ships of the Mistral or Foudre classes)
- Frigates, which act either as protection for the strategic groups, or alone in monitoring, survey, presence, rescue or deterrence missions
- "Sovereignty" ships, which are deployed overseas and act as presence and prevention forces
- Support vessels
- Public service ships, and hydrographic and oceanographic vessels
The aeronaval group is the main French Navy power projection force. It is also one of the components of the nuclear deterrence forces, since the embarked Super Étendard and Rafale planes have nuclear capabilities.
At minimum, it contains an aircraft carrier (currently Charles de Gaulle), an anti-air frigate, and a support vessel. Typically, this group also includes several anti-air and anti-submarine frigates, nuclear attack submarine (Rubis-class submarine and the future Barracuda-class submarines), and possibly additional support ships.
The carrier air group can include up to 40 aircraft: Rafale, Super Étendard and E-2 Hawkeye planes; NH-90 Caïman Marine, AS365 Dauphin and AS565 Panther for the helicopters. This composition varies according to the mission and the tactical environment, and can include aircraft of the ALAT (Army) or the Armée de l'Air (Air Force).
Like any naval force, the aeronaval group can be assisted by land-based Breguet Atlantique aircraft.
One of the aeronaval group's deployments was to take part in the initial attacks on Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan as part of what became the War in Afghanistan, in response to the September 11th attacks. The group, designated Task Force 473 for the operation, comprised 2,900 men under the command of Contre-Amiral François Cluzel and sailed in December 2001. It consisted of the nuclear aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle, frigates Lamotte-Picquet, Jean de Vienne , Jean Bart, the nuclear attack submarine Rubis, the tanker Meuse, and the aviso Commandant Ducuing. The Indian Ocean region deployment lasted for seven months before the group returned to France in mid-2002.
During the 2011 Libyan civil war, the French carrier battle group commanded from Charles de Gaulle was designated Task Force 473 and was under the command of Vice-Admiral Phillippe Coindreau. Coindreau was promoted to contre-amiral in September 2009, and he was named deputy commandant of the aéro-maritime force of rapid réaction at Toulon. In English-language reports, he was described as deputy commander of the High Readiness Force Maritime Headquarters.
On 29 December 2013, Task Force 473, led by the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, and comprising the destroyer Forbin, frigate Jean de Vienne, and the replenishment oiler Meuse met Carrier Strike Group Ten for an exercise in the Gulf of Oman. Carrier Strike Group Ten comprises the aircraft carrier USS Harry S. Truman, guided-missile cruisers USS Gettysburg and USS San Jacinto and guided-missile destroyers USS Bulkeley, USS Carney, USS Hopper, and USS Mason.
The amphibious group
The French Navy operates four large amphibious ships, which contain smaller landing craft. Aboard are helicopters, troops, and land vehicles (three Mistral-class amphibious assault ships and one Foudre-class ship).
The amphibious groups include one or several landing ships (transports de chalands de débarquement, TCD) containing landing craft (chalands, CDIC and CTM) which allow the projection of inter-arm groups with troops, vehicles and helicopters, and one or several light transport ships (bâtiments de transport léger, BATRAL) which carry motorised infantry companies up to the beaches themselves. They can carry Puma, Cougar and NH-90 Caïman Marine transport helicopters or Gazelle and Tigre combat helicopters, the Commandos Marine, minesweeping units, or Army units.
The TCD Siroco can also carry a field hospital fitted with operation blocks. It may also carry a full headquarters for any national or international command.
Commander French Maritime Forces (COMFRMARFOR) advises ALFAN, the Admiral in command of the Naval Action Force, and when operational at sea commands from the TCDs.
The frigates are the backbone of the French surface fleet. They secure aero-naval space and allow free action to the other components of the Navy. They are specialised according to the threat, typically escorting other forces (aeronaval or amphibious groups, submarines or civil ships).
- The 4 anti-air frigates, 2 Horizon and 2 Cassard types are designed to protect the aeronaval group against air threats. They also carry helicopters which can be used for anti-submarine warfare.
- The 9 anti-submarine frigates (2 F67 + 7 F70 type frigates) are designed to protect the oceanic strategic fleet (FOST, ballistic-missile submarines) and the aeronaval group against submarine threats. They carry towed sonars and helicopters, and have anti-ship and anti-air capabilities.
- The 8 multipurpose frigate (Aquitaine type frigates) are designed to replace the F67 and F70 type fregates. They carry towed sonars and NH-90 Caïman Marine helicopters, and have anti-ship and anti-air capabilities. The 2 last FREMM will be built as FREDA type Fregates, a specific variant with an air-defence derivative of the FREMM.
- The 5 La Fayette-class frigates are used primarily as presence ships, to patrol national and international waters, and to take part in dispute settlement outside of Europe. They can therefore act in cooperation with international intervention, protection, special operation or humanitarian missions. They carry AS565 Panther or Lynx helicopters.
The minesweepers secure major French harbours, especially for the ballistic-missile submarines in Brest, and the attack submarines in Toulon. They also stay available to secure access to Toulon, Marseille, any of the harbours of the Atlantic coast, and any Allied harbour simultaneously.
They are designed to be used within a larger group, interallied or international, in case of mine risks near coasts.
In peace time, these units can bring help and assistance to civilian ships, or search wrecks.
This force includes 1,100 men and:
- 13 minesweepers
- 3 minesweeping diver groups for shallow waters.
- Several sonar ships which secure the area around Brest harbour
- One command and support ship
These vessels secure access to harbours and carry out police missions.
There are six Floréal-class frigates to perform these tasks, mainly by controlling the large French Exclusive Economic Zone, patrolling ocean waters, carrying out police action, and monitoring fishing activities. They are designed to operate in low-risk environments. Five are presently based overseas.
- The A-69 avisos are designed to counter conventional submarines, especially in coastal defence.
The patrol boats of the Gendarmerie Maritime carry out police actions at sea.
The four support ships allow the French naval forces to be present anywhere on the planet, regardless of the remoteness of their bases.
These ships are integrated into tactical groups. They shuttle between harbours and fleets, giving them months of operational capabilities by feeding fuel, ammunition, food, water, spare parts and mail.
There is also one permanent mechanics ship, Jules Verne, which can repair other ships.
Hydrographic and océanographic vessels
One hydro-oceanographic and four hydrographic ships help carrying out mapping and research operations, as well as gathering intelligence which could prove useful to the deployment of naval forces and their weapon systems. They operate under the service hydrographique et océanographique de la marine (SHOM).
The trial and measurement ship Monge is used to develop new weapon systems, especially those related to nuclear deterrence.
- "Historique du Charles de Gaulle (année 2004)" (in French). netmarine.net. 2004. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- Azarro, Cecile (26 March 2011). "Libya op in full swing on French aircraft carrier". Mysinchew.com. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "U.S., French Navies Work Together to Ensure Security, Stability". NNS140104-01. USS Harry S. Truman (CVN 75) Public Affairs. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Ministère de la Défense[dead link]