Ford Anglia

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Ford Anglia
'65 Ford Anglia L200 Coupe (Orange Julep).JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Ford of Britain
Production 1939–67
Assembly Dagenham, England
Halewood, England from 1963
Australia
Body and chassis
Class Subcompact
Layout FR layout
Chronology
Predecessor Ford 7Y
Successor Ford Escort

The Ford Anglia is a British car which was designed and manufactured by Ford in the United Kingdom. It is related to the Ford Prefect and the later Ford Popular. The Anglia name was applied to various models between 1939 and 1967.

A total of 1,594,486 Anglias were produced. It was replaced by the Ford Escort.

Anglia E04A (1939–48)[edit]

Ford Anglia E04A
Ford Anglia Bj ca 1949 Photo 2008 Castle Hedingham.JPG
1946 Ford Anglia E04A 2-door saloon
Overview
Production 1939–48
55,807 units[1]
Assembly United Kingdom
Australia [2]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
2-door tourer (Australia) [2]
2-door roadster (Australia) [2]
Related Ford Prefect
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc I4
1172 cc I4 (export) [1]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 90 in (2,300 mm)[3]
Length 152 inches (3,900 mm)[3]
Width 57 in (1,400 mm)[3]
Height 63 in (1,600 mm)[3]

The patriotically named first Ford Anglia, launched soon after Britain declared war on Germany in early September 1939,[3] and given the internal Ford model code of E04A, was a facelifted version of the Ford 7Y, a simple vehicle aimed at the cheap end of the market, with few features. Most were painted Ford black. Styling was typically late-1930s, with an upright radiator. There were standard and deluxe models, the latter having better instrumentation and, on pre-war models, running boards. Both front and rear suspensions used transverse leaf springs, and the brakes were mechanical.

A bulge at the back enabled a spare wheel to be removed from its vertical outside stowage on the back of the car and stowed flat on the boot floor, which usefully increased luggage space. Some back seat leg room was sacrificed to the luggage space, being reduced from 43¾ inches in the Ford 7Y to 38½ inches in the Anglia.[3]

The domestic market engine was the 933 cc straight-4 side-valve engine familiar to drivers of predecessor models since 1933.[3] The 1172 cc straight-4 engine from the Ford Ten was fitted for some export markets, including North America, where imports began for model year 1948; these cars used the slightly more aerodynamic "three-hole" grille from the 1937-8 Ford Ten 7W, prefacing the 1949 E494A facelift. They also had sealed beam headlights and small, separate parking lights mounted underneath, as well as dual tail lights, into which flashing turn signals could be added without adding additional lights. A minor styling changed was made in December 1947, with the name “Anglia” now incorporated in the top of the grille surround.[2]

The car retained a vacuum-powered wiper with its tendency to slow down or stop above about 40 mph (64 km/h), the point at which the suction effect from the induction manifold disappeared; however, the Anglia's wipers were supported by a vacuum reservoir, which partially addressed the propensity to stop entirely when the car was accelerated.[3]

A contemporary road test commended the Anglia's ability to pull away from 5 or 6 mph (8 or 10 km/h) in top gear.[3] Compulsory driving tests had only recently been introduced in the UK. Most potential buyers would approach the vehicle without the benefit of formal driving tuition. The cars did have synchromesh between second and top gears, but not between first and second,[3] so many would have sought, wherever possible, to avoid en route changes down to first.

The 2-door Anglia is similar to the 4-door E93A Ford Prefect.

Production, hindered by the closure of Ford's factory during the Second World War, ceased in 1948 after a total of 55,807 had been built. Initial sales in Britain actually began in early 1940. Production was suspended in early 1942, and resumed in mid-1945.

The E04A was also built in Australia from 1940 to 1945 and was produced in tourer and roadster body styles.[2] The former had a rear seat and the latter was a two-seater convertible.[2]

Anglia A54A (Australia: 1946–48)[edit]

Ford Anglia A54A
Ford Anglia 4-Door Sedan 1948.JPG
1948 Ford Anglia A54A 4-Door Sedan
Overview
Production 1946–48[4]
Assembly Australia[4]
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door sedan [4]
2-door tourer [4]
2-door coupe utility [4]
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc I4 [4]

The Australian-built Anglia A54A used the chassis and front panels of the English E04A and was offered in 4-door sedan, tourer, coupe utility and panel van body styles.[4] The 8HP 933cc engine was used and all models featured running boards.[4]

Three different types of radiator grille were fitted to A54A models.[4] Both the original and the revised E04A grilles were used and a third style, unique to the A54A, was introduced in 1948.[4] This featured a centrally placed vertical chrome strip.[4]

Anglia E494A (1949–53)[edit]

Ford Anglia E494A
Ford.anglia.bristol.750pix.jpg
1953 Ford Anglia E494A
Overview
Production 1949–53
108,878 units [1]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc I4
Transmission 3 speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 90 in (2,286 mm)[5]
Length 154 in (3,912 mm)[5]
Width 57 in (1,448 mm)[5]
Height 63 in (1,600 mm)[5]

The 1949 model, code E494A, was a makeover of the previous model with a rather more 1940s style front-end, including the sloped, twin-lobed radiator grille. Again it was a very spartan vehicle and in 1948 was Britain's lowest-priced four-wheel car.[5]

An Anglia tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1948 had a top speed of 57 mph (92 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-50 mph (80 km/h) in 38.3 seconds. A fuel consumption of 36.2 miles per imperial gallon (7.8 L/100 km; 30.1 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £309 including taxes.[5]

Including all production, 108,878 were built. When production as an Anglia ceased in 1953, it continued as the extremely basic Ford Popular until 1959.

Delivery vans based on the Anglia supported British commerce for several decades. These "commercial" versions often retained the mechanical components and front sections of superseded Anglia saloons.

Anglia A494A (Australia: 1949–53)[edit]

Ford Anglia A494A
1951 Ford Anglia A494A Tourer.jpg
1951 Ford Anglia A494A Tourer
Overview
Production 1949–53 [6]
Assembly Australia [6]
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door saloon [6]
2-door tourer [6]
2-door coupe utility [6]
2-door roadster utility [6]
Powertrain
Engine 933 cc I4 [6]
1172 cc Straight-4 [6]

The Australian built A494A Anglias of the 1949 to 1953 period shared the frontal styling and 90 inch wheelbase chassis of their English E494A counterparts but differed in many other ways, notably in the range of body styles offered.[6] A494As where produced in 4-door saloon, 2-door tourer, 2-door coupe utility and 2-door roadster utility models.[6] All body styles had running boards, and the boot of the Australian saloon was less prominent than that of the English saloon.[6] The 933cc 8 HP unit was initially the only engine offered, but the 1172 cc 10 HP engine was available from 1950.[6]

At the time of its introduction, the A494A Tourer was the cheapest new car on the Australian market.[6]

1951 Ford Anglia A494A Tourer

Anglia 100E (1953–59)[edit]

Ford Anglia 100E
1960.ford.anglia.100E.arp.750pix.jpg
1960 Ford Anglia 100E
Overview
Production 1953–59
345,841 units [1]
Assembly United Kingdom
Australia [7]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
Related Ford Popular 100E
Ford Prefect 100E
Ford Escort 100E (estate)
Ford Squire 100E (estate)
Thames 300E (van)
Powertrain
Engine 1172 cc Straight-4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 87 in (2,210 mm) [8]
Length 151.75 in (3,854 mm)
Width 60.5 in (1,537 mm)[9]
Height 57.25 in (1,454 mm)[9]
Curb weight 1,624 lb (737 kg)

In 1953, Ford released the 100E, designed by Lacuesta Automotive. It was a completely new car, its style following the example of the larger Ford Consul introduced two years earlier and of its German cousin by featuring a modern three-box design. The 100E was available as a two-door Anglia and a four-door Prefect. During this period, the old Anglia was available as the 103E Popular, touted as the cheapest car in the world.

Internally there were individual front seats trimmed in PVC, hinged to allow access to the rear. The instruments (speedometer, fuel gauge and ammeter) were placed in a cluster around the steering column and the gear change was floor mounted. A heater and radio were optional extras. The dashboard was revised twice; the binnacle surrounding the steering column was replaced by a central panel with twin dials towards the driver's side in 1956; the last from 1959 had twin dials in a binnacle in front of the driver and 'magic ribbon' AC speedo similar to the 1957 E-series Vauxhall Velox/Cresta and '58/'59 PA models, and included a glovebox.

Under the bonnet the 100E still housed an antiquated, but actually new, 36 bhp (27 kW; 36 PS) side-valve engine sharing the bore and stroke of the old unit but now with larger bearings and inlet valves and pump-assisted cooling. The three-speed gearbox was retained. Some models were fitted with a semi-automatic "Manumatic" gearbox. A second wind-screen wiper was now included at no extra cost,[3] although the wipers' vacuum-powered operation was also retained: by now this was seen as seriously old-fashioned and the wipers were notorious for slowing down when driving up steep hills, or coming to a complete rest when trying to overtake. The separate chassis construction of the previous models was replaced by unitary construction and the front suspension used MacPherson struts,[10] with anti-roll bar and semi-elliptic leaf springs at the rear. The car's 87-inch (2,200 mm) wheelbase was the shortest of any Anglia, but the front and rear track were increased to 48 inches (1,200 mm), and cornering on dry roads involved a degree of understeer:[3] the steering took just two turns between locks, making the car responsive and easy to place on the road, although on wet roads it was too easy to make the tail slide out.[3] A rare option for 1957 and 1958 was Newtondrive clutchless gearchange. The electrical system became 12 volt.

A facelift of the Anglia 100E was announced in October 1957.[11] This included a new mesh radiator grille, new front lamp surrounds, a larger rear window, larger tail lights and chrome bumpers.[12]

The 100E sold well; by the time production ceased in 1959, 345,841 had rolled off the production line. There were from 1955 two estate car versions, similar to the 300E vans but fitted with side windows, folding rear seats and a horizontally split tailgate. This necessitated relocating the fuel tank. These were the basic Escort and better appointed Squire, which sported wood trim down the sides. This feature has become a common feature of some Ford estates/station wagons ever since. The basic van variant was badged as a Thames product, as were all Ford commercials following the dropping of the Fordson badge.

An Anglia saloon tested by the British Motor magazine in 1954 had a top speed of 70.2 mph (113.0 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 29.4 seconds. A fuel consumption of 30.3 miles per imperial gallon (9.3 L/100 km; 25.2 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £511 including taxes.[9]

Anglia 105E (1959–68)[edit]

Ford Anglia 105E
1967.ford.anglia.arp.750pix.jpg
1967 Ford Anglia 105E
Overview
Production 1959–67
1,004,737 units[1]
Assembly United Kingdom
Broadmeadows, Australia [13]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
3-door estate car
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 997 cc I4
Dimensions
Wheelbase 91 in (2,311 mm)[8]
Length 154 in (3,912 mm)[14][15]
Width 56 in (1,422 mm)[14]
Height 56 in (1,422 mm)[14]
Curb weight 1,624 lb (737 kg) (saloon)

The fourth Anglia model, the 105E, was introduced in 1959. Its American-influenced styling included a sweeping nose line, and on deluxe versions, a full-width slanted chrome grille in between prominent "eye" headlamps. (Basic Anglias featured a narrower, painted grille.[16]) Its smoothly sloped line there looked more like a 1950s Studebaker (or even early Ford Thunderbird) than the more aggressive-looking late-'50s American Fords, possibly because its British designers used wind-tunnel testing and streamlining[citation needed]. Like late-'50s Lincolns and Mercurys and the Citroën Ami of France, the car sported a backward-slanted rear window (so that it would remain clear in rain, according to contemporary marketing claims). In fact, this look was imported from the 1958 Lincoln Continental,[17] where it had been the accidental result of a design specification for an electrically opening (breezeway) rear window. As well as being used, by Ford, on the Consul Classic, this look was also copied by Bond, Reliant and Invacar, for their three wheelers[citation needed]. The resulting flat roofline gave it excellent rear headroom[citation needed]. It had muted tailfins, much toned-down from its American counterparts[citation needed]. An estate car joined the saloon in the line-up in September 1961. The instrument panel had a red light for the generator and a green one for the oil pressure.[18]

The new styling was matched by a new engine, something that the smaller Fords had been needing for some time—a 997 cc overhead-valve straight-4 with an oversquare cylinder bore, that became known by its "Kent" code name. Acceleration from rest was still sluggish (by the standards of today), but it was much improved from earlier cars. Also new for British Fords was a four-speed (manual) gearbox with synchromesh on the top three forward ratios: this was replaced by an all-synchromesh box in September 1962 (on 1198 powered cars).[16] The notoriously feeble vacuum-powered windscreen wiper set-up of earlier Anglias was replaced with (by now) more conventional windscreen wipers powered by their own electric motor.[16] The Macpherson strut independent front suspension used on the 100E was retained.

In October 1962, twenty-four-year-old Tony Brookes (See also Ford Corsair GT) and a group of friends took a private Anglia 105e fitted with the Ford £13 Performance Kit to Montlhery Autodrome near Paris and captured 6 International Class G World Records averaging 83.47 mph (134.33 km/h). These were 4,5,6 and 7 days and nights and 15,000, and 20,000 kilometres. The Anglia's strength and durability meant that no repairs were required whatsoever other than tyre changes.

The car's commercial success has subsequently been overshadowed by the even greater sales achieved by the Cortina: in 1960, when 191,752 Anglias left Ford's Dagenham plant in the 105E's first full production year, it set a new production-volume record for the Ford Motor Company.[16] From October 1963, production continued at Ford's new Halewood plant at Merseyside alongside the newly introduced Corsair models. The Anglia Super introduced in September 1962 for the 1963 model year shared the longer stroke 1198 cc version of the Ford Kent 997 cc engine of the newly introduced Ford Cortina.[16] The Anglia Super was distinguished by its painted contrasting-coloured side stripe.[16]

A new Anglia saloon tested by the British Motor magazine in 1959 had a top speed of 73.8 mph (118.8 km/h) and could accelerate from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in 26.9 seconds. A fuel consumption of 41.2 miles per imperial gallon (6.86 L/100 km; 34.3 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost £610 including taxes of £180.[14]

The old 100E Anglia became the new 100E Popular and the four-door Prefect bodyshell remained available as the new Ford Prefect (107E) which had all 105E running gear, including engine and brakes, while the 100E Escort and Squire remained available, unchanged. In 1961 the Escort and Squire were replaced by the 105E Anglia estate. Both cars are popular with hot rodders to this day[citation needed], helped by the interchangeability of parts and the car's tuning potential[citation needed]. The 100E delivery van also gave way to a new vehicle based on the 105E. Identical to the Anglia 105E back to the B post, the rest of the vehicle was entirely new.

Anglia Torino 105E (1965–67)[edit]

Ford Anglia Torino 105E
Ford Anglia Torino 1964-1967 vvl.JPG
Ford Anglia Torino 105E
Overview
Production 1965–67 [19]
Assembly Italy
Belgium [19]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
Powertrain
Engine 997 cc I4 [19]

The Anglia Torino 105E was developed by the Italian subsidiary of Ford, using the chassis and mechanical components of the 105E Saloon, with new body panels.[19] The Torino was styled by Giovanni Michelotti and built by Officine Stampaggi Industriali.[19] 10,007 examples were sold in Italy and the model was also marketed in Belgium, Holland and Luxembourg.[19]

Ford Anglia Torino 105E

Anglia Super 123E (1962–67)[edit]

Ford Anglia Super 123E
Ford Anglia 123E Super.jpg
1966 Ford Anglia Super 123E Sedan
Overview
Production 1962–67
79,223 units[1]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
3-door estate car
2-door panel van
Powertrain
Engine 1198 cc I4

From 1962, the 123E Anglia Super was available alongside the 105E, replacing the last of the line of Prefects, with a larger 1198 cc engine and other refinements.

The same car was also sold in Europe. One Europe-only variant was the Anglia Sportsman, which carried its spare tyre on the back, somewhat similar to the continental kit often seen in the United States. Chrome bumper overriders, broad whitewall tyres, and optionally a side stripe kicking up at the end into the tail-lights/fin were also fitted.

Towards the end of the run Ford experimented with two colours of metallic paint on the Anglia, "Blue Mink" and "Venetian Gold". 250 were made in the Blue and 500 were made in the Gold.

Anglia saloons were provided with various levels of trim. The base model was the Standard, and this sported no chromework, painted rear light surrounds, steel slatted grille and limited interior trim. The deluxe had a chrome side strip, chrome rear lights, glovebox lid, sun visor and full width chrome radiator grille. The top of the range was the Super, which had twin chrome side strips, contrasting coloured roof and side flash, plusher interior trim, together with the 1198 cc engine and a gearbox with synchromesh on first gear.

Optional extras were the mechanical upgrade of a Deluxe to a Super, retaining the Deluxe trim, or the upgrade of a Deluxe to a Super trim, but retaining the 997 cc engine, an option rarely taken up.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

  • On BBC television the popular Z-Cars serial mimicked the real life police forces' adoption of small patrol cars, known as Panda Cars due to their duck egg blue paintwork with a broad vertical white stripe running right over the doors and roof. Ford supplied 105E Anglias to appear alongside the Zephyrs.
  • On the ITV programme Heartbeat, Ford Anglias were popularly used as police cars.
  • On his 1980s TV-am series Rat on the Road[20] and later shows,[21] puppet character Roland Rat and his friends' "RatMobile" was a 1950s Ford Anglia painted bright pink.[20]
  • A turquoise 105E car prominently featured in J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, as Arthur Weasley's car, which he charmed to give it the capabilities of flight, invisibility and extra loading capacity. Ron later crashes the Anglia into the Whomping Willow attempting, along with Harry, to reach Hogwarts on time after missing the Hogwarts Express. Angry at its mistreatment the car runs into the Forbidden Forest where it lives wild until later when it rescues Harry and Ron from giant spiders. The car is later referenced in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire when Harry recalls that it is running wild in the Forbidden Forest.
  • The character of Vyvyan in the BBC comedy The Young Ones owned a yellow Ford Anglia with flames painted along the sides.
  • Jaret, lead singer of Bowling for Soup, drives one in the video for The Bitch Song. It also makes a brief appearance in the follow-up , Girl All the Bad Guys Want.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Sedgwick, M.; Gillies (1989). A-Z of Cars 1945–1970. Devon, UK: Bay View Books. ISBN 1-870979-39-7. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bill Ballard, English and Australian Small Fords: Recognition and Restoration, 2003, pages 54–55
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Howard, Geoffrey (29 April 1971). "Design Progress: Small Fords". Autocar. 134. (nbr 3918): 9, 10–12. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bill Ballard, English and Australian Small Fords: Recognition and Restoration, 2003, page 62
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The Ford Anglia 8hp Road Test". The Motor. October 27, 1948. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Bill Ballard, English and Australian Small Fords: Recognition and Restoration, 2003, pages 70–71
  7. ^ Norm Darwin, The History of Ford in Australia, 1986, page 101
  8. ^ a b Culshaw; Horrobin (1974). Complete Catalogue of British Cars. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-16689-2. 
  9. ^ a b c "The Ford Anglia". The Motor. May 26, 1954. 
  10. ^ "Ford Anglia Saloon (road test)". Autocar. October 2, 1952 ""Pillar units incorporating hydraulic telescopic dampers and coil springs are used at the front...". The term "McPherson strut had not yet entered the public lexicon. 
  11. ^ Ford 1957, www.classiccarcatalogue.com Retrieved on 11 October 2013
  12. ^ Ford Anglia Saloon Model 100E, www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au Retrieved on 11 October 2013
  13. ^ New Anglia Here, Australian Motors Sports, February 1960, page 49
  14. ^ a b c d "The new Ford Anglia". The Motor. September 10, 1959. 
  15. ^ "1960 Ford (U.K.) Anglia 105E-123E Saloon performance data, specs & photo". Automobile-catalog.com. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f Mullins, John (March 1985). "Time Machines: Little belter: Ford Anglia 1959–1967". Drive (Magazine of the British Automobile Association) 116: 18–19. 
  17. ^ "Classic Ford Anglia 105E". Telegraph. 4 January 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  18. ^ "Dash Layouts | Ford Anglia 105E Owners' Club". Fordanglia105eownersclub.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-11-20. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Ford Anglia 105E Torino, www.anglia-models.co.uk Retrieved on 7 October 2013
  20. ^ a b http://www.jedisparadise.co.uk/3/Rat_On_The_Road.htm
  21. ^ http://www.80snostalgia.com/roland-rat-the-series/