Ford Granada (Europe)

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For an unrelated vehicle marketed under the same name in North America, see Ford Granada (North America).
Ford Granada
Ford granada ghia x.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Production Cologne: 1972–1994
Dagenham: 1972–1976[1]
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Zephyr & Zodiac
Ford 17M/20M/26M
Successor Ford Scorpio

The European Ford Granada is a large executive car which was manufactured by Ford Europe from 1972 until 1994.

The first generation model was produced from 1972 to 1976 at Ford’s German factory in Cologne and at its British factory in Dagenham. In 1976 production switched entirely to Germany. The original version was replaced in 1977 by a second generation model which was produced until 1985. From 1985 to 1994 the Granada name was used, in the United Kingdom only, for a third generation model which was sold in other European markets as the Ford Scorpio.

Mark I (1972–1977)[edit]

Mark I
Ford Granada Mark I (Europe).jpg
Overview
Also called Ford Consul
Production 1972–1977
Assembly Cologne, Germany[2]
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
2-door coupé
Powertrain
Engine 1699 cc V4 Europe
1996 cc V4 UK
1993 cc I4
2293 cc V6 Europe
2494 cc V6 UK
2551 cc V6 Europe
2994 cc V6 UK
4942 cc V8 ZA
Transmission 4-speed manual all-synchromesh
Dimensions
Wheelbase 107 in (2,718 mm) [3]
Length 180 in (4,572 mm)
Width 70.5 in (1,791 mm)
Height 53.9 in (1,369 mm)[4]
Curb weight 1,190 kg (2,624 lb) -
1,430 kg (3,153 lb)
Ford Consul four-door. The less well-equipped Consul featured its own distinctive grill and was badged as a Ford Consul: from 1975 the entire range was called "Granada".
Ford Consul, two-door saloon.

The March 1972 released Granada succeeded the British Ford Zephyr, and the German P7-series as Ford's European executive car offering. At first, lower models in the range were called the Ford Consul. This may have been because of a lawsuit by Granada Group a major British conglomerate of the time; however their application for an injunction failed at appeal and they could not prevent Ford registering the name Granada as a trademark[5] thus from 1975 on they were all called Granadas. The car soon became popular for taxi, fleet and police usage. It was also converted into limousine and hearse versions by the British companies Coleman Milne and Woodall Nicholson. Traditional four-door limousines were offered (both long and short versions) alongside an unusual four-door "coupé limousine" (only 12 built),[6] as well as hearses in either two- or four-door configurations.[7]

Ford Granada Mark I Estate

Mechanically, the European Granada conformed to Ford convention, the initial range using the Ford Essex V4 unit in 2.0 L displacement, and the "Essex" V6 engine in 2.5 and 3.0 L capacities. German models employed a Ford Taunus V4 engine in 1.7 L displacement, or the 3.0L Essex V6, or, more commonly the "Cologne" V6 in 2.0, 2.3 or 2.6 L capacities. The V4 was later replaced by the Pinto unit. The car generally followed mechanical layout of its predecessors Ford Zephyr/Zodiac, utilizing a coil sprung independent rear end, although front McPherson struts were replaced by double wishbones, introduced 18 months earlier in smaller TC Cortina and Taunus. On the other hand the Granada – like Ford 17M/20M/26M – featured drum brakes at rear, as opposed to the Ford Zephyr/Zodiac rear disc brakes.

Ford Granada Mark I coupé, later version

The car was available as a four-door saloon, a five-door estate (Turnier) and a two-door fastback coupé. The early (1972–73) coupé had slightly different sheet metal; a more pronounced coke bottle styling. In 1974 the coupé was revised, with more straight lines. A two-door saloon joined the range in May 1973,[8] reducing the entry level advertised German price of the car by 415 Marks, but the two-door saloon version was never produced nor officially sold in the UK. A revised coupé was sold only in Ghia-trim in the UK; elsewhere in all trims with all engines available. This was the reverse of the situation with the TC Cortina and Taunus, where the British model had the "coke-bottle" styling.

In South Africa, the Granada Perana V8, built by Basil Green Motors, was available through Ford dealers with the 302 cu in (4.9 L) Windsor V8 engine, developing 255 PS (188 kW; 252 hp) and 405 N·m (299 lb·ft) at 2,600 rpm.[9]

Mark II (1977–1985)[edit]

Mark II
1982 Ford Granada 2.8 Ghia X.jpg
Overview
Production 1977–1985
Assembly Cologne, Germany[2]
Taiwan (Ford Lio Ho)[10]
Ulsan, South Korea (Hyundai)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
Powertrain
Engine Petrol:
1,593 cc I4 75 hp[11]
1,699 cc V4 70-73 hp[12]
1,993 cc I4 99-101 hp[13]
1,999 cc V6 90 hp[11]
2,293 cc V6 108-114 hp[14]
2,792 cc V6 135-160 hp[13]
Diesel
1,948 cc I4 54 hp (Peugeot)[15]
2,112 cc I4 63 hp (Peugeot) [11]
2,498 cc I4 69 hp (Peugeot) [16]
Transmission 4-speed manual all-synchromesh, 5-speed manual all-synchromesh, 3-speed auto
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,769 mm (109.0 in)[14]
Length 4,720 mm (186 in)[14]
(Saloon)
4,824 mm (189.9 in)[17] (Estate/Turnier)
Width 1,791 mm (70.5 in) [14]
Height 1,416 mm (55.7 in)[14]
(Saloon)
1,422 mm (56.0 in)[17] (Estate/Turnier)

The square and straight-lined Granada '78 appeared in August 1977 and was produced until April 1985 following a mild facelift and attention to drivetrain NVH in 1982. It was a development of the previous car, the main differences being the "Cologne" V6 engine in 2.0 L, 2.3 L and 2.8 L forms replacing the older "Essex" unit (which had never been offered in the Cologne built Granadas), and the introduction of features such as air conditioning and, for the top-price 2.8-litre versions, fuel-injection. In mainland Europe, a 1.7 L V4 was originally available. By the time of its introduction, UK Granada production had been quietly abandoned "for some time": UK market Granada IIs were imported from Germany.[18] Internally within Ford, the "Cologne" 1.7, 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 units were the last derivatives of the 'V-Taunus' range of engines.

Although most surviving Granada MkIIs feature a body coloured grill, the earlier cars came with a simple black grill regardless of body colour
1980 Ford Granada two-door
1981 Ford Granada Estate: the design of the rear portion was carried over from the Mark I Granada estate

The coupé was discontinued when the new model began production, although there was a two-door saloon version in certain European markets. A relatively low number of vehicles were also produced with an Indenor four-cylinder diesel engine in 1.9-, 2.1- and 2.5-litre capacities.[19] Originally only available as four-door sedans (the later 2.5 also as an estate), most of these went to taxi operators, and few survive. The smallest 1.9 was quite underpowered and was soon replaced by the somewhat more powerful 2.1, which was presented as the "Granada GLD" in March 1979 at Geneva.[20] By 1982, this was replaced by the more capable 2.5.[19]

As the range matured another two models were introduced. A sports based Granada was introduced as the Granada 2.8 Injection which had white alloy wheels and a black bootlid spoiler. This model borrowed the 2.8i "injected" engine from the Ghia model range. Towards the end of its production run, the introduction of the 2.0 and 2.3 LX saloon and estate UK marketing packs provided versions with a slightly higher specification than the "base" L models.

A special Ford of Britain only marketing pack edition of the Ghia X model was later introduced as the "Ford Granada Ghia X Executive" which standardised luxury appointments such as the high grade Connolly Leather interior that had previously been an optional fitment. Further refinements such an electric sunroof, electric opening boot on saloons, electric seat adjustment, heated seats, trip computer and air conditioning set the Granada Ghia X above most other cost comparable executive cars available in the UK in the early eighties. There was also a special "Taxi" edition, available only in black, which included a foot-operated "panic button" in the drivers' footwell which would operate the alarm system. In addition to these two models the range was complemented by estate models which reflected the same appointment levels as the entire saloon range including the Ghia X, but not the Ghia X Executive model.

Special models[edit]

Ford subcontracted assembly to Hyundai Motor Company in South Korea for sales in that market, where it continued to be sold from October 1978 to 1986 when it gave way to the Hyundai Grandeur instead of smaller European Fords like the Sierra and Escort. Production ended in December 1985, after 4,743 had been built.[21] The car originally received a 2.0-liter V6 engine with a 2-barrel Solex carburetor,[22] but after 1980 the more economical 2-litre four-cylinder was also available. The Granada competed with the Saehan Rekord as well as the Peugeot 604, imported by Kia Motors. Chung Mong-pil, the eldest son of Hyundai's founder Chung Ju-yung, died in a car accident in a Granada.[21]

Additionally, hearses were offered by outside conversion companies, as well as a series of four-door limousines built by Coleman Milne.[23] These included the slightly stretched "Minster" 15 cm, and the 68 cm longer "Dorchester" and better equipped "Grosvenor". As of autumn 1982 the Dorchester was also available in an estate version with elongated rear doors, called the "Windsor".[24]

Mark III (1985–1994)[edit]

Main article: Ford Scorpio
Ford Granada Mark III
Ford Granada Mark III 24v Cosworth

In April 1985 the third-generation car arrived, which was essentially a rebadged Ford Scorpio, the Granada name being used in both Ireland and the United Kingdom only, with the Scorpio badge (which covered the whole range in Continental Europe) being reserved for the top-range versions. The Mark III Granada was the first European volume production model to have anti-lock brakes fitted as standard across the range.

Engine options included the familiar SOHC Pinto engine, in either tax-barrier undercutting 1.8 L form, or a more powerful 2-litre version with fuel injection available. The Cologne V6 engines were carried over from the previous range in short-lived (and not much more powerful than the 2 L Pinto) 2.4 L, and 2.8 L (later 2.9 L) capacities. In 1991 A new range-topping vehicle was introduced, the Scorpio 24-valve. It featured a 2.9 L Cologne engine that had been extensively re-worked by Cosworth Engineering and featured quad camshafts and 24 valves, enough for 200 bhp (150 kW). According to Ford this gave a 0-60 mph time of 8.1 seconds and top speed of 140 mph (230 km/h).

This version of the Granada continued the "Ford family" styling concept from the previous versions; this time the car superficially resembled a larger version of the Cortina's successor, the Ford Sierra.

The Ford Granada Mk III was the last car to bear the iconic Granada badge in the UK & Ireland being replaced in 1994 with the Pan-European Scorpio. The Scorpio shared its platform doors and roof with the Mk III Granada and these elements of the cars design were unremarkable. The styling of the nose and tail sections suffered from the application of the Ford Ovoid design school being used across the Ford range in the 1990s. On the Scorpio this appeared as a large gaping mouth, ‘bug’ eyed headlights and a bulbous boot. A 1998 redesign did nothing to save it from being axed the same year with total European sales only 95,587 units.

Decline[edit]

Ford Europe had traditionally achieved success with the policy of minimal investment in an old model to launch an exciting, faster and better equipped new model. With the Scorpio (and the 1991 Escort) Ford seemed to get the investment balance wrong, which when allied to the unpopular styling caused their long term exit from this market segment in Europe.

High end Ford ownership in Europe meant being able to afford performance and equipment levels which were otherwise the preserve of premium brand vehicles at a far higher price. With the Scorpio Ford seemed to neglect this concept. Evidence of this can be seen when comparing the specification of a 1984 Ford Granada 2.8i Ghia X Executive designed in the 1970s and a Scorpio Ultima designed in the 1990s; the additional equipment for that decade-long gap is ABS, an airbag, and a CD player.

It should be acknowledged that most volume manufactures have, in common with Ford, failed to maintain a position in the executive car sector in Europe. With the Opel/Vauxhall Omega, Peugeot 607 all being axed and not replaced. One cause of this is the increasing accessibility of premium brands such as BMW and Mercedes. As consumers become more aspirational it may be seen as more desirable to have even a lesser equipped luxury car than a well equipped volume car.

References[edit]

  1. ^ By 1977 the cars, still badged as Granadas were assembled only in Germany. After 1985 cars were badged as Granadas for the UK and as Scorpios in mainland Europe: they were still produced only in Germany.
  2. ^ a b "Facilities". Ford Motor Company Newsroom. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  3. ^ Culshaw; Horrobin (1974). Complete Catalogue of British Cars. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-16689-2. 
  4. ^ "New BIG Fords". Autocar. 136. (nbr 3960): pages 6–11. 9 March 1972. 
  5. ^ "Granada Group Ltd v Ford Motor Company Ltd [1973] RPC 49 797". 
  6. ^ Martin Alford ("Albert S. Bite") on flickr.com
  7. ^ Auto Katalog 1978. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1977. p. 67. 
  8. ^ "Neue Basis: Ford Consul 1700 als Zweiturer". Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft. 10 1973. 16 May 1973. 
  9. ^ "Granada Perana". http://www.africanmusclecars.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  10. ^ "Facilities | Ford Motor Company Newsroom". Media.ford.com. Retrieved 2010-07-27. 
  11. ^ a b c World Cars 1982. Pelham, NY: The Automobile Club of Italy/Herald Books. 1982. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0-910714-14-2. 
  12. ^ Auto Katalog 1978. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1977. pp. 27–28, 180–181. 
  13. ^ a b "Ford Granada: Ford play safe with no major chassis changes in Granada's replacement, but all-new body with better safety and driver visibility. Smaller, lighter German V6 adopted for British market in 2.3 and 2.8-litre forms. In South Africa the 3.0 Essex V6 was still used to power the top of the range models. Four-cylinder 2-litre retained for lowest powered versions....". Autocar. 147. (nbr4217): Pages 22–28. 3 September 1977. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "Vergleichstest: Neu Mitte .... Ford Granada L 2.3". Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft. 26 1977: Seite 32–47. 21 December 1977. 
  15. ^ Mazzocchi, Gianni, ed. (March 1979). "Il mercato dell'automobile - Prezzi vetture straniere nuove" [The Car Market: New Import Car Prices]. Quattroruote (in Italian) (Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus) 24 (280): 203. 
  16. ^ Auto Katalog 1983. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1982. pp. 34, 204–205. 
  17. ^ a b "Test: Ford Granada 2.8 GLS Turnier". Auto Motor u. Sport. Heft. 26 1977: Seite 32–47. 21 December 1977. 
  18. ^ "Lots new at show of the year". Autocar: Pages 22–24. 17 September 1977. 
  19. ^ a b Mazzocchi, Gianni, ed. (April 1984). "Estere usate" [Used Imports]. Quattroruote (in Italian) (Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus) 29 (342): 268. 
  20. ^ Mazzocchi, Gianni, ed. (March 1979). "Due nuove Ford "Granada"" [Two New Ford Granadas]. Quattroruote (in Italian) (Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus) 24 (280): 71. 
  21. ^ a b Lee, Ho-jeong (2009-11-30). "Blast From the Past #10: Long before the gallop of Equus, Granada was Korea’s luxury car". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2011-06-27. 
  22. ^ Korean Car World
  23. ^ Costa, Andre & Georges-Michel Fraichard, ed. (September 1, 1982). Salon 1983: Toutes les Voitures du Monde (in French) (Paris: l'Auto Journal) (14-15): 210. 
  24. ^ Auto Katalog 1984. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. 1983. pp. 84, 216–217. 

External links[edit]