Moku'ume'ume (Island of Attraction)
Poka ʻAilana (Ford Island)
Water-depth map of Pearl Harbor
|Adjacent bodies of water||East, Loch, Pearl Harbor|
|Area||441 acres (178 ha)|
|Length||1.5 mi (2.4 km)|
|Width||0.75 mi (1.21 km)|
|Population||368 (as of 2000)|
Ford Island (Hawaiian: Poka ʻAilana) is an islet in the center of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, in the US state of Hawaii. It has been known as Rabbit Island, Marín's Island, and Little Goats Island, and its native Hawaiian name is Mokuʻumeʻume. The island had an area of 334 acres (135 ha) when it was surveyed in 1825, which was increased during the 1930s to 441 acres (178 ha) by the United States Navy with landfill from the dredging of Pearl Harbor.
It was the site of an ancient Hawaiian fertility ritual, which was stopped by Christian missionaries during the 1830s. The island was given by King Kamehameha to Spanish deserter Francisco de Paula Marín, and later returned to the king. After the island was bought at auction by James L. Dowsett and sold to Caroline Jackson, it became the property of Dr. Seth Porter Ford by marriage and was renamed Ford Island. After Ford's death, his son sold the island to the John Papa Īī estate and it was converted into a sugarcane plantation.
In 1916 part of Ford island was sold to the US Army for use by an aviation division in Hawaii, and by 1939 it was taken over by the US Navy as a station for battleship and submarine maintenance. From the 1910s to the 1940s, the island continued to grow as a strategic center of operations for the US Navy in the Pacific Ocean. Japan feared an attack by the United States, and Ford Island was at the center of the attacks on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese fleet on 7 December 1941. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, and as of 2011 the National Trust for Historic Preservation has listed the island as one of the US's most-endangered historic sites.
By the late 1990s hundreds of millions of dollars had been invested in real-estate development and infrastructure, including a new bridge. Ford Island continues to serve an active role in the Pacific, hosting military functions at the Pacific Warfighting Center and civilian functions at NOAA's Pacific Tsunami Warning Center. The island has been featured in films such as Tora! Tora! Tora! and Pearl Harbor, and receives tourists from the US and abroad at the USS Arizona memorial and the USS Missouri museum.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Flora and fauna
- 3 History
- 4 Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Ford Island
- 5 Memorials and museums
- 6 Film and television
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Ford Island is in the center of the East Loch of Pearl Harbor. It is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long and 0.75 miles (1.21 km) wide, and was enlarged from 334 to 441 acres (135 to 178 ha) between 1930 and 1940 with landfill dredged from Pearl Harbor. The land rises between 5 to 15 feet (1.5 to 4.6 m) above mean water level, and slopes toward Pearl Harbor. The island is mostly flat, with a 4,000-foot (1,200 m) runway down its center. It connects to Oʻahu, the larger island surrounding Pearl Harbor, via a 4,672-foot (1,424 m) bridge at its northern tip which crosses east to Halawa Landing.
The island's soil is composed primarily of volcanic material, lagoonal deposits and coralline debris, with silty sand from the dredging. Its volcanic material is Aeolian ash, weathered tuff and basalt. Ford Island proper is a coral outcrop. There are two smaller islets near the island: Mokunui and Mokuiki.
In 1991 the Navy discovered nine metals, two semi-volatile organic compounds and a polychlorinated biphenyl in Ford Island's soil, groundwater and marine sediment. Suspected sources were nine 225,000-US-gallon (850,000 l; 187,000 imp gal) fuel tanks on the east-central side of the island (from 1924 to 1954), a 4.4-acre (1.8 ha) landfill on the southwestern shore (from 1930 to 1960) and ordnance bunkers on the northeastern side. An investigation suggested covering the contaminated areas with clean soil. In 1994 the Navy considered removing the contaminated soil and installed six wells to monitor groundwater, but decided to follow the original recommendation in 1995 and capped the contaminated soil with topsoil and erosion-resistant vegetation (including Bermuda grass). The containment system was completed in 1996.
Flora and fauna
Wildlife on Ford Island is sparse and dominated by invasive species such as the house mouse, mongoose, brown rat, black rat, house sparrow, Java sparrow and common myna. An endangered owl, the endemic pueo (a subspecies of the short-eared owl), has been seen hunting on the island. Its harbor was important to ancient Hawaiians for its ample supply of fish, including mullet, milkfish and Hawaiian anchovy. During the late 1700s, Francisco de Paula Marín introduced edible cacti from California to the island.
Ancient Hawaiians called the island Mokuʻumeʻume ("isle of attraction"), after the ceremony for childless couples (ʻume) held during the Makahiki festival. In some literature, the ceremony is considered a game. Designed to help childless couples conceive, it was forbidden to virgins and unmarried Hawaiians. Those selected for ʻume would sing around a large bonfire while a tribal leader with a maile (wand) chanted, touching individual men and women. Those who were touched would find a secluded part of the island to have sex. Husbands and wives were not paired, and jealousy was discouraged. Children born of these unions were considered children of the husband, not the biological father. By 1830, this activity was forbidden by Christian missionaries.
The native Hawaiian people of the area were called Ke Awalau o Puʻuloa. According to Hawaiian legend, the goddess Kaʻahupāhau killed a girl on the island; remorseful, she then proclaimed a law forbidding further killing. Kaʻahupāhau's brother Kahiʻukā (sometimes referred to by historians as her son, Kūmaninini) was said to live in an underwater cavern off Ford Island with Kanekuaʻana, a giant water lizard which supplied food to the people of ʻEwa Beach.
Although no historical records provide an exact date, researchers at the Hawaiian Historical Society believe that the island was given to Francisco de Paula Marín on 9 February 1818 and later named after him for his assistance in providing weapons used by King Kamehameha I to conquer the island of Oʻahu. However, Marín wrote in an 1809 journal entry that he was given the island and its adjacent fishing waters as early as 1791. He used the land to raise sheep, hogs, goats and rabbits as provisions for ships, growing plants and vegetables which he had imported.
In 1825 Lord Byron arrived, commanding the HMS Blonde, to map the Pearl River (known today as Pearl Harbor). The ship's naturalist, Andrew Bloxam, spent time on Ford Island hunting rabbits and wild ducks; its surveyor, Lieutenant Charles Robert Malden, called it Rabbits Island. In 1826, Hiram Paulding became the first American naval officer to visit the island. Marín's ownership claim to the island was cloudy; Hawaiians generally refused to recognize land ownership by foreigners, King Kamehameha IV believed that he had loaned the island to Marín and by the 1850s the island was split between King Kamehameha IV— who owned 214 acres (87 ha)—and Princess Kekauōnohi, granddaughter of Kamehameha I, who owned 147 acres (59 ha). On 28 August 1865 the island was bought at public auction for $1,040 by James L. Dowsett, who sold it to Caroline Jackson for $1 on 28 December.
Dr. Seth Porter Ford arrived in 1851 from Boston, and practiced medicine at the US Seamen's Hospital. Ford married Jackson in June 1866, taking control of the island. When Ford died it was transferred to his son, Seth Porter Ford, Jr., who sold the island to the John Papa Īī estate.
Sugar had been a major export from Hawaii since Captain James Cook's arrival in 1778. During the 1850s the US import tariff on sugar from Hawaii was much higher than the import tariffs Hawaiians were charging the US, and King Kamehameha III sought reciprocity.
As early as 1873, a United States military commission recommended attempting to obtain Ford Island in exchange for the tax-free importation of sugar to the US. At that time Major General John Schofield, US commander of the military division of the Pacific, and Brevet Brigadier General Burton S. Alexander arrived in Hawaii to ascertain its defensive capabilities. US control of Hawaii was considered vital for the defense of the west coast of the United States and they were especially interested in Pu'uloa, Pearl Harbor. Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs Charles Reed Bishop, who had proposed the sale of one of Hawaii's harbors and owned a country home near Pu'uloa, showed the two US officers around the lochs. His wife, Bernice Pauahi Bishop, privately disagreed with the selling of Hawaiian lands but remained silent. The Hawaiian king, William Charles Lunalilo, was content to let Bishop run almost all business affairs but the cession would became unpopular with the native Hawaiians. Since they thought that all the islands, rather than just Pearl Harbor, might be lost they opposed any cession of land. By November 1873, Lunalilo canceled negotiations. The king returned to drinking, against his doctor's advice; his health declined swiftly, and he died on February 3, 1874.
Lunalilo left no heirs, and the legislature elected David Kalākaua the next monarch. He was forced by American property owners to dismiss his cabinet ministers and sign a new constitution which greatly lessened his power. Kalākaua was also pressured by the US government to surrender Pearl Harbor to the Navy. The king was concerned that this would lead to total annexation by the US, opposing the traditions of the Hawaiian people (who believed that the land was fertile, sacred and could not be owned by anyone).
At the end of the seven-year reciprocity agreement, the United States showed little interest in renewal. However, with Californian support (because the state had profited from the import of sugar) King Kalākaua again approached Congress. When the United States still seemed uninterested in reciprocity, he threatened to forge more favorable export agreements with Australia or New Zealand. In 1875, the United States Congress agreed to an additional seven years of reciprocity in exchange for Ford Island. Congress feared that a treaty between Hawaii and Australia or New Zealand would result in annexation by one of those countries instead of the United States. Although Kalākaua was loath to give any foreign country land in Hawaii, in 1887 he signed the treaty.
The Oahu Sugar Company (also known as the Oahu Sugar Cane Plantation) leased about 300 acres (120 ha) from the John Papa Īī estate to harvest sugar in 1899. The business was successful, and the company sublet land from Benjamin Dillingham on the Waipi'o peninsula (southeast of present Waipio) to build a 12-roller mill and railroad. Sugarcane was grown and harvested on Ford Island with a network of aqueducts from freshwater reservoirs, transported to Waipio by barge and then by rail to the mills.
In 1902, the nearby estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop lost a crucial lawsuit brought by the United States to purchase land around Pearl Harbor for below its market value. Although the Bishop estate valued the land at $600 per acre, the United States was only willing to pay $30 per acre. A jury determined that the land would be sold to the United States at $75 per acre. Facing a similar lawsuit and interest in its land on Ford Island, the John Papa Īī estate settled with the United States to deed twenty-five acres at no cost. In exchange, the US dropped its suit for the entire island.
The military leased sections of the north and south sides of the island—25.83 acres (10.45 ha) for $3,000—to build 6-inch (15 cm) gun batteries: Battery Boyd and Battery Henry Adair. The United States purchased the island in 1917.
Army Air Service
In 1917, the 6th Aero Squadron was created in Honolulu, Hawaii, with Captain John F. Currey as its Commander. Although 50 personnel were assigned, only 49 arrived; one deserted en route. Currey choose Ford Island as the location for the new squadron and bought the island from the John Papa Īī estate for $236,000, citing its access to water and winds as assets. Currey was then given orders to Washington and command of the squadron was transferred to Captain John B. Brooks, and then Major Hugh J. Knerr who developed the island by constructing a runway and hangars. The early soldiers had to flatten the island and remove hills and boulders.
All major hangars and housing were completed in 1918, including a large steel and wooden hangar, two concrete hangars for seaplanes and flying boats, a supply warehouse, a machine shop, a photography laboratory, and a powerhouse. In 1919, the field was officially designated Luke Field after Frank Luke. Introduction of aviation to Ford Island by the US Army caused a surprising expansion all over Hawaii with the development of civilian airports, the creation of the Hawaii chapter of the National Aeronautics Association and a national flying code. The aviation division of the US Army was generally favorably received amongst the Hawaiians, who saw the military investment in their land as a compliment.
The US Navy decided that a base in Hawaii was a necessity and determined that the Army field at Ford Island was an ideal candidate. Naval Air Station Pearl Harbor, consisting of nine officers and fifty-five men, was commissioned on 19 December 1919. They attempted to move the Army off the island and designate it solely for naval use, but United States Secretary of War Newton D. Baker instead divided the island equally between the Navy and Army. The Army was given the west side of the island and the Navy was given the southeast side. Lieutenant Commander Robert D. Kirk-Patrick was sent to established a naval station on the island with only 4 airplanes and 55 men at his command. Kirk-Patrick's men had two Curtiss HS2L flying boats and two N-9 planes which they stored in two large canvas hangars which had been salvaged from World War I and erected across the harbor from Ford Island. After the Naval hangars were commissioned on 17 January 1923 by Lieutenant Commander John Rodgers on Ford Island, the detachment moved onto the island and received Naval Aircraft Factory TS, Felixstowe F5L, Curtiss H-16, Keystone PK-1, and Douglas DT type aircraft. To accommodate ship berthing, the Navy erected a concrete and stone quay around the entire island. In 1926, the Navy received Vought FUs, Vought VE-7s, and Vought VE-9s.
During the 1930s, the Navy paid a $1.5 million contract to dredge Pearl Harbor to allow larger battleships and the fleet's carriers to enter the harbor. Using the extra landfill, the island's size was increased from 334 acres (135 ha) to 441 acres (178 ha). The Navy replaced the PK, F5L, and H16 models with newer aircraft (see table above). In 1933, VP-8 arrived on station. In 1935, the Army's bombers had become too large to continue to be maintained and stored at Luke field. Construction began on a new Army airfield, named Hickam Army Airfield after recently deceased Army pilot Lieutenant Colonel Horace Meek Hickam. From 1936 to 1940, Pan-American flew the Clipper into Ford Island as a hub between the United States and Asia. The Navy also installed a new boat house for $25,000, a new crew barracks for $579,565, a new fire house and water supply system, and new flood and obstruction lights. In June 1936, the Navy increased the landing field by 400 feet (120 m) up to 3,000 feet (910 m). In March 1937, Amelia Earhart, on her second visit to Luke Field, crashed her Lockheed Electra upon take-off.
In 1939, after three years of construction, Hickam Field opened and the Army transferred its operations, leaving Luke Field under naval control. Luke field was renamed to Naval Air Station Ford Island and became the headquarters of Patrol Wing 2; its former namesake was re-honored with a new base, Luke Air Force Base. At the height of World War II, over 40,000 people lived or worked on the island. A presidential emergency proclamation on 8 September 1939 spurred the rapid construction of new facilities to prepare the island for additional operations. This included additional barracks, a new assembly and repair hangar, administration building, a dispensary, the control tower, laundry, and theater.
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Ford Island, in the middle of Pearl Harbor, was headquarters of Patrol Wing Two, an important target for the first wave airborne raiders in the 7 December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Before dawn, the United States strategic center in the Pacific consisted of the seven battleships then moored along battleship row, the six pairs of interrupted quays located along Ford Island's eastern side. Quay F-2, the southernmost, which usually hosted an aircraft carrier, was empty. The flagship USS California was moored northeastward at F-3. Side by side with the USS Maryland was the USS Oklahoma outboard, and then Tennessee with USS West Virginia outboard. Behind the Tennessee was USS Arizona, alongside repair ship Vestal. Closing the row was USS Nevada, alone at F-8. These battleships, from eighteen to twenty-five years old, represented all but two of those available to the Pacific Fleet. The fleet flagship, USS Pennsylvania, was also in Pearl Harbor, dry-docked at the nearby Navy Yard. The ninth, USS Colorado, was undergoing overhaul on the West Coast. Together, these ships were one short of equaling Japan's active battle fleet, though the Japanese units were predominantly newer.
A:Oil storage tanks
The initial bombs of the attack burst at 0757 on the island, prompting the historical dispatch: "Air Raid, Pearl Harbor—this is no drill." The battleships ringing Ford Island were the Japanese attackers' main target at Pear Harbor. Twenty-four of the forty Japanese torpedo planes were assigned to attack "Battleship Row", plus 5 more came over to that side of Ford Island after unsuccessfully looking for battleships in other parts of the harbor. The planes carried 29 Type 91 aerial torpedoes, each carrying high explosive payload of 450 pounds (200 kg), of which 21 are thought to have found their targets: 2 in California, 1 in Nevada and possibly 9 combined in Oklahoma and West Virginia; the latter two ships sank within minutes of torpedo impact.
Horizontal bomber aircraft, delivering armor-piercing bombs, attacked as the last torpedo planes finished, and other horizontal and dive bombers came in later. Together, all these aircraft registered many direct hits and damaging near-misses including two on the California, Maryland and Tennessee each, as well as several more on West Virginia. Fresh water supply to the island was cut off after the Arizona rested on and severed the main line and the auxiliary line was destroyed on the Pearl Harbor end.
On the island, a bomb meant for the California hit Hangar 6, causing it to catch fire. Additional bombs hit Hangar 38, which was a dud, the dispensary courtyard, leaving a large crater, and on the roadway outside the repair and assembly hangar. Only one man, Theodore Wheeler Croft, was killed on the island while standing guard duty.
The bombers' most notable success was the Arizona. One bomb exploded close to forward magazines, causing a catastrophic explosion and immediately sinking the ship. Nevada, which eventually got underway while attacked, was hit repeatedly by dive bombers concentrating their attention on a moving ship getting away from Ford Island. So that she would not sink between Ford Island and the Navy Yard, blocking the whole harbor calamitously, the Nevada had to be run ashore.
Several planes from the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise, which was approaching Hawaii after a mission to Wake Island, arrived in the midst of the attack and four were shot down by the Japanese and American air defense friendly fire. The commander of the air group from the Enterprise reported that once he was on Ford Island, he attempted to take over communications on Ford Island to try to reach the Enterprise by radio but the communications systems were too inadequate or too damaged to be of any use. He attributed responsibility for the friendly fire on the radio equipment. After making attempts to notify as many ships and anti-aircraft batteries as possible, several of planes from the Enterprise on Ford Island, and others from Ford Island's own complement, were airborne again within a few hours and sent out to search for the enemy. Some of these search plans were shot down, once again, by friendly fire upon return by Ford Island defenders already on high alert.
In addition to battleship row and the island’s naval field, the fixed moorings on the western side of Ford Island, which were capable of holding battleships or aircraft carriers, were priority targets. Also damaged just west of Ford Island, the seaplane tender USS Curtiss was hit by a crashing dive bomber, a bomb and fragments of another bomb then was unsuccessfully attacked by a Japanese midget submarine which fired a torpedo at her, but the sub itself was sunk by the destroyer USS Monaghan. Several patrol seaplanes and other aircraft were destroyed on Ford Island, and Hangar 6 was destroyed. In all, more than half of Ford Island's planes, 33 out of 70 total, were destroyed.
The Japanese disabled all seven battleships present on battleship row. Maryland and Tennessee were repaired in only a few weeks, as was the Pennsylvania. However, it took at least a year and sometimes much more to repair three others. Oklahoma and Arizona were complete losses. Even with the Atlantic battleships added to the Pacific Fleet, three in all, the Japanese battleships had absolute superiority; this held until the sinking of the Japanese battleship Yamato late in the war.
The USS Enterprise launched aircraft to patrol Ford Island and search for the Japanese carriers. Five American pilots who were returning from missions to hunt down the Japanese fleet were mistakenly shot down by anti-air gunners on Ford Island while the airplanes were attempting to land. The commanding officer of Ford Island said of the friendly losses, "Somebody let fly and I never saw so many bullets in the air in my life and never expect to ... all tracer bullets at night."
After the attack, ROTC cadets from the University of Hawaii were brought to active duty and assigned to guard strategic buildings. Because of the lack of fresh water to the island, and because power had been knocked out to the dispensary, a temporary hospital had to be set up at the #2 barracks. The island's gas tank was emptied of gas and filled with water. Trenches were dug and the buildings were camouflaged. The runway had to be cleared immediately of over three tons of scrap metal and took sailors and soldiers no more than two hours. The task of feeding and clothing men fell to the Marine barracks whose own men had taken rifles and were performing guard duty. Twenty prisoners from the island's brig were marched to the barracks and put to work without causing trouble. For some of those prisoners, their hard work earned them commuted sentences. That evening, Hawaii islanders were instructed to turn out their lights and not turn them on for any reason whatsoever. They were told not to use their telephones, keep extra buckets of water available for fighting fires, and keep cars off the streets and park them on lawns if necessary.
Sixty concrete revetments were constructed to protect the planes from another attack. The Navy also laid down a new 16-inch (410 mm) water main from across the harbor. The new control tower was commissioned on 1 May 1942. The Navy also constructed new bomb shelters and gas decontamination chambers. Due to a need to provide better control of the US Pacific Fleet, PACFLT headquarters moved to Ford Island.
Over the next few weeks, the Navy set up twenty-one large winches on Ford Island to turn the Oklahoma upright so it could be re-floated and patched before being sent to the scrapyard. Coral was piled between the ship and Ford Island to ensure the ship would roll upright instead of sliding toward the shore. The ship sank in the middle of the Pacific in a storm during towing to the scrapyard. The Navy was able to re-float and salvage the Nevada, the California, the West Virginia, and the mine-layer USS Oglala. The entire salvage operation took 20,000 man-hours underwater and 5,000 dives to recover human remains, weapons, ammunition, and other artifacts of historical or military importance.
As the Vietnam War escalated, the US Pacific Fleet required an intelligence branch other than the one in Guam. The Fleet Intelligence Center, Pacific (FICPAC) opened on Ford Island in 1955, though the new office had little to do with Admiral Chester W. Nimitz's Joint Intelligence Center Pacific Area which had been formed a decade earlier and then moved to Guam. In 1962, the Navy decommissioned Naval Station Ford Island though the island continued to be controlled by the Navy as a sub-component of Naval Air Station Pearl Harbor. In 1970, the island's runway was opened up to civilian aircraft for flight training. The State of Hawaii, which achieved statehood in 1959, contracted with the US Navy to allow touch and go landings until 1972, when the airfield was opened to students performing their first solo flights. The use of the island as a training center helped relieve congestion at the nearby Honolulu International Airport. After coming to full active duty status on 1 February 1973, the Third Fleet moved its headquarters onto Ford Island where it stayed until moving to San Diego in 1991. The island remained home to naval officers and several naval headquarters remained on the island. Civilian operations at Ford Island ended in 1999 when the state acquired Kalaeloa Airport.
|Ford Island Air Traffic Statistics|
Prior to the completion of the Admiral Clarey Bridge, access to Ford Island was provided via ferryboat. Two diesel-powered ferries served the island, Waa Hele Honoa (YFB-83) and Moko Holo Hele (YFB-87). The Waa Hele Honoa, meaning "Canoe go to land", was purchased in 1959 for $274,000. Later, the ferry was pressed into service by the Navy on 3 March 1961. It is the older and larger of the two ferries at 181 feet (55 m). It could carry 750 people and 33 vehicles. The other, Moko Holo Hele, meaning "boat go back and forth", was purchased for $1.1 million on 25 May 1970. It is 162 feet (49 m) and held 750 people and 42 vehicles. Both ferries were operated by US Navy personnel. Access to the island was restricted to US military personnel, their dependents, and invited guests. In addition to the two car ferries, there were several smaller "foot ferries" that allowed pedestrians to transit between Ford Island and several alternate landings around Pearl Harbor.
Initially termed "the bridge to nowhere", the Admiral Clarey Bridge was instrumental in Senator Daniel Inouye's "rebirth" of Ford Island and enabled over $500,000,000 in development on the island through special legislation 2814 U. S. Code. It connected 45 families and 3,000 civilian workers to Kamehameha Highway. In addition, visitor access to the island via the bridge enabled the construction of the $50,000,000 16-acre (6.5 ha) Pacific Aviation Museum. The plan included 500 new homes for Navy personnel, a new child development center, and a new Navy lodge.
In planning the island's redevelopment, the Navy considered its own operational needs and the historical value of the island. Despite that, the National Trust for Historic Preservation felt that the Navy's communication style was more directive than bi-directional and in 2001 they designated the island as one of its 11 most endangered sites. The Navy's plans included preserving important hangars, the control tower, and seaplane ramps but failed to protect the existing runway, housing from the 1920s, and did not directly state the preservation status of the bullet holes on the seaplane ramps. After the designation, and as hoped by the trust, the Navy agreed to delay the development of some of these items until a joint plan could be agreed upon.
To accommodate the added facilities and housing, the Navy needed to upgrade the infrastructure of the island. The sewage system upgraded with the installation in 2001 of a 6,000 feet (1,800 m) 20 inches (510 mm) sewage main from the island to Pearl Harbor and an upgraded sewage pumping station. Due to the bridge's unique floating design, it was impossible to use the bridge to transit the cable across the loch, and so, in 2005, the Navy contracted the drilling of primary and auxiliary conduits to run parallel to the bridge 20 feet (6.1 m) away from the Halawa landing site and installed a 5,045-foot (1,538 m) long by 24-inch (610 mm) thick carbon steel high magnetic casing coming up on the island's golf course. Fiber optic communications cables were then fed into the conduits, as well as 46kV power lines to supply the island's electrical needs.
In June 2013, the US Navy planned to install 60,000 photovoltaic panels over 28 acres (11 ha) on the Ford Island runway. The Navy had intended to comply with Congressional and Defense Department mandates to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and offset the cost of Hawaiian energy costs, which are the highest in the United States. The plan deviated from a 2009 proposal to use the panels to define the historic runway, in favor of panels which would produce twice the power. The Navy offered the Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor $250,000 toward renovation of the control tower's elevator in exchange for their support of the plan, which the museum declined. It organized an internet campaign to oppose the plan based on the historical significance of the runway, highlighting both Ford Island's role in the attack on Pearl Harbor and Amelia Earhart's historic visit. In response, the Navy decided to install the panels on existing structures around Pearl Harbor.
The island continues to be used by the United States Navy. It hosts the Pacific Warfighting Center, a 34,000 square feet (3,200 m2) two story complex, to simulate real world conditions for battlefield commanders. The completion of the bridge also enabled the Navy to further develop the island to include a $331,000,000 Pacific tsunami warning center, named after Senator Daniel Inouye, replacing the aging facility on ʻEwa Beach. The location of the tsunami warning center has proved controversial due to its location in a tsunami vulnerable area and because the Navy's tsunami evacuation plan calls for the island's only access point, the Admiral Clarey Bridge, to be opened for naval ship evacuation – thus making the bridge inaccessible to land vehicles. The island also continues to host a military brig.
Intended to be based on Alaska, Sea-based X-band Radar came to Ford Island in 2006 for maintenance and repairs and has remained there. The radar is primarily used as a warhead detection radar system on a self-propelled floating platform in the Pacific Ocean but its presence on Ford Island has become controversial. Critics argue that the platform has poor emergency preparedness and disrupts cellular and Wi-Fi signals when it is in port. Conspiracy theorists argue that the platform is a replacement for HAARP.
In 2013, the Navy unveiled a $4 million facility for training using simulators and virtual reality at the Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Keyport on Ford Island. The Fleet Integrated Synthetic Training/Testing Facility (FIST2FAC) was developed to save on costs for training by developing a reusable facility that could emulate electronic, mine and anti-air warfare scenarios instead of creating real world training scenarios that would require fuel, logistics, and deployment costs for ships.
Memorials and museums
Early after the attack on Pearl harbor, it was decided that the USS Arizona would remain at the bottom of the harbor as a final resting place for those lost. In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the construction of a memorial over the vessel. The USS Arizona memorial was dedicated in 1962 where the ship sank off the coast of Ford Island. The memorial includes a complex at the Halawa landing opposite Ford Island as well as a structure, erected over the USS Arizona, which receives visitors via ferry boat. The complex is staffed by the National Park Service, though the ferries are still operated by US Navy personnel.
The mistaken aircraft carrier which was actually a test dummy, USS Utah, remains submerged off the coast of the island. After the successful salvage of the capsized USS Oklahoma using winching cables, the Navy attempted to recover the USS Utah using the same technique but failed. In 1972, the remains of the USS Utah were dedicated as a memorial on the northwest side of the island to the fifty-eight men still inside.
Despite concerns that it would detract from the USS Arizona memorial, in 1998 the USS Missouri was transferred from Washington state to Ford Island. After a year of conversion to a museum, the ship opened for visitors on 29 January 1999. On 7 December 2006, the 65th anniversary of the attack on Pearl harbor and after over ten years of planning, the aviation museum opened in hangar 37 to visitors. On 7 December 2007, a joint ceremony was held by the National Park Service and the USS Oklahoma memorial committee to dedicate a memorial to the ship just outside the entrance to the USS Missouri museum on the northeast side of the island. On 2 September 2010, the Pacific Aviation Museum Pearl Harbor signed a lease with the US Navy to the Ford Island control tower and began restoration; the tower had sent the first radio alert of the attack in 1941.
Film and television
A 1965 film, In Harm's Way, starring actor John Wayne was filmed on Ford Island. A fictional scene before the attack, in which officers and their wives enjoyed a pool party, was still reenacted by island residents on the anniversary of the attacks as late as 2001.
In 1970, the Ford Island control tower was repainted for the filming of Tora! Tora! Tora!. One of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress used for production during filming suffered a landing gear malfunction and was forced to make a crash landing on Ford Island. The crash was included in the final production of the film.
In April 2000, filming began for the Michael Bay film Pearl Harbor. Before filming, the crew and actors gathered on the USS Arizona memorial for a wreath laying by a representative of Touchstone Pictures, Jerry Bruckheimer, and Bay. The production brought fifteen vintage planes to Ford Island and placed them all in one hangar for filming. In addition, the film brought fifteen naval vessels back to Pearl Harbor for live bombardment without sinking the ships. The operations room of the control tower was converted into barracks for the filming. The Pacific Aviation Museum hoped that the film would bring added public awareness of the tower and spur public support for the control tower's restoration. Michael Bay reflected on the historical significance of Ford Island, saying "I have a vivid memory of showing the crew around Ford Island during pre-production. We came upon a plaque directly across from the sunken Arizona, marking the spot where a torpedo hit nearly six decades ago. My crew stood in silence for three minutes at the sight of this small monument. It was a solemn moment for all of us, and I think it helped the crew appreciate the undertaking were about to begin." During the filming, a Vultee BT-13 Valiant used for production as a torpedo plane crashed on the island.
In 2010, the television series Hawaii Five-0 choose Battleship Cove, a housing community just outside the dock of the USS Missouri museum, as the location for an episode. The production featured a number of Ford Island resident's homes and some of those residents served as extras in the episode. The episode featured police cars racing down Tennessee and Nevada streets. Also in 2010, Peter Berg featured the USS Missouri in the movie Battleship. The ship was towed off Ford Island for maintenance and was brought out to sea between completion of the maintenance and its return to the dock for filming. The memorial hoped the film would bring a spike in visitors to the museum on Ford Island.
- Hawaiian Islets – The state of Hawaii counts 137 "islands" in the Hawaiian chain.
- List of documentation of Pearl Harbor Naval Base by the Historic American Buildings Survey and the Historic American Engineering Record
- List of islands of Hawaii
- Rabbit Island – an uninhabited islet located 0.75 mi (1.21 km) off Kaupō Beach, near Makapuʻu at the eastern end of the Island of Oʻahu
- "History of Ford Island". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ford Island.|
- Naval History & Heritage Command – Pearl Harbor
- Burning barracks at Ford Island
- Pearl Harbor Historic Sites
- Mokuʻumeʻume (William Dorrance). Historic Hawaii Newsletter, December 1991, Vol 17 No 12
- Ford Island source texts at Wikisource