Ford Power Stroke engine
|Ford Power Stroke engine|
Navistar International (1994-2010)Ford Motor Company (2011-Present)
|Also called||Ford diesel|
|Configuration||OHV 90° V8 Diesel
DOHC I5 Diesel
|Predecessor||International Harvester IDI (1983-1994.5)|
Power Stroke is a line of diesel engines found in Ford Diesel trucks, Ford Excursion SUVs, Ford Econoline vans, Ford LCF commercial vehicles and the Brazilian Ford Ranger. The V8 engines were produced by Navistar International Corp. until 2010 when Ford decided to build their diesel engine completely in-house. The Power Stroke engines compete primarily in the United States full-size pickup truck market with the Duramax V8 from General Motors/Isuzu and the B series straight 6 from Cummins.
- 1 7.3 Power Stroke
- 2 6.0 Power Stroke
- 3 6.4 Power Stroke
- 4 6.7 Scorpion
- 5 3.2 Powerstroke
- 6 Applications
- 7 Other engines with the Power Stroke name
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
7.3 Power Stroke
|7.3 Power Stroke|
|Displacement||7.3 L, 444 cu³|
|Cylinder bore||4.11 inches|
|Piston stroke||4.18 inches|
|Cylinder block alloy||Iron|
|Cylinder head alloy||Iron|
|Power output||210-275 hp |
|Torque output||425-570 lb-ft|
|Predecessor||7.3 L IDI|
|Successor||6.0 Power Stroke|
The 7.3L Power Stroke diesel was introduced halfway through the 1994 model year in Ford Econoline vans and Ford Heavy Duty pickups. It effectively replaced the 7.3 IDI turbo with which it shared nothing other than displacement size.
The Power Stroke is an electronically controlled, direct injection engine with a 4.11 in (104 mm) bore and 4.18 in (106 mm) stroke creating a displacement of 444 cu in (7.3 L). It has a 17.5:1 compression ratio, and has a dry weight of approximately 920 lb (420 kg). This engine produced up to 250 hp (190 kW) and 505 lb·ft (685 N·m) of torque in automatic-transmission trucks during the last years of production, and 275 hp (205 kW) and 525 lb·ft (712 N·m) of torque in manual-transmission trucks. The 7.3 holds 18 quarts of oil. The oil pan holds 15 quarts while the top end holds an additional 3 quarts.
The 1994.5 to 1996/97 DI Power stroke had "single shot" HEUI (hydraulically actuated electronic unit injection) fuel injectors and ran a high pressure oil pump (HPOP) to create the necessary oil pressure to fire the fuel injectors. This generation of Powerstroke utilized a HPOP with a 15° swash plate angle. 1994.5-1997 trucks used a cam driven fuel pump, whereas the 1999-2003 trucks used a frame rail mounted electric fuel pump. The California trucks in 1996 and 1997 had split shot fuel injectors; other trucks didn't get split shot injectors until 1999. Single shot injectors only inject one charge of fuel per cycle, whereas the split shot injector releases a preliminary light load before the main charge to initiate combustion in a more damped manner. This controlled injection helps reduce the sharp combustion 'knock'.
It utilizes a single turbocharger with a turbine housing size of 1.15 A/R. In 1999, an air-to-air intercooler was added to cool the charged air from the turbo for increased air density. The cooler, denser air would increase the horsepower potential of the engine, while also reducing exhaust gas temperatures (EGT). Eventually, the turbine housing was changed to a .84 A/R housing and a wastegate was added. With larger injectors, the HPOP output was increased by utilizing a 17° swash plate angle to meet the requirements of the new, higher flowing injectors.
The 7.3 L DI Power Stroke was in production until the second quarter of model year 2003 when it was replaced by the 6.0L because of its inability to meet newer emission requirements. Due to its popularity, nearly 2 million 7.3s were produced from International's Indianapolis plant.
6.0 Power Stroke
The 7.3 L (444 CID) Power Stroke was replaced by the 6.0 L (365 CID) beginning in the second quarter of the 2003 model year. The 6.0L Power Stroke was used in Ford Super Duty trucks until the 2007 model year but lasted until 2009 in Ford Econoline vans (Model year 2010). The engine has a 3.74 in (95 mm) bore and 4.13 in (105 mm) stroke creating a displacement of 365 cu in (6.0 L) or 5954 cc. It utilizes a variable geometry turbocharger and intercooler, producing 325 hp (242 kW) and 570 lb·ft (773 N·m) torque with an 18:1 compression ratio, with fuel cutoff at 4200 rpm. Many of the 6.0 L PowerStroke engines experienced problems, and it is speculated to have cost Ford millions of dollars in warranty repairs and buy backs. They led to many recalls and the repurchase of at least 500 trucks, particularly in the first year.
- Fuel Injection system: Split Shot HEUI (Hydraulic Electronic Unit Injectors)
- Valve Train: OHV 4-valve
- Turbo configuration: Single Variable Vane Geometry (VGT)
A major problem with the 6.0L was the torque-to-yield head bolts, which in an overboost condition would lead to a blown head gasket, and eventually a cracked cylinder head. The 7.3L and 6.7L Power Stroke engines both have 6 head bolts per cylinder (the 6.9L and 7.3L International Harvester IDI engines had 5 head bolts per cylinder). By contrast, the 6.0L only has 4 head bolts per cylinder.
Electrical & Fuel
Numerous PCM recalibrations, fuel injector stiction along with several other driveability and QC problems have been problems for the 6.0 as well. The FICM (Fuel Injection Control Module) has been a problem, where low voltage in the vehicle's electrical system due to failing batteries or a low-output alternator can cause damage to the FICM. In addition, the placement of the FICM on top of the engine subjects it to varying extreme temperatures and vibration causing solder joints and components to fail; mostly in the power supply itself. The FICM multiplies the voltage in the fuel injector circuit from 12 to 48-50 volts to fire the injectors. Low voltage can eventually cause damage to the fuel injectors.
6.4 Power Stroke
The 6.4L Power Stroke was introduced for the 2008 model year. Strict emissions regulations and the overall questionable reliability of the 6.0L were the primary factors that presented a need for a new clean slate engine. Quieter and cleaner than its predecessors, the 6.4L Power Stroke was the first engine introduced to the light truck market that utilized dual turbochargers from the factory. This was the first Power Stroke to use a diesel particulate filter (DPF) in order to nearly eliminate particulate emissions (soot). The new DPS and active regeneration system greatly hindered the engine's fuel economy capability, though the engine proved to be comparatively strong and reliable. The engine was ultimately retired after the 2010 model year, as Ford replaced the engine with its own in-house built 6.7L Power Stroke for 2011 and on.
The engine has a 3.86 in (98 mm) bore and 4.13 in (105 mm) stroke, resulting in a total calculated displacement of 387 cu in (6.3 L) or (6333 cc). Despite having to meet emission regulations, the new engine was able to increase horsepower and torque ratings to 350 hp (261 kW) and torque to 650 lb·ft (881 N·m) at the flywheel. Horsepower and torque are achieved at 3,000 rpm and 2,000 rpm respectively. It also features a compound VGT turbo system. Air enters the low-pressure turbo (the larger of the two) and is fed into the high-pressure turbo (the smaller of the two), then directed into the engine or intercooler. This system is designed to result in reduced turbo "lag" when accelerating from a stop. The series-turbo system is set up to provide a better throttle response while in motion to give a power flow more like a Naturally aspirated engine. The 6.4 liter also has a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and dual EGR coolers which are capable of reducing exhaust gas temps by up to 1000 degrees before they reach the EGR valve and mix with the intake charge. The Diesel Particulate Filter traps soot and particulates from the exhaust and virtually eliminates the black smoke that most diesel engines expel upon acceleration. The engine computer is programmed to periodically inject extra fuel in the exhaust stroke of the engine (known as a "regeneration" in F-Series) to burn off soot that accumulates in the DPF. This engine must run on Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) fuel which has no more than 15 ppm sulfur content; using regular diesel fuel will result in emission equipment malfunctions and violate manufacturer warranties.
The 6.4L has had one recall (Safety product recall 07S49 was released on March 23, 2007) that addresses the potential for flames to come from the tailpipe of the truck. This problem arises from the DPF which is part of the diesel after-treatment system. A PCM recalibration has been released to eliminate the possibility of excessive exhaust temperatures combined with certain rare conditions resulting from what is becoming known as a "Thermal Event".
- Fuel Injection System: High Pressure Commonrail
- Valve Train: OHV 4-valve
- Compound VGT Turbo
- Diesel particulate filter
- Advanced multi-shot Piezoelectric fuel injection control
The 6.7 L is the first medium duty diesel designed and built by Ford. It was designed in conjunction with AVL of Austria. During design, Ford engineers codenamed this engine "Scorpion" due to the exhaust manifold and turbo being mounted in the engine's "valley". It includes a compacted graphite iron (CGI) block for greater strength while reducing weight, reverse flow aluminum cylinder heads (the exhaust ports are located in the lifter valley) with dual water jackets, six head bolts per cylinder, and 29,000 psi (1,999 bar) high-pressure common rail Bosch fuel system. The system delivers up to five injection events per cylinder per cycle using eight-hole piezo injectors spraying fuel into the piston bowl. This engine also supports B20 biodiesel, allowing greener fueling options of up to 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent petroleum diesel. There is also a unique inboard exhaust and outboard intake architecture, an automotive-industry first for a modern production diesel engine. Garrett’s single-sequential turbocharger features an industry-first double-sided compressor wheel mounted on a single shaft. It combines the benefits of a small turbocharger (faster response) and a large turbocharger (ability to compress and force more air into the engine for more power) in one unit. The connecting rods are made by Mahle.
Emissions controls include exhaust gas recirculation, Denoxtronic based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) solution from Bosch, and a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Output was originally 390 hp (291 kW) and 735 lb·ft (997 N·m). but shortly after production started, Ford announced that they have made an update to the new 6.7L diesel. The new engine control software makes the engine capable of 400 hp (298 kW) @ 2800 rpm and 800 lb·ft (1,085 N·m) @ 1600 rpm while achieving better fuel economy and without any physical changes to the engine. All 6.7L engines already shipped to dealerships or purchased by customers can be upgraded to Fords new specifications with a free software update available at Ford dealerships. 2015 engines are rated at 440 horsepower (330 kW) and 860 lb·ft (1,166 N·m). Ford claims the bump in horsepower is from a new turbo, new injector tips and exhaust improvements.
- Diesel particulate filter
- Valve Train: OHV 4-valve
- Turbo configuration: 'GT32 SST (Single Sequential Turbocharger)' --single 64mm turbine and dual-sided compressor
- Fuel Injection System: High-pressure common-rail, Bosch CP4 injection pump, piezo electric injectors
|Turbo configuration:||'GT37' --single 72.5mm turbine and 88mm compressor|
|Fuel System:||High-pressure common-rail, Bosch CP4.2 injection pump, piezo electric injectors|
|Engine:||Power Stroke V-8|
|Bore and Stroke:||3.90 x 4.25 inches|
|Block:||Compacted graphite iron|
|Heads:||Aluminum (reverse flow)|
|Valvetrain:||OHV, four valves per cylinder|
|Horsepower:||440 at 2,800 rpm|
|Torque:||860 lb-ft at 1,600 rpm|
|Emissions Equipment:||EGR, DPF, SCR|
|Engine Dry Weight:||970 pounds|
The 3.2 L Powerstroke is an inline five cylinder engine that debuted in the U.S.-spec Transit for model year 2015. The engine is a modified version of the Ford Duratorq 3.2 L diesel engine that has been adapted to meet emissions in the United States. To aid in economy, emissions, and reduce NVH, it has a high pressure common rail fuel injection system and Piezo injectors that can spray up to five different injections per compression event. It has a water cooled EGR system to reduce the temperature of the exhaust gas before being recirculated through the intake. A unique feature to the emissions system is that the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) have been combined into one singular unit as opposed to the tradition two separate units. Exhaust treatment continues with Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) which is done by the injection of Diesel Exhaust Fluid in the exhaust to reduce NOx. The engine features a variable geometry turbo which allows for intake air flow tuning on the fly to increase power and fuel economy. The engine also features a variable flow oil pump to avoid wasting mechanical energy pumping excessive amounts of oil when it is not needed. It has cast aluminum, low friction pistons with oil squirters to keep them cool during heavy load conditions, a die cast aluminum cam carrier to stiffen up the valve train and reduce NVH, and to increase low end durability, the crankshaft is cast iron and the connecting rods are forged. The block itself is an extra rigid, gray cast iron with a closed deck. The power figures for the 3.2 L Powerstroke are 185hp @ 3000 rpm and 350 lb-ft @ 1500-2750 rpm. The Euro Duratorq 3.2 makes 200 HP and 350 ftlb of torque. Not much is lost for it having higher emission regulations.
- Fuel Injection System: High Pressure Commonrail
- Valve Train: DOHC 4-valve
- Turbo Configuration: Single Variable Geometry Turbo
- Combined Diesel Particulate Filter and Diesel Oxidation Catalyst
- Urea Injected Selective Catalytic Reduction
The Power Stroke engine has been used in the following applications.
Ford E-Series (full-size vans)
- Mid-1994–2003 7.3 L
- 2004–2010 6.0 L
Ford F-Series (full-size pickup trucks)
- Mid-1994–Mid2003 7.3 L
- Mid2003–2007 6.0 L
- 2008–2010 6.4 L
- 2011–Present 6.7 L
LCF (Low Cab Forward)
- 2005–2010 4.5 L
Other engines with the Power Stroke name
- In South American models, Ford Ranger 2001 up to 2012 used a Power Stroke engine in their diesel versions. A 2.8L diesel engine was developed by Navistar/International Engines from an inline-4 Land Rover Defender diesel 2.5L engine, with 130 (waste gate) or 133 hp (VNT). A 3L common rail 4 valves per cylinder and 160hp (waste gate turbo) became the eletronic version of the Power Stroke. It has only the block and connect-rods in common with 2.8 Power Stroke
- Ford's Power Stroke Diesel History Power Stroke Spotters' Guide
- "Launch in Limbo". AutoWeek. Retrieved March 5, 2007.
- Ford 6.7L Powerstroke Diesel Engine - Diesel Power Magazine
- Abuelsamid, Sam (August 31, 2009). "Beware the Scorpion! 2011 Ford Super Duty gets all-new 6.7-liter diesel V8". Autoblog.
- "A New Era in Ford Diesel Technology for Pickups Starts Now". The Ford Story. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
- Jamie Lareau, Automotive News (2010-02-25). "2011 Ford Super Duty: Pickup has more pickup and more mpg". AutoWeek. Retrieved 2010-02-25.
- "440 Horsepower Powers Stroke". Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- Gonderman, Monica (June 10, 2014). "Second-Generation Ford 6.7L Power Stroke - Torque Specs, 440 hp and 860 lb-ft of torque". Diesel Power Magazine. Diesel Power. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- "2015 Ford F-Series Super Duty Features Improved Power Stroke Diesel". Ford Motor Company. Ford, Sept. 26, 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2014.