Ford Straight-6 engine
|Manufacturer||Ford Motor Company|
|Production||1941 - 1996 (US)
1960 - present (AUS)
1961 - 1991 (ARG)
|Cylinder block alloy||Cast iron|
|Cylinder head alloy||Cast iron|
|Fuel system||naturally aspirated or turbocharged, carburetted|
Henry Ford did not like the car because the engine could overpower its transmission. The next Ford six was introduced in the 1941 Ford. The Ford Motor Company of America continued producing straight six engines until they were replaced in the mid-1990s by more compact V6 designs. Ford Australia manufactures these engines for their Falcon and Ford Territory vehicles.
The first generation Ford six-cylinder engines were all flathead engines. They were the G- and H-series engines of 226 cu in (3.7 L) used in cars and trucks and the M-series of 254 cu in (4.2 L) used in larger Ford trucks and for industrial applications.
Introduced with the 1941 model year, the first Ford L-6 (designated G-series) displaced 226 cu in (3.7 L) and produced 90 hp (67 kW), the same as the Flathead V-8 that year. Like the V-8, it was also a flathead or L-head engine. In 1948, Ford raised the compression of the flathead six or L-6 (designated H-series or Rouge 226) so that it generated 95 hp (71 kW) and 180 lb·ft (244 N·m) of torque. The G- and H-series engines were used in the full-size Ford cars and trucks to replace the smaller 136 cu in (2.2 L) Flathead V8 that were used with the 1937 Ford. Ford discontinued production of the H-series engine with the 1951 model year.
A 254 cu in (4.2 L) version of the L-6 (designated the M-series or Rouge 254) was used from 1948 to 1953 in F6-series Ford trucks (COE, Dump, semi-, etc.), and small Ford school buses. The M-series engine produced 115 hp (86 kW) and 212 lb·ft (287 N·m). of torque. They were also used in miscellaneous industrial applications. e.g., to power water pumps for irrigation purposes and within wine-producing farms to manage risk by powering giant frost-control propellers on stands in the middle of rows of grapes.
The second generation was a newly designed six-cylinder, produced from 1952 through 1964 and shared many parts with Ford Y-blocks such as the entire valve train and the problems associated with the Y-block's lubrication system. These engines have the exhaust and intake on the driver's side and the distributor on the passenger side.
The 215 grew to 223 cu in (3.7 L) I-6 for the 1954 F-series. Output was now 115 hp (86 kW) (as the "Mileage Maker" in the trucks) and 120 hp (89 kW) in the 1955 Ford cars. Power was up to 137 hp (102 kW) in the 1956 trucks. The 223 cu in (3.7 L) I-6 was also used in 1963-1964 Ford Trucks which also used the Autolite 1100 Carburetor with stamping C4TF-E.
A 262 cu in (4.3 L) I-6 version was also produced. The 262 I-6 was built from 1961 to 1964 for use in heavy duty Ford trucks. This engine was also used for industrial applications.
|Also called||Falcon Six|
|Production||1960 - 1984|
|Power output||88 hp (66 kW) - 155 hp (116 kW)|
|Dry weight||385 lb (175 kg)|
The third generation was produced at the Lima Engine plant in Lima, Ohio from 1960 through 1984. Officially dubbed the Thriftpower Six, this engine line is sometimes referred to as the Falcon Six. Note: Car companies including Ford, switched from gross ratings to net horsepower and torque ratings in 1972 (mainly because of the emissions laws being enacted nationwide at the time). Changes in engine compression and emissions controls make it difficult to compare engines from various production years (especially pre-1972).
|144 Thriftpower Six|
|Production||1960 - 1964|
|Displacement||144 cu in (2.4 L)|
|Cylinder bore||3.5 in (89 mm)|
|Piston stroke||2.5 in (64 mm)|
|Power output||84 hp (63 kW) @ 4200 rpm|
|Torque output||134 lb·ft (182 N·m) @ 2000 rpm|
The 144 cu in (2.4 L) I-6 engine was first introduced in the 1960 Ford Falcon. The 144c.i. was made from 1960 through 1964 and averaged 90 hp (67 kW) during the production run. While not known for being powerful or a stout engine, it proved to be economical and could get fairly good gas mileage for the time (up to 25-30mpg). This small six was the basis for all the Ford "Falcon" straight-six engines. The intake manifold on this series of engine was cast integrally with the cylinder head (this design was also used by Chevrolet with their third generation I-6); as a result, they could not be easily modified for greater power. This engine had four main bearings and can be identified by the three core plugs on the side of the block.
This engine was used in:
- 1960 - 1964 Ford Falcon
- 1960 - 1964 Ford Ranchero
- 1960 - 1964 Mercury Comet
- 1961 - 1964 Ford E-Series
|170 Special Six|
|Production||1961 - 1972|
|Displacement||170 cu in (2.8 L)|
|Cylinder bore||3.5 in (89 mm)|
|Piston stroke||2.94 in (75 mm)|
|Power output||105 hp (78 kW) @ 4400 rpm|
|Torque output||156 lb·ft (212 N·m) @ 2400 rpm|
In 1961 the 170 cu in (2.8 L) became an option for the Falcon line. The 170c.i. Special I-6 was a stroked version of the 144c.i., changing the stroke from 2.5" to 2.94". The original 1964 1⁄2 Ford Mustang used a 101 hp (75 kW) version. The Econoline van and Ford Bronco received a heavier-duty version with mechanical valve lifters. This engine had four main bearings and can be identified by the three freeze (core) plugs on the side of the block. The 170c.i. Special was dropped from production in 1972.
The 200c.i. I-6 engine model was introduced in the middle of 1963 and shared the four main bearing design used in the 170 engine. Early 200s can be identified by three freeze (core) plugs on the side of the block.
Beginning in 1965 the 200c.i. I-6 engines were upgraded to seven main bearings to reduce harmonic vibrations and increase durability. The 1965 and later engine can be identified by 5 freeze (core) plugs on the side of the block and the casting code C5DE-H. Starting in 1966 a six bolt bell housing flange block was introduced.
Beginning in 1980 the block was redesigned with a bell housing flange and a low mount starter that is very similar to the small block Ford V8. This version is easily identified by its low-mounted starter location down by the oil pan rail and is referred to as the Big Bell 200. The big bell design is uncommon but sought after by I-6 performance enthusiasts because it can be modified to accept a Ford small block V8 six bolt bell housing.
The 1965 Mustang used this engine as standard with 120 hp (89 kW). The Mustang continued to use the 200 as its base engine until it was dropped in 1971.
When Ford launched the third generation Fox body Mustang in 1979, the original engine line up included the Cologne V6. The same engine was also offered in the hugely successful Ford of Europe Capri Mk II. The 2.8L V6 engine was a popular option for the US Mustang and the European Capri MkII and as a result the Cologne engine plant could not meet the demand for engines for both Continents.
So, the Cologne 2.8L V6 was dropped from the engine lineup in the middle of the 1979 production year and replaced with the 200cid Falcon inline six, which was now referred to as the 3.3L engine. The engine and front suspension K-member was transferred from the Fairmont model which helped reduce costs instead of having to redesign the Mustang for a different engine.
The 200 was used in the Ford Maverick and Mercury Comet models, and continued in the Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr until the Fairmont and Zephyr models were retired at the end of the 1983 model year and replaced with the Ford Tempo and Mercury Topaz.
The Ford Granada and Mercury Monarch offered the 200c.i. I-6 as part of their engine lineup from 1975 to 1982 when they were replaced in 1983 by the Ford LTD and the Mercury Marquis. These two models used the engine from 1983 to 1984 when it was replaced by the 3.8L Essex V6.
Ford was also having problems meeting demand for its 2.3L OHC engine which was used in a multitude of models worldwide.
In anticipation of another engine shortage, Ford's Lima Ohio engine plant, which was already producing the 2.3L OHC engine, decided they could modify the Falcon inline six block casting molds to remove cylinders 4 and 5 to create a 4-cylinder engine. A cast iron high-swirl cylinder head was developed, and the motor was designated the 2.3L HSC to help differentiate it from the same displacement 2.3L OHC design. This motor shared many common parts with the 200/3.3L I-6, and it is common for persons rebuilding their 200/3.3L I-6 motors to use the 2.3L HSC pistons as a cheap replacement.
The 250 cu. in. Inline Six was an engine option offered in 1969 in the Mustang, and 1970 in compact Ford cars (Maverick). The 250 was a stroked 200, made by changing the stroke from 3.126" to 3.91". Output was 155 hp (115 kW) in the Mustang, and became the base engine in 1971. Power was re-evaluated at 98 hp (73 kW) for 1972 (due to power rating changes) and 88 hp (66 kW) the next year. The last year of production for the 250 was 1980. This engine had seven main bearings, and can be identified by the five freeze (core) plugs on the side of the block. The block uses a low mount starter and six bellhousing bolts, sharing its bellhousing with the Windsor V-8s 302-351W, late (1965–68) 289,early 4.6, and the 240-300 CID Ford Six.
Restoration and restomod status
The rising cost of fuel has increased the interest in the Falcon six design, and the engines have been gaining in popularity in recent years. Many Falcon and Mustang owners who used to replace their car's original I-6 engine with a V8, are now keeping their inline sixes for the better fuel economy the inline six motor offers. Vendors now offer a number of restoration and performance parts for people restoring their inline six motors.
Due to increased popularity of the Falcon I-6 engine, the desire for improved performance, and difficulty in finding good quality used parts for an engine that has been out of production for 25 years, in 2005 the company Classic Inlines designed a modern aluminum head based on the Australian 250-2v head but with raised intake ports, high swirl combustion chambers, and larger valves. One of the features of the new head are pads cast into the top of the intake runners, which allows owners the ability to machine the head to accept modern electronic fuel injectors for direct port fuel injection.
Not only does the new head improve power output, but also the high-swirl design improves fuel mixing in the cylinder for a more complete burning of the air fuel mixture, resulting in reduced emissions output.
Ford of Australia I-6
Starting in 1960, Ford of Australia used the same I-6 engines as North America, featuring the 144 c.i. and 170 c.i.pursuit models. The 144 c.i. motor was discontinued in late 1966. Also as in North America, a 200 c.i.super pursuit motor was added in 1967. In 1968, Ford of Australia increased the deck height of the design to make room for increased crankshaft stroke, resulting in displacements of 188c.i. and 221c.i. (badged 3.1 and 3.6 litres). They superseded the 170c.i. and 200c.i. motors in the lineup.
In 1970, Ford of Australia enlarged the motors to 200c.i. & 250c.i. The head was of the same design as previous models, with an integral intake catering for 1 single barrel Bendix-Stromberg carburettor. In the configuration, the Falcon 250c.i. I-6 was rated at 155 hp (116 kW). Around this time Ford of Australia also developed the '2V' cylinder head, which in all respects was similar to the previous integral "log head" intake, with the exception of a removable aluminum intake which mounted a Bendix-Stromberg WW 2-barrel carburettor. To take advantage of the much improved breathing ability that the removable intake brought to the new head, the 250-2V also featured a much better breathing exhaust manifold. The result was the engine being rated at 170 hp (127 kW).
For years the 250-2V cylinder head was very popular for racing and many have been imported to North America, where owners of cars with the Falcon inline six have upgraded their engines with the better cylinder head.
In 1976, Ford of Australia updated the engines with a new cast-iron crossflow head design. Engine displacements remained 200c.i. and 250c.i., but were now badged 3.3 and 4.1 litres respectively. These engines were offered in the Ford Falcon XC in Australia. Whereas the previous integral "log head" I-6 motor borrowed from the Ford FE engine family design, the new crossflow motor borrowed from the Ford 351 Cleveland engine family. A common upgrade for a crossflow head engine is to use 351 Cleveland roller tip rocker arms.
Ford of Australia updated the crossflow design in mid-1980 with a new aluminum head casting. The alloy head was used to improve warm up time and reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Up until 1982, the engines were fitted with a single barrel Bendix-Stromberg carburetor, but from March 1982 were fitted with a Weber 2-barrel carburetor, which had improved fuel consumption over the single barrel carb. The Weber carburettored engines were badged Alloy-Head II
Later, a Bosch Jetronic fuel-injected version with direct port fuel injection was offered in the XE Falcon, and was only available as an aluminium 4.1 L. The XF Falcon's 4.1 then received Ford's EEC-IV engine management system with Multi Point EFI (The carburetor engine was still fitted standard, and EFI was optional). There were changes to the carburetor-based engine to accommodate the Electronic Fuel Injection system. The compression ratio on the 4.1 L was 8.89:1. The cylinder head intake ports had been modified to provide clearance for the injectors, and a new intake manifold was designed and many other changes were made in the engine bay to accommodate the new fuel system.
- Power at specified rpm (DIN) Pre '86 running on leaded fuel
- 3.3 L 90 kW (121 hp) @ 4100 rpm
- 4.1 L carburetor 98 kW (131 hp) @ 3750 rpm
- 4.1 L E.F.I engine 120 kW (161 hp) @ 4000 rpm
- Torque at specified rpm (DIN) Pre '86 running on leaded fuel
- 3.3 L 240 N·m (180 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm
- 4.1 L carburetor 305 N·m (225 lb·ft) @ 2400 rpm
- 4.1 L E.F.I engine 333 N·m (246 lb·ft) @ 3000 rpm
- Power at specified rpm (DIN) ADR 37 compliant engine running on unleaded fuel
- 3.3 L 89 kW (119 hp) @ 4000 rpm
- 4.1 L Carburetor 98 kW (131 hp) @ 3600 rpm
- 4.1 L E.F.I engine 123 kW (165 hp) @ 4000 rpm
- Torque at specified rpm (DIN) ADR 37 compliant engine running on unleaded fuel
- 3.3 L 238 N·m (176 lb·ft) @ 2200 rpm
- 4.1 L carburetor 297 N·m (219 lb·ft) @ 2000 rpm
- 4.1 L E.F.I engine 325 N·m (240 lb·ft) @ 3000 rpm
In 1988, the inline six engines underwent a major redesign for the EA Falcon and now featured a new single overhead cam (SOHC) crossflow aluminum head. The camshaft and auxiliary shaft are driven by a 'duplex' chain. The duplex chain drives the distributor and the oil pump shafts. The camshaft is supported on the cylinder head by using 'topless' bearings. Bearing liners are not used. The camshaft is held in position using valve spring pressure. Hydraulic lash adjusters mounted on the rocker arms are used to provide zero valve lash. As with all previous and current models, the block is cast iron, but with a reduction in the cylinder bore to try to help reduce emissions.
The SOHC engines were offered as the 3.2L (with throttle body injection) and the 3.9L (with throttle body or multipoint fuel injection). In 1989, the 3.2L TBI version was discontinued, and in 1991 the 3.9L's displacement was enlarged to 4.0L (now only with MPI) and was rated at 148 kW (198 hp). 1995 saw the introduction of the dual resonance intake manifold for the EF series. Also for the EF series Falcon, the standard engine employed a high-energy coil-pack ignition system. However, the EL Falcon used a distributor/coil ignition setup, as in Falcon models prior to EF.
Ford of Australia redesigned the I-6 again in 1998, and increased the main bearing size and added a ladder style main stud girdle integral with the oil pan to increase low end rigidity. The engine also received variable cam timing technology in some of the XR models, which can advance or retard cam timing depending on engine rpm, which gives a much broader power band. The 2002 Falcon Forte engine had a power rating of 157 kW, the XR model variants had either 164 kW (HO - High Output) or 172 kW (VCT) and the Fairmont had 168 kW (VCT). All were I6 engines, all were 4.0 litres.
In 2002 the engine received double overhead cams (DOHC) with variable cam timing as the Barra inline six motors and, depending on the version of engine, were offered in the 2002 BA Falcon, Fairlane, and the SX Territory. Currently the BA 195 powers the Falcon and Falcon "Utes" (since 2008) along with the SZ Territory (since 2011). The BA195 is rated at 261 hp (195 kW) @ 6000 rpm and 391 N·m (288 lb·ft) lbs @ 3250 rpm or 198 kW and 409Nm on 95 octane premium fuels with higher values achieved on 98 octane exceeding 420Nm of torque versus 391Nm while on regular 91 octane whilst the BA 190 is rated at 255 hp (190 kW) @ 5250 rpm and 383 N·m (282 lb·ft) @ 2500 rpm. All DOHC engines feature the coil on plug direct ignition system.
There have been some noteworthy performance versions of the DOHC Barra inline sixes.
The Barra 240T, which was a turbocharged, fuel-injected, intercooled DOHC inline six producing 240 kW (322 hp) and 450 N·m (330 lb·ft) lbs of torque, was offered between 2002 and 2005 in the BA Falcon XR6 and XR6 Turbo as well as the Territory Turbo. This was followed in the BF & BF Mk II (between 2005 and 2008) by the Barra 245T producing 329 hp (245 kW) of power and 480 N·m (350 lb·ft) of torque which in turn was followed in the FG (since 2008) by the Barra 270T producing 362 hp (270 kW) of power and 533 N·m (393 lb·ft) of torque.
Ford Australia's high-performance division FPV created even more powerful Turbocharged model variants which were upgraded largely co-inciding with the upgrades of the regular Falcon. The first Turbocharged Straight-6-engined car from FPV was the BA Mk II F6 (2004–2005) which produced 362 hp (270 kW) of power and 550 N·m (410 lb·ft) of torque. The BF (2005–2006) and BF Mk II (2006–2008) F6's had the same power and torque figures. The first power and torque upgrade came with the current FG model which has 416 hp (310 kW) of power @ 5500 rpm and 565 N·m (417 lb·ft) of torque. The Barra 310T is the first Australian-built motor to achieve over 100 hp per litre, and until the release of the new Ford supercharged "Miami" V8, produced more torque than any Australian-built engine to date.
Nizpro Turbocharging, based in Victoria, Australia, with their roots in Nissan engines, turned their attention to the Barra engine and were the first to extract 1,000 hp (746 kW) reliably from a Barra 240T engine in 2004, with carefully designed cams, manifolds and turbocharger. With Motec engine management the engine rev limit was increased to 7200 rpm and it produced 1,000 N·m (740 lb·ft) of torque at only 3500 rpm. A custom crank, conrods and pistons were used but the cylinder head was left unmodified apart from the camshafts and valve springs. The engine was available for order to be built by the public, but at a price tag of over A$38,000
Ford of Australia had intended to discontinue production of the I-6 engines at their Geelong engine plant in 2010, and replace them with imported Duratec V6s from North America. Due to the drastic increase of oil prices in 2008 and the following economic turmoil, the decision was reversed. Instead, Ford of Australia announced on 20 November 2008 that 21 million Au dollars would be invested in the Geelong engine plant to bring the I-6 engines up to date with the current Euro IV emissions standards.
|XY, XA, XB||3.3 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||96 kW (129 hp)||257 N·m (190 lb·ft)|
|XY, XA, XB||4.1 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||116 kW (156 hp)||325 N·m (240 lb·ft)|
|XC, XD||3.3 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||82 kW (110 hp)||228 N·m (168 lb·ft)||Crossflow cylinder head (Alloy Head on XD series July 1980 onwards)|
|XC||4.1 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||92 kW (123 hp)||289 N·m (213 lb·ft)||Crossflow cylinder head|
|XD||4.1 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||94 kW (126 hp)||305 N·m (225 lb·ft)||Alloy cylinder head - July 1980 onwards|
|XE, XF pre-1/1986||3.3 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||90 kW (121 hp)||240 N·m (177 lb·ft)||Alloy Head II|
|XE, XF pre-1/1986||4.1 L||Carburettor||OHV||Leaded||98 kW (131 hp)||305 N·m (225 lb·ft)||Alloy Head II|
|XE||4.1 L||EFI||OHV||Leaded||111 kW (149 hp)||325 N·m (240 lb·ft)||Bosch LE II Jetronic fuel injection|
|XF 1/1986 onwards||4.1 L||Carburettor||OHV||Unleaded||98 kW (131 hp)||297 N·m (219 lb·ft)|
|XF pre-1/1986||4.1 L||EFI||OHV||Leaded||120 kW (161 hp)||333 N·m (246 lb·ft)||Ford EEC-IV Multi Point EFI|
|XF 1/1986 onwards||4.1 L||EFI||OHV||Unleaded||123 kW (165 hp)||325 N·m (240 lb·ft)||Ford EEC-IV Multi Point EFI|
|EA||3.2 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||90 kW (121 hp)||235 N·m (173 lb·ft)|
|EA, EB||3.9 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||120 kW (161 hp)||311 N·m (229 lb·ft)|
|EA, EB||3.9 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||139 kW (186 hp)||338 N·m (249 lb·ft)||EEC-IV Multi-point injection|
|EB series II, ED||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||148 kW (198 hp)||348 N·m (257 lb·ft)|
|XR6 EBII, ED||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||161 kW (216 hp)||361 N·m (266 lb·ft)||Tickford Enhanced|
|EF, EL, AU series I, II & III||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||157 kW (211 hp)||357 N·m (263 lb·ft)||2-stage Broadband intake manifold, Coil-pack ignition system (EF and AU Only)|
|XR6 EF, EL, AU series I, II & III||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||164 kW (220 hp)||366 N·m (270 lb·ft)||Tickford Enhanced, also standard fitment on EF & EL Fairmont Ghia|
|AU series II and III||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||LPG||143 kW (192 hp)||362 N·m (267 lb·ft)||Dedicated LPG|
|Fairmont Ghia AU series I, II & III||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||168 kW (225 hp)||370 N·m (273 lb·ft)||VCT Variable Valve Timing|
|XR6 AU series I, II & III||4.0 L||EFI||SOHC||Unleaded||172 kW (231 hp)||374 N·m (276 lb·ft)||VCT Variable Valve Timing, performance exhaust|
|BA||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||182 kW (244 hp)||380 N·m (280 lb·ft)|
|BA XR6 Turbo||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||240 kW (322 hp)||450 N·m (332 lb·ft)||Garrett GT3540 turbocharger|
|BF||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||190 kW (255 hp)||383 N·m (282 lb·ft)|
|BF XR6 Turbo||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||245 kW (329 hp)||480 N·m (354 lb·ft)||Garrett GT3540 turbocharger|
|FG||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||195 kW (261 hp)||391 N·m (288 lb·ft)|
|FG ECO-LPI||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||198 kW (266 hp)||409 N·m (302 lb·ft)||Dedicated LPG|
|FG XR6 Turbo||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||270 kW (362 hp)||533 N·m (393 lb·ft)|
|FPV F6 model||Capacity||Induction||Valvetrain||Fuel||Power||Torque||Notes|
|BA MkII, BF||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||270 kW (362 hp)||550 N·m (406 lb·ft)|
|FG||4.0 L||EFI||DOHC||Unleaded||310 kW (416 hp)||565 N·m (417 lb·ft)|
|Production||1964 - 1996|
|Displacement||240 cu in (3.9 L)
300 cu in (4.9 L)
|Piston stroke||3.18" (240)
|Fuel system||Normally aspirated
|Power output||120 hp (89 kW) - 170 hp (127 kW)|
|Torque output||260 lb·ft (353 N·m)|
Produced at the Cleveland Engine plant in Brook Park, Ohio from 1964 through 1996, the 240 and 300 Sixes are well known for their durability. Simple design and rugged construction continue to endear these engines to a number of Ford enthusiasts to this day. Many have run 300,000 to 600,000 miles (480,000 to 970,000 km) without any more service than standard oil changes. The engine has earned the monikers "bulletproof" and "indestructible" by many. There are numerous claims of those who have purposely sought out to destroy one through abusive use, and were unsuccessful in doing so.
One example of the engine's sturdy design is the fact that no timing chain or timing belt (both of which can break, causing unwanted downtime or even engine damage) is used. This generation of Ford Six was designed with long-wearing gears for that purpose instead. Very few modern engines use timing gears; belts and chains are by far more common.
Both the 240 and the 300, no matter the application, used a single barrel Autolite 1100/1101 (or Carter YF/A) carburetors until the introduction of Electronic Fuel Injection. With proper gearing, many F-trucks and Broncos are able to achieve over 30 mpg. with these carburetors, when properly tuned. This was heavily used by Ford's advertising campaign (some television advertisements and written literature even claimed 30 mpg), since the V8 engines in these trucks rarely achieved over 14 mpg. Modern rebuilds are possible to reach 40 mpg in some cases.
The fuel economy of the 300 makes the engine a popular choice amongst truck enthusiasts that want both power and economy. The addition of performance parts (such as intake and exhaust manifolds with a four-barrel carburetor) place the engine power output near the same levels as the stock HO (high output) version of the optional 351 V8, with little or no change in economy. There are claims of 300s that have had the power output doubled, or even tripled, with less than a single mpg drop in fuel economy.
The 240 cu in (3.9 L) six for 1965–1970 full sized cars (continued to 74 in fleet models) and 63-77 trucks or vans produced 150 hp (112 kW). In stationary service (generators and pumps) fueled by LPG or natural gas, this is known as the CSG-639. The 240 had a bore of 4" and a stroke of 3.18".
The 300 cu in (4.9 L) six was added for the F-series in 1965. It was essentially a 240 cu in (3.9 L) with a longer stroke. The two engines are nearly identical; the differences are in the rotating assembly and combustion chamber sizes in the head (although the heads are interchangeable). It produced 170 hp (127 kW) (gross). The 300 became the base F-series engine in 1978 at 114 hp (85 kW) (hp number changes due to Ford switching to net power ratings in 1971). Power outputs were increased to roughly 122 hp (91 kW) during the early 1980s, before fuel injection was introduced. This became the primary engine of the line, eclipsing the 240. Unlike the Falcon engine, it featured separate intake and exhaust manifolds, which could be easily replaced with aftermarket manifolds offering the promise of even more power, through the installation of larger carburetors and a higher flowing exhaust system.
Also during the late sixties and early seventies, the 300 was used in larger vehicles such as dump trucks, many weighing into the 15,000–20,000 pound (7,000–9,000 kg) range. These 300s were equipped with a higher flow HD (Heavy Duty) exhaust manifold, since the engines were going to be constantly working in the 3000–4000 rpm range. These rare, yet effective manifolds had higher flow than the electronic fuel injection 4.9 (300) manifolds and some headers.
Engine sizes were converted to metric for 1983, causing the 300 to become the "4.9". Fuel injection and other changes in 1987 pushed output up to 145 hp (108 kW) with 8.8:1 compression. This engine was gradually phased out, ending production in 1996, and was replaced by the Essex V6 in the F-series trucks with their 1997 redesign. However, it was renowned for its durability, low end torque, and ease of service. The 300 4.9 came with the Ford C6, E4OD, ZF S5-42 and S5-47 transmissions, as well as the Mazda built M5OD 5-speed manual transmission, and the Borg-Warner T18 and New Process NP435 4-speed manual transmissions. The 4.9-liter 6-cylinder was built in the Cleveland, Ohio engine plant.
This engine is also used by Stewart and Stevenson in the MA Baggage Tow Tractor (pdf), and Harlan in their standard tow tractors , as well as a multitude of other pieces of equipment, such as ski lifts, power generators, wood chippers, tractors, and, until they converted to diesel engines, most UPS trucks. Many UPS trucks still use the 300 to this day.
In stationary service (generators and pumps) fueled with LPG or natural gas, this engine is known as the CSG-649.
The Ford Inline six in racing
The Ford Inline six has had a small though colorful career in racing, which has increased in recent years due to the rising popularity of the motor and the availability of performance parts. The big 240's and 300's offered stronger torque at lower engine speed than most V8's of comparable displacement, while sacrificing peak power because of their square bore/stroke. The long stroke combined with the longer crankshaft creates problems at higher engine speed, and most stock cast-iron pieces are not recommended for service above 5000 rpm. The engine also weighs more than a V8 of similar displacement due to the longer length. The most desirable engines are those from mid-1960s dump trucks, as they have forged steel crankshafts and high-flow exhaust manifolds.
A recent yet giant step in Ford Inline six racing has been performed by McLearran Motorsports in Tucson AZ. The McLearrans, Wil and Kelly, have achieved enough notice that their 1963 Ford Falcon has been seen in several magazines and was scheduled to make an appearance on the show Pinks.
The 1963 Falcon driven by McLearran Motorsports' Kelly McLearran has been dyno tested at 323 rwhp @ 4500 rpm and 502 rwtq @ 2650 rpm. The car has run a best time of 10.89 seconds at 1/4 mile, with Kelly driving.
|Ford Motor Company engine timeline, North American market, 1950s–1970s — Next »|
|4-cylinder engines||Ford Pinto engine|
|I6 engines||Flathead I6||Thriftpower I6|
|Mileage Maker I6||Truck I6|
|V6 engines||Cologne V6|
|Small block V8||Flathead V8||351 Cleveland V8|
|Ford Y-block V8||335/Modified V8|
|Medium block V8||FE V8|
|Big block V8||Lincoln Y-block V8|
|MEL V8||385 V8|
|Super Duty V8|