Foreign relations of Moldova

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Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on March 16, 1994

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995, the country became the first post-Soviet state admitted to the Council of Europe. In addition to its participation in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, Moldova is a member state of the United Nations, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures. After the War of Transnistria, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

Overview[edit]

Foreign relations of Moldova

Moldova has established diplomatic relations with 97 states,[1] the Holy See,[1] the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,[1] and the European Union.[1]

Moldova has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Haiti, St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay
  • Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, San Marino
  • Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, DRCongo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo
  • Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Iraq, Laos, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
  • Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
  • The states with limited recognition.

Relations with the European Union[edit]

Moldova currently aspires to join the European Union[2] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[3]

Relations with NATO[edit]

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO allies and partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with USA[edit]

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry made a visit to Moldova to support the former Soviet republic's pro-Western moves in the face of Russian pressure.

The United States remains committed to the 5+2 negotiations process as a means to resolving the Transnistria conflict. The United States supports a comprehensive settlement that affirms Moldova’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, while providing a special status for Transnistria.

Relations with Romania[edit]

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been stressed since 1994. Most of Moldova was part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40) and linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian.[citation needed] However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Beginning in 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on January 1, 2007, with Romania's entry into the European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[4]

Relations with Russia and other post-Soviet states[edit]

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998, Moldova contributed to the founding of GUAM, a regional cooperation agreement made up of Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain a military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Separatist movements[edit]

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist Transnistria region. Transnistria had a particularly large non-Moldovan population (about 60%) and broke away from Moldova less than a year after Moldova became independent at the fall of the Soviet Union. It has its own de facto government and acts independently from Chișinău since the War of Transnistria. The international diplomatic situation with respect to the question of Transnistria determines and is determined by Moldova's relations with Russia. Russia, Ukraine, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, EU, and United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Bilateral relationships[edit]

Moldova has embassy-level relationships with:

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia
 Austria 1992-03-25 see Austria–Moldova relations
 Belarus see Belarus–Moldova relations

There is no common border between Moldova and Belarus. The number of Belorussians in Moldova and of Moldovans in Belarus is insignificant.

 Belgium
 Bulgaria 1992-02-05
 Croatia 1992-07-28
 Cyprus 1992-02-12
 Czech Republic
 Denmark 1992-01-20 See Denmark–Moldova relations
 Estonia 1992-11-10
 Finland 1992-02-26
 France
 Georgia 1992-06-25
 Germany see Germany–Moldova relations

Germany has an embassy in Chişinău. Moldova has an embassy in Berlin.

 Greece 27 March 1992 see Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Modlova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Moldova is represented in Greece through its embassy in Athens, opened in 2003.[11]
  • Greece is represented in Moldova through its honorary consulate in Chișinău and its embassy in Kiev.
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Hungary
 Ireland 1992
 Israel 1992-06-22 see Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel recognized Moldova on December 25, 1991.
  • Israel is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Haifa.
 Italy
 Japan 1992-03-16 see Foreign relations of Japan
 Lithuania
 Netherlands 2013-09-06
 Malta
 Poland
 Romania See Moldovan–Romanian relations
 Russia see Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180 degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform,[citation needed] with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

 Serbia 1995
 Slovenia 1993-10-27
 Turkey
 United Kingdom
 United States 1991-12-25 see Moldova – United States relations

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on December 25, 1991, and opened an embassy in its capital, Chișinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. A generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

47°00′44″N 28°50′50″E / 47.012205°N 28.847109°E / 47.012205; 28.847109