Foreign born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence. Foreign born are often non-citizens, but many are naturalized citizens of the country that they live in and others are citizens by descent, typically through a parent.
The term foreign born encompasses both immigrants and expatriates but is not synonymous with either. Foreign born may, like immigrants, have committed to living in a country permanently or, like expatriates, live abroad for a significant period with the plan to return to their birth-country eventually.
The status of foreign born — particularly their access to citizenship — differs globally. The large groups of foreign born guest workers in the Gulf States, for example, have no right to citizenship no matter the length of their residence. In Canada and the United States, by contrast, foreign born are often citizens or in the process of becoming citizens. Certain countries have intermediary rules: in Germany and Japan it is often difficult but not impossible for the foreign born to become citizens.
Trends by country
The percentage of foreign born in a country is the product mostly of immigration rates, but is also affected by emigration rates and birth and death rates in the destination country. For example the United Kingdom and Ireland are destination countries for migrants from Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia, but are themselves source countries for immigration to other Anglosphere countries. The countries with the highest rates of immigration are wealthy countries with relatively open nationality or migration laws including the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and the Persian Gulf States.
The largest foreign-born population in the world is in the United States, which was home to 39 million foreign-residents in 2012, or 12.6% of the population. The highest percentage of foreign-born residents occurs in small, wealthy countries with large numbers of temporary foreign workers, such as the United Arab Emirates and Qatar, the population of each is, depending on the economy at the time, around 80%. In 2010, the Migration Policy Institute reported that the largest percentages were Qatar (86.5%) and UAE (70%).
Cities with largest foreign born populations
|Rank||City||Country||Estimate Source||Foreign-Born Population|
|1||New York City||United States||2011 ACS||3,066,599|
|2||London||United Kingdom||United Kingdom Census 2011||2,998,264|
|3||Toronto||Canada||Canada 2011 Census||1,512,230|
|4||Los Angeles||United States||2011 ACS||1,489,640|
|5||Houston||United States||2011 ACS||593,412|
|6||Chicago||United States||2011 ACS||579,127|
|7||Montreal||Canada||Canada 2011 Census||536,738|
|9||San Jose||United States||2011 ACS||378,867|
|10||San Diego||United States||2011 ACS||350,768|
|11||Dallas||United States||2011 ACS||310,142|
Metropolitan regions with largest foreign born populations
|1||New York metropolitan area||United States||5,117,290|
|2||Los Angeles metropolitan area||United States||4,407,353|
|3||London and Home Counties||United Kingdom||4,051,502|
|4||Hong Kong (SAR)||Hong Kong||2,793,450|
|5||Toronto metropolitan area||Canada||2,512,373|
|6||Paris metropolitan area||France||2,429,223|
|7||Miami metropolitan area||United States||1,949,629|
|8||Chicago metropolitan area||United States||1,625,649|
|9||Singapore (City Only)||Singapore||1,305,011|
|10||Sydney Greater Statistical Area||Australia||1,235,908|
|11||San Francisco metropolitan area||United States||1,201,209|
|12||Moscow (City Only)||Russia||1,128,035|
|13||Houston metropolitan area||United States||1,113,875|
|14||Metropolitan Dubai||United Arab Emirates||1,056,000|
|15||Riyadh (City Only)||Saudi Arabia||1,054,000|
|16||Washington metropolitan area||United States||1,017,432|
|17||Dallas metropolitan area||United States||1,016,221|
Miscellaneous regions with high percentage of foreign born population
|Rank>||City||Country||Percent||Largest Source of Immigrants|
|1||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||82||India|
|2||Luxembourg City||Luxembourg||66 ||France|
|3||Toronto||Canada||52* ||India / Philippines|
|4||Miami||United States||51 ||Cuba|
|5||Queens, NY||United States||48||People's Republic of China | India|
|9||Vancouver||Canada||40||People's Republic of China|
|10||Auckland||New Zealand||39||United Kingdom|
- Toronto was estimated to be higher at the 2011 census. After Statistics Canada, the national statistics agency, made the National Household Survey optional following the 2006 census it was estimated that minority groups would be less likely to respond to the survey. Furthermore, the statistics are less likely to represent temporary foreign workers or international students.
- Alien (law)
- Finishing School
- Foreign-born Japanese
- Immigrant generations
- United States Census Bureau. Current Population Survey - March 2012 Detailed Tables, Table 1.1. Accessed September 6, 2014.
- "2011 American Community Survey: New York City Foreign Born Population". Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- Global City Migration Map
- Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Portraits of major metropolitan centres
- INSEE. "Répartition de la population de la France par région de naissance et région de résidence en 2008". Retrieved 2012-01-29.
- Luxembourg City sees rise in population
- Key figures Amsterdam 2005, p. 1
- Mémento statistique du canton de Genève 2010, p. 1