Foreign direct investment
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.
Foreign direct investment is distinguished from portfolio foreign investment, a passive investment in the securities of another country such as public stocks and bonds, by the element of "control". According to the Financial Times, "Standard definitions of control use the internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology, management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control."
The origin of the investment does not impact the definition as an FDI, i.e., the investment may be made either "inorganically" by buying a company in the target country or "organically" by expanding operations of an existing business in that country.
Broadly, foreign direct investment includes "mergers and acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from overseas operations and intra company loans". In a narrow sense, foreign direct investment refers just to building new facilities. The numerical FDI figures based on varied definitions are not easily comparable. As a part of the national accounts of a country, and in regard to the GDP equation Y=C+I+G+(X-M)[Consumption + gross Investment + Government spending +(exports - imports)], where I is domestic investment plus foreign investment, FDI is defined as the net inflows of investment (inflow minus outflow) to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. FDI is the sum of equity capital, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown the balance of payments. FDI usually involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of technology and expertise. Stock of FDI is the net (i.e., inward FDI minus outward FDI) cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. FDI is one example of international factor movements
- Horizontal FDI arises when a firm duplicates its home country-based activities at the same value chain stage in a host country through FDI.
- Platform FDI Foreign direct investment from a source country into a destination country for the purpose of exporting to a third country.
- Vertical FDI takes place when a firm through FDI moves upstream or downstream in different value chains i.e., when firms perform value-adding activities stage by stage in a vertical fashion in a host country.
The foreign direct investor may acquire voting power of an enterprise in an economy through any of the following methods:
- by incorporating a wholly owned subsidiary or company anywhere
- by acquiring shares in an associated enterprise
- through a merger or an acquisition of an unrelated enterprise
- participating in an equity joint venture with another investor or enterprise
Forms of FDI incentives
Foreign direct investment incentives may take the following forms:
- low corporate tax and individual income tax rates
- tax holidays
- other types of tax concessions
- preferential tariffs
- special economic zones
- EPZ – Export Processing Zones
- Bonded warehouses
- investment financial subsidies
- free land or land subsidies
- relocation & expatriation
- infrastructure subsidies
- R&D support
- derogation from regulations (usually for very large projects)
Governmental Investment Promotion Agencies (IPAs) use various marketing strategies inspired by the private sector to try and attract inward FDI, including Diaspora marketing.
- by excluding the internal investment to get a profited downstream.
Importance and barriers to FDI
The rapid growth of world population since 1950 has occurred mostly in developing countries. This growth has been matched by more rapid increases in gross domestic product, and thus income per capita has increased in most countries around the world since 1950. While the quality of the data from 1950 may be of question, taking the average across a range of estimates confirms this. Only war-torn and countries with other serious external problems, such as Haiti, Somalia, and Niger have not registered substantial increases in GDP per capita. The data available to confirm this are freely available.
An increase in FDI may be associated with improved economic growth due to the influx of capital and increased tax revenues for the host country. Host countries often try to channel FDI investment into new infrastructure and other projects to boost development. Greater competition from new companies can lead to productivity gains and greater efficiency in the host country and it has been suggested that the application of a foreign entity’s policies to a domestic subsidiary may improve corporate governance standards. Furthermore, foreign investment can result in the transfer of soft skills through training and job creation, the availability of more advanced technology for the domestic market and access to research and development resources. The local population may be able to benefit from the employment opportunities created by new businesses.
A 2010 meta-analysis of the effects of foreign direct investment on local firms in developing and transition countries suggests that foreign investment robustly increases local productivity growth.  The Commitment to Development Index ranks the "development-friendliness" of rich country investment policies.
FDI in China, also known as RFDI (renminbi foreign direct investment), has increased considerably in the last decade, reaching $59.1 billion in the first six months of 2012, making China the largest recipient of foreign direct investment and topping the United States which had $57.4 billion of FDI. In 2013 the FDI flow into China was $64.1 billion, resulting in a 34.7% market share of FDI into the Asia-Pacific region. By contrast, FDI out of China in 2013 was $18.97 billion, 10.7% of the Asia-Pacific share.
Foreign investment was introduced in 1991 under Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA), driven by then finance minister Manmohan Singh. As Singh subsequently became the prime minister, this has been one of his top political problems, even in the current times. India disallowed overseas corporate bodies (OCB) to invest in India. India imposes cap on equity holding by foreign investors in various sectors, current FDI in aviation and insurance sectors is limited to a maximum of 49%.
Starting from a baseline of less than $1 billion in 1990, a 2012 UNCTAD survey projected India as the second most important FDI destination (after China) for transnational corporations during 2010–2012. As per the data, the sectors that attracted higher inflows were services, telecommunication, construction activities and computer software and hardware. Mauritius, Singapore, US and UK were among the leading sources of FDI. Based on UNCTAD data FDI flows were $10.4 billion, a drop of 43% from the first half of the last year.
Nine of the 10 largest foreign companies investing in India(from April 2000- January 2011) are based in Mauritius .  List of the ten largest foreign companies investing in India(from April 2000- January 2011) are as follows  --
- TMI Mauritius Ltd. ->Rs 7294 crore/$1600 million
- Cairn UK Holding -> Rs6663 crores/$1492 million
- Oracle Global (Mauritius) Ltd. -> Rs 4805 crore/$1083 million
- Mauritius Debt Management Ltd.-> Rs 3800 crore/$956 million
- Vodafone Mauritius Ltd. – Rs 3268 crore/$801 million
- Etisalat Mauritius Ltd. – Rs 3228 crore
- CMP Asia Ltd. – Rs 2638.25 crore/$653.74 million
- Oracle Global mauritius Ltd. – Rs 2578.88 crore / $563.94 million
- Merrill Lynch(Mauritius) Ltd. – Rs 2230.02 crore / $483.55 million
- Name of the company not given (but the Indian company which got the FDI is Dhabol Power company Ltd.)
U.S. FDI totaled $194 billion in 2010. 84% of FDI in the United States in 2010 came from or through eight countries: Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Canada. A major source of investment is the real estate, the foreign investment in this area totaled $92.2 billion in 2013, under various forms of purchase structures (considering the U.S. taxation and residency laws).
A 2008 study by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco indicated that foreigners hold greater shares of their investment portfolios in the United States if their own countries have less developed financial markets, an effect whose magnitude decreases with income per capita. Countries with fewer capital controls and greater trade with the United States also invest more in U.S. equity and bond markets.
In 2011, Rick Kimball, Gordon M. Goldstein, Daniel Zwirn, et al. created a study in behalf of Brookings Institution on the role and importance of foreign capital funds in the United States. The study reviews practices of Global Public Investors and recommends promoting of investment in U.S. infrastructure development.
White House data reported in 2011 found that a total of 5.7 million workers were employed at facilities highly dependent on foreign direct investors. Thus, about 13% of the American manufacturing workforce depended on such investments. The average pay of said jobs was found as around $70,000 per worker, over 30% higher than the average pay across the entire U.S. workforce.
President Barack Obama said in 2012, "In a global economy, the United States faces increasing competition for the jobs and industries of the future. Taking steps to ensure that we remain the destination of choice for investors around the world will help us win that competition and bring prosperity to our people."
In September 2013, the United States House of Representatives voted to pass the Global Investment in American Jobs Act of 2013 (H.R. 2052; 113th Congress), a bill which would direct the United States Department of Commerce to "conduct a review of the global competitiveness of the United States in attracting foreign direct investment". Supporters of the bill argued that increased foreign direct investment would help job creation in the United States.
Foreign direct investment by country and by industry are tracked by Statistics Canada. Foreign direct investment accounted for CAD$634 billion in 2012, eclipsing the United States in this economic measure. Global FDI inflows and outflows are tabulated by Statistics Canada.
The UK has a very free market economy and is open to foreign investment. Prime Minister David Cameron has sought investment from emerging markets and from the Far East in particular and some of Britain's largest infrastructure including energy and skyscrapers such as The Shard have been built with foreign investment.
- History of Foreign Investment Law
In 1991, for the first time, Russia regulated the form, range and favorable policy of FDI in Russia.
In 1994, a consulting council of FDI was established in Russia, which was responsible for setting tax rate and policies for exchange rate, improving investment environment, mediating relationship between central and local government, researching and improving images of FDI work, and increasing the right and responsibility of Ministry of Economic in appealing FDI and enforcing all kinds of policies.
In 1997, Russia starts to enact policies for appealing FDI on particular industries, for example, fossil fuel, gas, woods, transportation, food reprocessing, etc.
In 1999, Russia announced a law named FDI of Russian Federation, which aimed at providing a basic guarantee for foreign investors on investing, running business, earnings.
In 2008, Russia banned on FDI on strategic industries, such as military defense and country safety.
In 2014, president Putin announced that once abroad Russian investment inflows legally, it would not be checked by tax or law sector. This is a favorable policy of Putin to appeal Russian investment to come back.
- Structure of foreign investment in Russia
- Direct investment: Investing directly with cash. Basically, investment more than 10% of the item is called Direct investment.
- Portfolio investment: Investing indirectly with company loans, financial loans, stocks, etc. Basically, investment less than 10% of the item is called Portfolio investment.
- Other investment: Except for direct and portfolio investment, including international assistance and loans for original country.
- Risk of investing in Russia
- Currency risk: Ruble is unsteady since the price of fuel falling in 2014.
- Oil risk: International price of fuel is the lowest ever.
- Politics risk: Economic sanctions by U.S and European countries cause political risk in Russia.
- Investment promotion agency
- Bilateral investment treaty
- Foreign exchange controls
- List of countries by FDI abroad
- List of countries by received FDI
- FT Lexicon
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- 2014 Послание Президента Федеральному Собранию. Website:http://kremlin.ru/news/47173 檢閱日期:2015/01/16
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- FDI Magnet maintains a list of FDI resources, including a list of IPAs active on Twitter
- Ott, Mack (2002). "Foreign Investment in the United States". In David R. Henderson (ed.). Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270 and 163149563
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- OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment (2008)
- IMF: How Countries Measure FDI (2001)
- Tracking cross-border investments using applied onomastics
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