Foreign language anxiety
Foreign language anxiety (or xenoglossophobia) is the feeling of uneasiness, worry, nervousness and apprehension experienced by non-native speakers when learning or using a second or foreign language. These feelings may stem from any second language context whether associated with the productive skills of speaking and writing, or the receptive skills of reading and listening.
Foreign language anxiety is a form of what psychologists describe as specific anxiety reaction. Some individuals are more predisposed to anxiety than others and as such may feel anxious in a wide variety of situations. Foreign language anxiety, however, is situation specific and so can also affect individuals who are not characteristically anxious in the aforementioned, more general, situations.
Causes of foreign language anxiety
The causes of foreign language anxiety have been broadly separated into three main components; communication apprehension, test anxiety and fear of negative evaluation. Communication apprehension is the anxiety experienced when speaking with or listening to other individuals. Test-anxiety is a form of performance anxiety associated with the fear of doing badly, or indeed failing altogether. Fear of negative evaluation is the anxiety associated with the learner’s perception of how other onlookers; instructors, classmates or others; may negatively view their language ability.
There can be various physical causes of anxiety ( such as hormone levels) but fundamentally excessive anxiety whilst learning is caused by fear and a lack of confidence. Lack of confidence itself can come from various causes. One reason can be the teaching approach used.
Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety
The effects of foreign language anxiety are particularly evident in the foreign language classroom and anxiety is a strong indicator of academic performance. Anxiety is found to have a detrimental effect on students’ confidence, self-esteem and level of participation.
Anxious learners suffer from mental blocks during spontaneous speaking activities, lack confidence, are less able to self-edit and identify language errors and are more likely to employ avoidance strategies such as skipping class. Anxious students also forget previously learned material, volunteer answers less frequently and have a greater tendency to remain passive in classroom activities than their less anxious counterparts.
The effects of foreign language anxiety also extend outside the second language classroom. A high level of foreign language anxiety may also correspond with communication apprehension, causing individuals to be quieter and less willing to communicate. People who exhibit this kind of communication reticence can also sometimes be perceived as less trustworthy, less competent, less socially and physically attractive, tenser, less composed and less dominant than their less reticent counterparts.
Measures of Foreign Language Anxiety
A number of tools have been developed in order to investigate the level of foreign language anxiety experienced by language learners.
The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) is a 33 question, 5 point Likert scale survey which is widely used in research studies. The measure investigates participants’ communication apprehension, test-anxiety and fear of negative evaluation; and focuses on speaking in a classroom context. The instrument has been translated and used in several languages including Spanish and Chinese.
Following the success of the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety scale, similar instruments have been devised for measuring Foreign Language Reading Anxiety (FLRAS), Foreign Language Listening Anxiety (FLLAS) and Second Language Writing Apprehension (SLWAT).
- MacIntyre, P. D.; Gardner, R. C. (1994). "The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language". Language Learning 44: 283–305.
- Horwirz, E. K.; Horwitz, M. B.; Cope, J. (1986). "Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety". The Modern Language Journal 70 (ii).
- Gregerson, T. (2003). "To err is human: A reminder to teachers of language-anxious students". Foreign Language Annals 36 (1): 25–32.
- Ely, C. M. (1986). "An analysis of discomfort, risk-taking, sociability, and motivation in the L2 classroom". Language Learning 36: 1–25.
- Liu, M.; Jackson, J. (2008). "An exploration of Chinese EFL learners’ Unwillingness to Communicate and Foreign Language Anxiety". The Modern Language Journal 92 (i): 71–86.
- Saito, Y.; Horwitz, E. K.; Garza, T. J. (1999). "Foreign Language Reading Anxiety". The Modern Language Journal 83: 202–218.
- Cheng, Y. S.; Horwitz, E. K.; Shallert, D. L. (1999). "Language anxiety: Differentiating writing and speaking components". Language Learning 49: 417–446.
- Lin, G. H. C. (2009). An exploration into foreign language writing anxiety from Taiwanese university students’ perspectives. 2009 NCUE Fourth Annual Conference on Language Teaching, Literature, Linguistics, Translation, and Interpretation. National Changhua University of Education, Department of English, Taiwan, ROC,. pp. 307–318.
- Lin, G. H. C. (2008). "Pedagogies proving Krashen’s theory of affective filter". Hwa Kang Journal of English Language & Literature 14: 113–131. ERIC Collection as ED503681.