Foreign relations of Albania

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politics and government of
Albania

Albanian foreign policy since its independence has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have friendly relations with all countries. Albania is a member of more than 48 different international organizations including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.,[1] the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization and La Francophonie.

The main objectives of Albanian foreign policy are:

The main factors defining Albanian foreign policy consist of geopolitical location, population, economic crisis, and ties with Albanian diaspora throughout the world. Albania has concentrated on maintaining good relations with its Balkan neighbours, gaining access to European-Atlantic security institutions, and securing close ties with the United States.

On 14 January 2011, Albania signed a pact with Italy for a corporal foreign strategy.[3]

The government of Albania is very concerned with developments in neighboring Kosovo, particularly in the post-Dayton agreement period. Although the region is claimed by Serbia to be a Serbian province, Albania recognized Kosovo’s declaration of independence on 18 February 2008.

After the fall of the Albanian communist regime in 1991, relations between Greece and Albania became increasingly strained because of widespread allegations of mistreatment by Albanian authorities of the Greek ethnic minority in southern Albania and of the Albanian communities in northern Greece. A wave of Albanian illegal economic migrants to Greece exacerbated tensions. The crisis in Greek–Albanian relations reached its peak in late August 1994, when an Albanian court sentenced five members (a sixth member was added later) of the ethnic Greek political party Omonia to prison terms on charges of undermining the Albanian state. Greece responded by freezing all EU aid to Albania, and sealing its border with Albania. In December 1994, however, Greece began to permit limited EU aid to Albania, while Albania released two of the Omonia defendants and reduced the sentences of the remaining four.

There are still other impending issues in the relations between the two countries, regarding many Albanian workers in Greece who have not received legal papers despite promises by the Greek government. In 1996, the two countries signed a Treaty of Peace and Friendship and discussed the issues of the status of Albanian refugees in Greece and education in the mother tongue for the ethnic Greek minority in southern Albania.

Today, as result of very frequent high-level contacts between the governments and the parliaments, relations between the two countries are regarded as cordial. Greece is a staunch supporter of the Euro-Atlantic integration of the Republic of Albania. Since Albania's NATO entry in May 2009, the Albanian-Greek relations have been developing on all fronts, and especially after the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013,[4] with the Albanian Chief of Foreign Policy, Ralf Gjoni, describing the diplomatic relations between two countries as "excellent". Greece today is Albania's most important European Union ally and NATO partner.[5] At the Albanian government’s request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring of the Albanian Armed Forces, as part of the NATO programme. Big projects currently in running between the two countries include the touristic development of the Ionian coastline shared between the two countries, and the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP), which helped boosting the relations of the two countries even further.

Tirana’s relations with the Republic of Macedonia remain friendly, despite occasional incidents involving ethnic Albanians there. Tirana has repeatedly encouraged the Albanian minority’s continued participation in its government.

During the 1990s, after the fall of communism, at the onset of democratic reforms, there were vast waves of illegal immigration from the Albanian ports to Italy. This strained relations between the countries somewhat as Italy had to avert a humanitarian crisis. The tensions reached a peak when an Italian coast guard ship allegedly rammed and sank an Albanian ship carrying 120–130, 75 of whom drowned, on 28 March 1997. Eventually the two countries began joint operations aimed at stopping illegal smuggling operations. Italy has also provided financial assistance to Albania to help its ailing economy.

Countries with diplomatic relations with Albania[edit]

International disputes[edit]

The Albanian government supports protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks full recognition of the declared independence from Serbia; Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government.[citation needed] A handful of Albanian troops have participated in the US-led invasions and occupations of Iraq and Afghanistan.[6] Albanian policy is very favorable to that of the United States.

Foreign aid[edit]

Through FY 1998, the United States committed approximately US$300 million to Albania’s economic and political transformation and to address humanitarian needs. At the time, this figure comprised about 10% of all bilateral and multilateral assistance offered since 1991. Italy ranks first in bilateral assistance and Germany third. The European Union (EU) has given about US$800 million since 1991 and pledged US$175 million in 1996–99.

In FY 1999, the United States was to provide $30 million through the Support for East European Democracy (SEED) Act, up from $27 million the previous year. The U.S. also was to provide an agricultural commodities grant of $10 million.

The $30 million Albanian-American Enterprise Fund (AAEF), launched in 1994, is actively making debt and equity investments in local businesses. AAEF is designed to harness private sector efforts to assist in the economic transformation. U.S. assistance priorities include promotion of agricultural development and a market economy, advancement of democratic institutions (including police training), and improvements in quality of life. The SEED funding request for Albania for FY 2000 was $25 million.

International organization participation[edit]

The Republic of Albania is member in these international organizations.[7]

Foreign relations with other countries[edit]

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria See Albania–Algeria relations

Algeria is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, Greece.

 Egypt See Albania–Egypt relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Cairo.
  • Egypt has an embassy in Tirana.
 Libya See Albania–Libya relations

Albania was one of the first countries to recognized the National Transitional Council on 18 July 2011.[8][9][10]

  • Libya has an embassy in Tirana.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina See Albania–Argentina relations
 Brazil See Albania–Brazil relations
 Canada See Albania–Canada relations
 Mexico See Albania–Mexico relations
  • Albania is represented in Mexico through its embassy in Washington, D.C., USA.
  • Mexico is represented in Albania through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[11]
 United States 1922[12] See Albania–United States relations

Albanian American

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia 18 February 1993 See Albania-Armenia relations
  • Albania is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens, Greece.
 China 23 November 1949 See Albania–People's Republic of China relations

People's Socialist Republic of Albania under Enver Hoxha, moved an annual resolution in the General Assembly to transfer China's seat at the United Nations from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China. On 25 October 1971, Resolution 2758, sponsored by Albania, was passed by the General Assembly, withdrawing recognition of the ROC as the legitimate government of China, and recognizing the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China. Albania was the fist country to recognize the People's Republic China. Albania and People's Republic China established diplomatic relations on 23 November 1949.[13]
Sino-Albanian split
China–Albania Friendship Association

  • Albania has an embassy in Beijing.
  • People's Republic China has an embassy in Tirana.
 Georgia 8 July 1993[14] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
 India 1956[15] See Albania–India relations
 Iran See Albania–Iran relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Tirana.
 Israel 20 August 1991 See Albania–Israel relations

Albania had recognized the State of Israel on 16 April 1949 by a telegram of Albanian Prime Minister Enver Hoxha.[16] Albania and Israel established diplomatic relations on 20 August 1991.[17]

  • Albania has an embassy in Tel Aviv.
  • Israel has an embassy in Tirana which was opened in August 2012.[18]
 Japan See Albania–Japan relations

Albania and Japan resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[19]

  • Albania has an embassy in Tokyo.
 Kuwait See Albania–Kuwait relations
 Malaysia See Albania–Malaysia relations
 Mongolia 24 May 1949[20] See Albania–Mongolia relations
  • Albania is represented in Mongolia through its embassy in Moscow, (Russia).
 Pakistan

Pakistan's diplomatic relations with Albania are very cordial given that Albania is a Muslim majority country, and the only European country with OIC membership. Albania has consistently supported Pakistan for the Kashmir cause.[citation needed] In December 2006, Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Anton Gurakqui visited Pakistan to hold bilateral consultation with Pakistani political leadership. Pakistan also offers training facilities to young Albanian bureaucrats in the field of banking, finance, management and diplomacy.[21]

 Palestine 1990 See Albania–Palestine relations

Albania had previously recognized the State of Palestine as a state since 1988. Albania and the State of Palestine established diplomatic relations in 1990.

  • Palestine has an embassy in Tirana.
 Qatar See Albania–Qatar relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tirana.
 Saudi Arabia See Albania–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tirana.
 United Arab Emirates See Albania–United Arab Emirates relations

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Andorra See Albania-Andorra relations
 Austria See Albania–Austria relations

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tirana.
 Azerbaijan See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
 Belarus See Albania–Belarus relations
 Belgium See Albania–Belgium relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Tirana.
 Bulgaria See See Albania–Bulgaria relations

Albania under the Bulgarian Empire
Albanians in Bulgaria

  • Albania has an embassy in Sofia.
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in Tirana.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 28 December 1992 See Albania-Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Albania recognised Bosnia and Herzegovina on 21 April 1992.[22]
  • Albania has an embassy in Sarajevo.
 Croatia 25 August 1992 See Albania–Croatia relations

Albania had recognized Croatia on 21 January 1992. Albania and Croatia established diplomatic relations on 25 August 1992.[23] In April 2009, both countries became full members of NATO at an event which both Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and Croatian Prime Minister Ivo Sanader attended. Also that year, the two countries decided to build a joint Nuclear Power Plant on the Albanian border with Montenegro. This decision was greeted warily by the government of Montenegro, which is worried about the plant's environmental impact. The two have a history of defense pacts, and overall theirs is a good relationship. Arbanasi (group)

  • Albania has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Cyprus See Albania–Cyprus relations
 Czech Republic See Albania–Czech Republic relations

The multi-national Communist armed forces’ sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[24]

  • Albania has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Tirana.
 Denmark 1 May 1970[25] See Albania–Denmark relations
 Estonia 1 January 1992
 Finland
 France See Albania-France relations
 Georgia 8 July 1993[14] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
  • Georgia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Ankara, (Turkey).
 Germany See Albania-Germany relations

Albania under Nazi Germany
Albanians in Germany

  • Albania has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Tirana.
 Greece de facto in 1971[28][29]
de juro 21 March 1996
See Albania-Greece relations

Arvanites
Cham Albanians
Expulsion of Cham Albanians
Albanian communities in Greece
In 1941 Greece declared war to the Italian-occupied Albania, during the Greco-Italian War.

 Holy See 7 September 1991[30] See Albania-Holy See relations
 Hungary

Austria-Hungary supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Budapest.
  • Hungary has an embassy in Tirana.
 Iceland
 Ireland
 Italy 1912 See Albania-Italy relations

The Kingdom of Italy supported Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.
Arbëreshë people
Italian protectorate over Albania
Italian invasion of Albania
Albanian Kingdom (1939–1943)
Italian colonists in Albania

 Kosovo 2008 See Albania–Kosovo relations

Albania recognized Kosovo on 18 February 2008. According to the official text of recognition the Republic of Albania recognised the Republic of Kosovo, based on the law of 1991, which recognised the Republic of Kosova on 21 October 1991.
Albanians in Kosovo

  • Albania has an embassy in Pristina.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Tirana.
 Latvia
 Lithuania
 Luxembourg
 Macedonia See Albania–Republic of Macedonia relations

Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia
Albania has recognized the Republic of Macedonia as independent and sovereign country after Skopje proclaimed the independence, but Albania never officially recognized Skopje with its constitutional name, but sees no problem using the constitutional name in bilateral relations. Albanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that Macedonia has "died" with Alexander the Great, not supported neither Athens or Skopje on this issue being assessed as more important the integration of e Skopje in NATO and EU than context of the name.

  • Albania has an embassy in Skopje.
  • Macedonia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Malta See Albania–Malta relations
 Moldova
 Monaco See Albania-Monaco relations
 Montenegro 1 August 2006 See Albania-Montenegro relations

Albania has recognized Montenegro on 12 July 2006. Albania and Montenegro established diplomatic relations on 1 August 2006. Albanians in Montenegro

  • Albania has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Tirana.
 Netherlands 1970[33] See Albania-Netherlands relations
 Poland See Albania–Poland relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tirana.
 Portugal See Albania–Portugal relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Lisbon.
 Romania 28 December 1913 See Albania–Romania relations

Albanians of Romania
Romania was the first country that recognized Albania.[34][35]

 Russia 7 April 1924 See Albania–Russia relations
 Serbia See Albania-Serbia relations

Albanians in south Serbia
Albanian Coalition of Preševo Valley
Preševo Valley(Presheva, Bujanovac and Medvegjë)
Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac

  • Albania has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tirana.
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1994[30] See Albania–Sovereign Military Order of Malta relations
 Spain See Albania–Spain relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tirana.
 Slovakia See Albania–Slovakia relations

The multi-national Communist armed forces’ sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[24]

 Slovenia
 Sweden See Albania–Sweden relations

Albanians in Sweden

  Switzerland 1 March 1922[36] See Albania-Switzerland relations

Albanians in Switzerland

  • Albania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tirana.
 Turkey See Albania-Turkey relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a Consulate General in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tirana.
 Ukraine See Albania-Ukraine relations

Albanians in Ukraine

 United Kingdom See Albania–United Kingdom relations
  • Albania has an embassy in London.
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Tirana.

Australia and Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia See Albania–Australia relations

Albanian Australian

 Fiji See Albania-Fiji relations
 Kiribati See Albania-Kiribati relations
 Marshall Islands See Albania-Marshall Islands relations
 Federated States of Micronesia See Albania-Federated States of Micronesia relations
 Nauru See Albania-Nauru relations
 New Zealand See Albania-New Zealand relations
 Palau See Albania-Palau relations
 Papua New Guinea See Albania-Papua New Guinea relations
 Samoa See Albania-Samoa relations
 Solomon Islands See Albania-Solomon Islands relations
 Tonga See Albania-Tonga relations
 Tuvalu See Albania-Tuvalu relations
 Vanuatu See Albania – Vanuatu relations

NGO's[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 European Union 1992 See Albania–European Union relations

Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009.

 NATO 1992 See Albania–NATO relations

Albania's relationship with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization began in 1992 when it joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. In 1994, it entered NATO's Partnership for Peace, which began Albania's process of accession into the alliance. In 1999, the country received a Membership Action Plan (MAP). The country received an invitation to join at the 2008 Bucharest Summit and became a full member on 1 April 2009.

 United Nations 14 December 1955 See Albania and the United Nations

Albania became a full member of United of Nations on 14 December 1955.

Former countries[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Papal States See Albania–Papal States relations

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with the Papacy.

 Kingdom of Naples See Albania–Kingdom of Naples relations

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with Naples. King Alfonso V helped him in this situation and the two parties signed the Treaty of Gaeta on 26 March 1451, according to which, Skanderbeg would be formally a vassal of Alfonso in exchange for military aid. More explicitly, Skanderbeg recognized King Alfonso's sovereignty over his lands in exchange for the help that King Alfonso would give to him in the war against the Ottomans. King Alfonso pledged to respect the old privileges of Krujë and Albanian territories and to pay Skanderbeg an annual 1,500 ducats, while Skanderbeg pledged to make his fealty to King Alfonso only after the full expulsion of the Ottomans from the country, a condition never reached in Skanderbeg's lifetime. After Alfonso V's death, his son Skanderbeg helped Alfonso V's Ferdinand I of Naples to re-established his authority in the kingdom. After Skanderbeg's death Ferdinand I helped Skanderbeg's wife and son Donika Kastrioti and Gjon Kastrioti II and some Albanians (Arbëreshë people) to away from the Ottoman terror.
Skanderbeg's Italian expedition

 Soviet Union 7 April 1924 See Albania–Soviet Union relations
 Republic of Venice See Albania–Republic of Venice relations

Albanian–Venetian War (1447–1448)
Venetian Albania

 Yugoslavia See Albania–Yugoslavia relations

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Lulzim Basha concludes his visit in Dakar - Senegal where the 11th Summit of the Countries of the Organization of Islamic Conference held its proceedings. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Albania.
  2. ^ Konferencë për shtyp e Ministrit të Punëve të Jashtme z. Panariti lidhur me vizitën e fundit në Greqi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania, 2012-10-06 (in Albanian)
  3. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Esteri.it. 14 January 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  4. ^ http://greece.greekreporter.com/2013/11/04/karolos-papoulias-visits-albania/
  5. ^ http://english.albeu.com/news/news/greece-support-eu-candidate-status-for-albania/150425/
  6. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 28 March 2012. 
  7. ^ Albania, CIA The World Factbook
  8. ^ "The Government of the Republic of Albania recognises the National Transitional Council in Libya, as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people". 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  9. ^ "Albania recognizes the Transitional Council of Libya". 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Likmeta, Besar (18 July 2011). "Albania Backs Libya’s Rebel Government". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 
  11. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Italy
  12. ^ http://history.state.gov/countries/albania
  13. ^ Albania
  14. ^ a b "Relations between Georgia and the Republic of Albania". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Georgia). Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  15. ^ India - Albania Relations, Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India
  16. ^ Govrin, Yosef (2005). "Annals of Israeli-Albanian Contacts on Establishing Diplomatic". Jewish Political Studies Review 17 (3-4). Retrieved 24 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "Albania and Israel in Accord To Establish Diplomatic Ties". The New York Times. 20 August 1991. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  18. ^ "Israel opens embassy in Albania". UPI (Jerusalem). 2 August 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012. 
  19. ^ Japan-Albania Relations, Website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
  20. ^ LIST OF STATES WITH DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mongolia
  21. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Mofa.gov.pk. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 24 November 2012. 
  22. ^ Dates of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Bosnia and Herzegovina
  23. ^ Date of Recognition and Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia
  24. ^ a b "1955: Communist states sign Warsaw Pact". BBC News. 14 May 1955. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 
  25. ^ "The Milwaukee Sentinel - May 1, 1970 (Establish Ties)". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 1 May 1970. Retrieved 23 February 2011. "Denmark has agreed to establish diplomatic relations on ambassadorial level with Albania" 
  26. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Albania: Denmark" (in Albanian). Foreign Affairs of Albania. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  27. ^ "Danish embassy in Tirana, Albania". Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  28. ^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3395.htm
  29. ^ http://www.osaarchivum.org/files/holdings/300/8/3/text/101-4-123.shtml
  30. ^ a b Historia e Ambasadës, Albanian Embassy in Holy See (in Albanian)
  31. ^ "Albanian embassy in Ireland". Albania.visahq.com. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  32. ^ "Irish embassy in Albania". Ireland.visahq.com. Retrieved 24 October 2010. 
  33. ^ Gregory, Gene (27 April 1971). "Maoist Albania Desires Better Western Relations". Merced Sun-Star. p. 24. Retrieved 8 May 2011. 
  34. ^ Berisha: Grateful to the Albanian community in Bucharest, Top-Channel, 2012-10-19
  35. ^ Presidenti Nishani merr mesazhe urimi nga krerë shtetesh me rastin e kremtimit të 100-vjetorit të Pavarësisë së Shqipërisë, President of Albania, 2012-11-30
  36. ^ Ngritja e marrëdhënieve diplomatike, Balkanweb (in Albanian)

External links[edit]

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Analysis

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes). This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.