Foreign relations of Armenia

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politics and government of
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Since its independence, Armenia has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have friendly relations both with Iran, Russia, and the West, including the United States and Europe.[1] However, the dispute over the Armenian Genocide and the recent war over Nagorno-Karabakh have created tense relations with two of its immediate neighbors, Azerbaijan and Turkey. Armenia is a member of more than 40 different international organizations including the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Trade Organization and La Francophonie. It is also an observer member of the Eurasian Economic Community and the Non-Aligned Movement. Eduard Nalbandyan serves as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.

Armenian Genocide recognition[edit]

Political map showing states which have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide.

Parliaments of countries that recognize the Armenian genocide include Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lebanon, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden,[2] Switzerland, Uruguay, Vatican City and Venezuela; additionally, some regional governments of countries recognize the Armenian genocide too, such as New South Wales in Australia and Wales in the United Kingdom. US House Resolution 106 was introduced on 30 January 2007, and later referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. The bill has 225 co-sponsors.[3] The bill called for former President George W. Bush to recognize and use the word genocide in his annual 24 April speech which he never used. His successor President Barack Obama has expressed his desire to recognize the Armenian Genocide during the electoral campaigns, but after being elected, has not used the word genocide in his first annual 24 April speech in 2009 and ever since.

Disputes[edit]

Nagorno-Karabakh/ Independent Republic[edit]

Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region in the longstanding and very bitter separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government.

The current conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh (NK) began in 1988 when Armenian demonstrations against Azerbaijani rule broke out in both Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Supreme Soviet voted to secede from Azerbaijan and join Armenia. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Azeris in Armenia and ethnic Armenians in Azerbaijan. In 1990, after violent episodes in Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Baku and Sumgait, Moscow declared a state of emergency in Karabakh, sent troops to the region, and forcibly occupied Baku, killing over a hundred civilians. In April 1991, Azerbaijani militia and Soviet forces targeted Armenian paramilitaries operating in Karabakh. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Military action was heavily influenced by the Russian military, which inspired and manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring nations in order to keep both under control.

More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1992 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin (thereby linking Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia). By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in occupying almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. In 1993, the UN Security Council adopted four resolutions calling for the cessation of hostilities, unimpeded access for international humanitarian relief efforts, and the eventual deployment of a peacekeeping force in the region. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire.

Negotiations to resolve the conflict peacefully have been ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. The Minsk Group is co-chaired by Russia, France, and the United States and has representation from Turkey, the U.S., several European nations, Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite the 1994 cease-fire, sporadic violations, sniper-fire and landmine incidents continue to claim over 100 lives each year.[citation needed]

Since 1997, the Minsk Group Co-Chairs have presented three proposals to serve as a framework for resolving the conflict. One side or the other rejected each of those proposals. Beginning in 1999, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia initiated a direct dialogue through a series of face-to-face meetings, often facilitated by the Minsk Group Co-Chairs. The OSCE sponsored a round of negotiations between the Presidents in Key West, Florida. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell launched the talks on 3 April 2001, and the negotiations continued with mediation by the U.S., Russia and France until 6 April 2001. The Co-Chairs are continuing to work with the two Presidents in the hope of finding a lasting peace.

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[4][5]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[6]

Countries with no diplomatic relations[edit]

Armenia does not have diplomatic relations with the following countries:

Countries with diplomatic relations[edit]

Foreign relations of Armenia:
  Diplomatic relations established
  Diplomatic relations suspended by Armenia

Armenia has diplomatic relations with 151 sovereign entities (including the Vatican City and Order of Malta).[9] These include: Albania, Afghanistan, Andorra, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chad, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, DR Congo,[10] Egypt, East Timor, Equatorial Guinea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Grenada,[11] Holy See (Vatican City), Honduras, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, North Korea, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Libya, Macedonia,[12][13] Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Myanmar,[14] Norway, Netherlands, Nigeria, Oman, Order of Malta, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland,[15] Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu,[16] Ukraine, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Uruguay and Vietnam.[17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]

Armenia has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Azerbaijan
  • St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados
  • Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Niger, Togo, Central African Republic, São Tomé and Príncipe, South Sudan, Djibouti, Kenya, Somalia, Uganda, Comoros, Mauritius, Lesotho, Botswana
  • Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen
  • Bhutan
  • Palau, Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Kiribati, Nauru, Cook Islands, Niue, Tonga, Samoa, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea
  • Turkey
  • the states with limited recognition.

Notes on some of these relations follow:

Europe[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Albania 1993-02-18 See Armenia–Albania relations
  • Armenia is represented in Albania through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
  • Albania is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens, (Greece).
 Andorra 2003-11-18 See Armenia–Andorra relations
  • Armenia is represented in Andorra through its embassy in Paris, (France).
  • Andorra is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Paris, (France).
 Austria 1992-01-24 See Armenia–Austria relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Belarus 1993-06-12 See Armenia–Belarus relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Minsk.
  • Belarus has an embassy in Yerevan.
 Belgium 1992-03-10 See Armenia–Belgium relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1997-07-29 See Armenia–Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
  • Bosnia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow.
 Bulgaria 1992-01-18 See Armenia–Bulgaria relations
 Croatia 1994-07-08 See Armenia–Croatia relations
  • Armenia is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Croatia is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Czech Republic 1992-03-30 See Armenia–Czech Republic relations
  • Armenia is represented in Czech Republic through its embassy in Prague.
  • The Czech Republic is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Yerevan.
  • There are around 12,000 people of Armenian descent living in the Czech Republic.
 Denmark 1992-01-14 See Armenia–Denmark relations
  • Armenia is represented in Denmank through its embassy in Kopenhagen, Denmark.
  • Denmark is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Kiev, Ukraine.
 Estonia 1992-08-23

See Armenia–Estonia relations

 Finland 1992-03-25

See Armenia–Finland relations

  • Before 1918, both countries were part of the Russian Empire. Finland recognised Armenia on 30 December 1991. Armenia is represented in Finland by a non-resident ambassador (based in Yerevan at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Finland is represented in Armenia by a non resident ambassador (based in Helsinki at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan. Around 1,000 people of Armenian descent live in Finland.
  • Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Armenia
 France 1992-02-24 See Armenia–France relations

Franco-Armenian relations have existed since the French and the Armenians established contact in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia and are close to this day. 2006 was proclaimed the Year of Armenia in France.

 Germany 1992-01 See Armenia–Germany relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Yerevan.
 Greece 1992-01-20 See Armenia–Greece relations

Greece was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence on 21 September 1991, and one of those that have officially recognized the Armenian Genocide. Since the independence of Armenia the two countries have been partners within the framework of international organizations (United Nations, OSCE, Council of Europe, BSEC), whilst Greece firmly supports the community programs aimed at further developing relations between the EU and Armenia.

Continuous visits of the highest level have shown that both countries want to continue to improve the levels of friendship and cooperation (Visit by the President of Armenia Levon Ter-Petrossian to Greece in 1996, visit by the President of the Hellenic Republic Costis Stephanopoulos in 1999, visit by the President of Armenia Robert Kocharyan to Greece in 2000 and 2005 and visit by Greek president Karolos Papoulias to Armenia in June 2007).

Greece is, after Russia, the major military partner of Armenia. Armenian officers are trained in Greek military academies, and various technical assistance is supplied by Greece. Since 2003, an Armenian platoon has been deployed in Kosovo as part of KFOR, where they operate as a part of the Greek battalion of KFOR.

 Holy See 1992-5-23 See Armenia–Holy See relations
 Hungary 26 February 199231 August 2012

See Armenia–Hungary relations

  • Armenia was represented in Hungary through its embassy in Vienna (Austria).
  • Hungary was represented in Armenia through its embassy in Tbilisi(Georgia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.[33]
  • There are around 15,000 people of Armenian descent living in Hungary.
 Iceland See Armenia–Iceland relations
 Ireland 1996-06-13 See Armenia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland recognized Armenia's independence in December 1991.
  • Armenia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London and through an honorary consulate in Dublin.[34]
  • Ireland is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Sofia (Bulgaria) and through an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.[35]
 Italy 1993-05-12 See Armenia–Italy relations
 Latvia 1992-08-22 See Armenia–Latvia relations
 Liechtenstein 2008-05-07 See Armenia–Liechtenstein relations
 Lithuania 1991-11-21 See Armenia–Lithuania relations
 Luxembourg 1992-06-11 See Armenia–Luxembourg relations
 Macedonia 1993-04-27[12] See Armenia–Macedonia relations
 Malta 1993-05-27 See Armenia–Malta relations
  • Malta has an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Moldova 1992-05 See Armenia–Moldova relations
 Monaco 2008-10 See Armenia–Monaco relations
 Montenegro See Armenia–Montenegro relations
 Netherlands 1992-01-30 See Armenia–Netherlands relations
 Norway 1992-06-05 See Armenia–Norway relations
 Poland 1992-02-26 See Armenia–Poland relations
 Portugal 1992-05-25 See Armenia–Portugal relations

Armenia is represented in Portugal through its embassy in Rome (Italy). Portugal is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[40]

One of the most notable Armenians who resided in Portugal was Calouste Gulbenkian. He was a wealthy Armenian businessman and philanthropist, who made Lisbon the headquarters for his businesses. He established the international charity, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon. He also founded the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian in Lisbon.[41][42]

 Romania 1991-11-17 See Armenia–Romania relations
 Russia 1992-04-03 See Armenia–Russia relations

Armenia's most notable recent foreign policy success came with the 29 August treaty with Russia on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, in which Moscow committed itself to the defense of Armenia should it be attacked by a third party. Russia is the key regional security player, and has proved a valuable historical ally for Armenia. Although it appeared as a response to Aliyev's US trip, the treaty had probably long been under development. However, it is clear from the wider context of Armenian foreign policy that—while Yerevan welcomes the Russian security guarantee—the country does not want to rely exclusively on Moscow, nor to become part of a confrontation between Russian and US-led alliances in the Transcaucasus.

 San Marino 2006-03-21 See Armenia–San Marino relations
  • Armenia is represented in San Marino through its embassy in Rome (Italy)
 Serbia 1993-01-14 See Armenia–Serbia relations
 Slovakia 1993-01-14 See Armenia–Slovakia relations
 Slovenia 1994-06-27 See Armenia–Slovenia relations
 Spain 1992-01-27 See Armenia–Spain relations
 Sweden 1992-07-10 See Armenia–Sweden relations
  Switzerland 1991-12-23 See Armenia–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine 1992-12-25 See Armenia–Ukraine relations

Armenian-Ukrainian relations have lasted for centuries and today are cordial. Relations between Armenia and Ukraine have deflated since Armenia recognized the illegal "referendum" in Crimea and its subsequent annexation by Russia, and Ukraine has withdrawn its ambassador to Armenia for consultations. The Ukrainian government has asserted that this is temporary and that diplomatic relations between the two states shall indeed continue. [48]

 United Kingdom 1992-01-20 See Armenia–United Kingdom relations
  • The United Kingdom recognised Armenia on 31 December 1991.
  • The first Embassy of the Republic of Armenia in Europe was established in London in October 1992.[49]
  • Since 1995, the United Kingdom has an embassy in Yerevan.[50]
  • The two countries maintain collaborative and friendly relations, however the United Kingdom does not recognize the Armenian Genocide, as it considers that the evidence is not clear enough to respectively consider "the terrible events that afflicted the Ottoman Armenian population at the beginning of the last century" genocide under the 1948 UN convention. The British government states the "massacres were an appalling tragedy" and states that this was the view of the government during that period.[51] Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland consider it to be a genocide, and there is a memorial in Cardiff, Wales.
  • British Foreign and Commonwealth Office about relations with Armenia

Asia[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Azerbaijan No diplomatic relations See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Khojaly Massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan

The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations since 1918. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 and in 1988–94 in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with sporadic massacres in Azerbaijan against Armenians resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire which has been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is co-chaired by the U.S., France and Russia, and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.[citation needed]

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[5] If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[52]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[6]

 Cyprus 1992-03-18 See Armenia–Cyprus relations
 Georgia 1992-07-17 See Armenia–Georgia relations

Armenians and Georgians have a lot in common. Both are ancient Christian civilizations with their own distinct alphabets. Both use the terms "Apostolic" and "Orthodox" in the full titles of their respective churches. They also use the term "Catholicos" to refer to their church patriarchs. Despite all this, however, Armenians and Georgians have tended to have a tenuous relationship (at times, sharing close bonds while at other times regarding each other as rivals).

Today, relations with Georgia are of particular importance for Armenia because, under the economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan due to the ongoing Karabakh conflict, Georgia offers Armenia its only land connection with Europe and access to its Black Sea ports. However, because of Armenia's reliance on Russia and Georgia, both of whom fought the 2008 South Ossetia war and severed diplomatic and economic relations as a result; and as 70% of Armenia's imports entered via Georgia especially from Russia which has imposed an economic blockade on Georgia, Armenia also has been indirectly affected from this blockade as well. The development of close relations between Turkey and Georgia (such as the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and South Caucasus natural gas pipeline) have also weighed on the mutual relations and lead to the prevention of the country recognizing the Armenian Genocide. On occasion, however, Georgian politicians have sympathized with the Armenian cause. For example, on 20 March 2006, Georgian Ambassador to Armenia Revaz Gachechiladze stated, "We sympathize with the sister nation but taking decisions of the kind we should take into account the international situation. When the time comes Georgia will do everything within the limits of the possible for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the international community including Georgia."[55] However, Armenian-Georgian relations have begun to improve. On 10 May 2006, Armenia and Georgia agreed on the greater part of the lines of the state border between the two countries.[56] The Javakheti region in southern Georgia contains a large Armenian population and although there have been local civic organizations (such as United Javakhk) pushing for autonomy, there has been no violence between Armenians and Georgians in the area.

 India 1992-08-31 See Armenia–India relations
  • Since 1999, Armenia has an embassy in New Delhi and 2 honorary consulates Mumbai, and Chennai.
  • India has an embassy in Yerevan.[57]
  • Indian government is funding the renovation of schools in Lori region.
  • Around 700 Medical students are studying in Armenian universities.
  • Armenia recognizes Kashmir to be part of India and not of Pakistan.
  • Armenia supports India's bid for permanent seat in the UNSC.[58]
 Iran See Armenia–Iran relations

Despite religious and ideological differences, relations between Armenia and the Islamic Republic of Iran remain cordial and both Armenia and Iran are strategic partners in the region. Armenia and Iran enjoy cultural and historical ties that go back thousands of years. There are no border disputes between the two countries and the Christian Armenian minority in Iran enjoys official recognition. Of special importance is the cooperation in the field of energy security which lowers Armenia's dependence on Russia and can in the future also supply Iranian gas to Europe through Georgia and the Black Sea.

 Israel See Armenia–Israel relations

Since independence, Armenia has received support from Israel and today remains one of its major trade partners. While both countries have diplomatic relations, neither maintains an embassy in the other country. Instead, Ehude Moshe Eytam, the Israeli ambassador to Armenia is based in Tbilisi, Georgia, and visits Yerevan twice a month. Israel has recognized 10 Armenians as Righteous Among the Nations for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.

 Japan 1992-09-07 See Armenia–Japan relations
 Kazakhstan 1992-08-27 See Armenia–Kazakhstan relations
 Kuwait 1994 See Armenia–Kuwait relations
 Lebanon See Armenia–Lebanon relations

Armenian-Lebanese relations are very friendly. Lebanon is host to the eighth largest Armenian population in the world and is the only member of the Arab League, much less of the Middle East and the Islamic World that recognizes the Armenian Genocide. During the 2006 Lebanon War, Armenia announced that it would send humanitarian aid to Lebanon. According to the Armenian government, an unspecified amount of medicines, tents and fire-fighting equipment was allocated to Lebanese authorities on 27 July 2006.[59][60]

 Pakistan See Armenia–Pakistan relations

Armenia-Pakistan relations are poor owing to disagreements between the two countries. The main issue is the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Pakistan is a major supporter of Azerbaijan during and after the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Pakistan also does not recognize Armenia despite Armenia recognizing Pakistan. Pakistan does not recognize the Armenian Genocide and maintains that during the war large number of Armenians and Muslims were killed. Armenia also has friendly relations with India, which Pakistan heavily opposes.

 People's Republic of China 1992-04-06 See Armenia–China relations
  • China recognized Armenia on 21 December 1991.
  • Armenia has an embassy in Beijing.
  • China has an embassy in Yerevan.[61]
  • Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, cultural exchange has been a major component of bilateral relations, as both nations recognize the importance of creating a strong foundation based upon their ancient and rich histories.[62]
 Sri Lanka 1992-02-12 See Armenia–Sri Lanka relations
  • Armenia is represented in Sri Lanka through the Embassy of Armenia in New Delhi.
  • Sri Lanka is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Saudi Arabia See Armenia–Saudi Arabia relations

There are no diplomatic relations between Armenia and Saudi Arabia.[63]

 Syria See Armenia–Syria relations
 Turkey No formal diplomatic relations See Armenia–Turkey relations

Turkey was one of the first countries to recognize Armenia's independence in 1991. Despite this, for most of the 20th century and early 21st century, relations remain tense and there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries for numerous reasons. Some bones of contention include the unresolved Karabakh conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan (which has resulted in Turkey imposing a blockade on Armenia that is still in effect today), the treatment of Armenians in Turkey, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, and the Armenian claim of Turkey's holding of historic Armenian lands (ceded to them in the Treaty of Kars, a treaty which Armenia refuses to recognize to this day since it was signed between the Soviet Union and Turkey, and not between Armenia and Turkey proper). At the forefront of all disputes, however, is the issue surrounding the Armenian Genocide. The killing and deportation of between one and one-and-a-half million Armenians from eastern Anatolian lands of the Ottoman Empire orchestrated by the Young Turks is a taboo subject in Turkey itself as the Turkish government refuses to acknowledge that a genocide ever happened. However, since Turkey has become a candidate to join the European Union, limited discussion of the event is now taking place in Turkey. Some in the European Parliament have even suggested that one of the provisions for Turkey to join the E.U. should be the full recognition of the event as genocide.

On 5 June 2005, Armenian President Robert Kocharian announced that he was ready to "continue dialogue with Azerbaijan for the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and with Turkey on establishing relations without any preconditions."[65] Armenia has also stated that as a legal successor to the Armenian SSR, it is loyal to the Treaty of Kars and all agreements inherited by the former Soviet Armenian government.[66] Yet Turkey continues to lay preconditions on relations, insisting that Armenia abandon its efforts to have the Genocide recognized, which official Yerevan is not willing to do.

In the wake of the 2008 South Ossetia war between Russia and Georgia, Armenia and Turkey have shown signs of an inclination to reconsider their relationship. According to The Economist magazine, 70% of Armenia's imports enter via Georgia. Because of the apparently belligerent posture of the Russian state, economic ties with Turkey appear especially attractive.[67]

 Turkmenistan 1992 See Armenia–Turkmenistan relations
 United Arab Emirates See Armenia–United Arab Emirates relations

Americas and Oceania[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Argentina 1992-01-17 See Armenia–Argentina relations
 Australia See Armenia–Australia relations

The first Armenians migrated to Australia in the 1850s, during the gold rush. The majority came to Australia in the 1960s, starting with the Armenians of Egypt after Nasser came to power then, in the early 1970s, from Cyprus after the Turkish occupation of the island and from 1975 until 1992, a period of civil unrest in Lebanon. Person-to-person governmental links are increasing although they are still modest. In September 2003, The Hon Mr Philip Ruddock MP visited Armenia in his former capacity as Australian Minister for Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs. In October 2005, the Armenian Foreign Minister, H.E. Mr Vardan Oskanyan, visited Australia. In November 2005, The Hon Mr Joe Hockey MP, Minister for Human Services, visited Armenia. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia refuses to recognise the mass murder of Armenians in 1915 as Genocide, although the State of N.S.W passed a law recognising this several years earlier. The Australian Government elections of 2007 created an atmosphere in which the Opposition Labor party declared it will push for the Recognition of the Armenian Genocide in Australian Parliament if Labor wins the Elections.

 Brazil 1992-02-17 See Armenia–Brazil relations
 Canada See also Armenia–Canada relations, Embassy of Armenia in Ottawa, Canadians of Armenian descent
 Chile 1992 See Armenia–Chile relations
  • Armenia is represented in Chile through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina), and honorary consulate in Santiago.
  • Chile is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • There are around 1,600 people of Armenian descent living in Chile.

Chile recognized the Armenian Genocide on 14 September 2007.[71][72][73]

 Mexico 1992-01-14[74] See Armenia–Mexico relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • There are approximately 600 Armenians living in Mexico and several thousands with Armenian decent.[75]

The first Armenians arrived to Mexico in 1923 escaping the Armenian genocide and forced relocation by the Ottomans.[76]

 Peru 1992-04-20[74] See Armenia–Peru relations
  • Peru recognized Armenia on 26 December 1991.
  • Peru is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • There are around 50 people of Armenian descent living in Peru.
 United States See Armenia–United States relations

The dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991 brought an end to the Cold War and created the opportunity for bilateral relations with the New Independent States (NIS) as they began a political and economic transformation. The U.S. recognized the independence of Armenia on 25 December 1991, and opened an embassy in Yerevan in February 1992.

 Uruguay 1992 See Armenia–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1993-10-30[74] See Armenia–Venezuela relations
  • Armenia has an honorary consulate in Caracas
  • Venezuela is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • There are around 4.000 people of Armenian descent living in Venezuela.
  • Venezuelian parliament has recognized the Armenian Genocide.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ – "Armenian Foreign Policy Between Russia, Iran And U.S." – 29 March 2010[dead link]
  2. ^ Owe Nilsson/TT (11 March 2010). "Riksdagen erkände folkmord på armenier". DN.SE. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 2010-05-23.
  5. ^ a b Azerbaijan doesn't allow Armenians in the country - Panarmenian.net
  6. ^ a b "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  7. ^ Row Erupts After Azerbaijan Pardons Armenian Officer's Repatriated Killer
  8. ^ Hungary wants to restore diplomatic relations with Armenia
  9. ^ Armenia bilateral relations
  10. ^ Armenia to establish diplomatic relations with Congo
  11. ^ Armenia and Grenada established diplomatic relations
  12. ^ a b ЕSTABLISHED FULL DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: "Armenia - 27.04.1993"
  13. ^ The consul noted that the Macedonian side has officially requested the Armenian authorities to appoint him as Honorary Consul to Armenia.
  14. ^ Myanmar establishes diplomatic ties with Armenia: 2013-2-8
  15. ^ Armenia, Swaziland establish diplomatic relations
  16. ^ Armenia and Tuvalu signed a joint declaration establishing diplomatic relations
  17. ^ "U.S. – Armenia Relations". aaainc.org. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  18. ^ "Armenian Embassies, Consulates And Representations". Armeniaforeignministry.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. [dead link]
  19. ^ "Armenia to Establish Diplomatic Relations With Iraq". People's Daily. 21 July 2000. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  20. ^ "Armenia country brief". Dfat.gov.au. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  21. ^ "Welcome in Sixth Doha Forum oN Dmocracy and Free Trade". Qatar-conferences.org. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  22. ^ "Armenia To Establish Embassy In Japan". Panarmenian.Net. 8 January 2002. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  23. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Republic of Armenia Official Site". Armeniaforeignministry.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. [dead link]
  24. ^ "Armenia and Chad Established Diplomatic Relations". Panarmenian.Net. 27 December 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
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