Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
|This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Politics of Nagorno Karabakh
Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, Euro-Atlantic Partnership; World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.
Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of Exxon Mobil Corporation and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).
International organization participation 
AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)
Azerbaijan currently has diplomatic relations with 160 countries: Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Libya, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Republic of India, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.
Azerbaijan is one of the few countries with predominantly Muslim populations that shares a strategic alliance with Israel. Today, Israel is a major arms supplier to the country. (See Azerbaijan–Israel relations).
Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations 
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
||See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
||See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations|
||See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
|Italy||See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Romania relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Russia relations|
|Serbia||See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
|Switzerland||See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
||See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
||See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.
|See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Khojaly Massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan
The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."
During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.
The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.
In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.
Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus, as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus.
Azerbaijan, like all other countries except Turkey, formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus (with whom it has not yet established diplomatic relations), which under UN and EU law represents the entire island, but interestingly enough, the parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Cypriot North (The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but Azerbaijan backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Recently, in July 2005, Azerbaijan announced its intentions to recognize TRNC passports and to commence direct flights from Baku to Ercan Airport in the TRNC (by-passing both Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus); however, aside from a flight handled by the private company Imair in August 2005, none have taken place. Azerbaijan has become very cool towards the Turkish Cypriot North, due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.
||See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
||See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
||See Azerbaijan–Israel relations|
||See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations|
|United Arab Emirates||
||See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
|People's Republic of China||
||See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations
Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
North and South America 
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Trinidad and Tobago||
||See Azerbaijan – United States relations|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
No relations 
- Bahamas, Barbados
- Cyprus, Armenia
- Nigeria, Central African Republic, Congo, Tanzania, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Sao Tome and Principe
- Palau, Micronesia, Federated States of, Kiribati, Niue, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Papua New Guinea
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta
- the rest of states with limited recognition
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2009)|
Armenia supports ethnic Armenians in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan in the longstanding and very bitter separatist conflict against the Azerbaijani Government. Nagorno-Karabakh is a region within Azerbaijan. The current conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh (NK) began in 1988 when Armenian demonstrations against Azerbaijani rule broke out in both Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh Supreme Soviet voted to secede from Azerbaijan and join Armenia. Soon, violence broke out against ethnic Azeris in Armenia and ethnic Armenians in Azerbaijan. In 1990, after violent episodes in Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Baku and Sumgait, Moscow declared a state of emergency in Karabakh, sent troops to the region, and forcibly occupied Baku, killing over a hundred civilians. In April 1991, Azerbaijani militia and Soviet forces targeted Armenian paramilitaries operating in Karabakh. Moscow also deployed troops to Yerevan. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, conflict escalated into a full-scale war between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Military action was heavily influenced by the Russian military, which inspired and manipulated the rivalry between the two neighbouring nations in order to keep both under control.
More than 30,000 people were killed in the fighting from 1992 to 1994. In May 1992, Armenian forces seized Shusha and Lachin (thereby linking Nagorno-Karabakh to Armenia). By October 1993, Armenian forces succeeded in occupying almost all of former NKAO, Lachin and large areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. In 1993, the UN Security Council adopted four resolutions calling for the cessation of hostilities, unimpeded access for international humanitarian relief efforts, and the eventual deployment of a peacekeeping force in the region. Fighting continued, however, until May 1994 when Russia brokered a cease-fire.
Negotiations to resolve the conflict peacefully have been ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by Russia, France, and the United States and has representation from Turkey, the U.S., several European nations, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Despite the 1994 cease-fire, sporadic violations, sniper-fire, and landmine incidents continue to claim over 100 lives each year.
Since 1997, the Minsk Group Co-Chairs have presented three proposals to serve as a framework for resolving the conflict. One side or the other rejected each of those proposals. Beginning in 1999, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia initiated a direct dialogue through a series of face-to-face meetings, often facilitated by the Minsk Group Co-Chairs. Most recently the OSCE sponsored a round of negotiations between the Presidents in Key West, Florida. U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell launched the talks on 3 April 2001, and the negotiations continued with mediation by the U.S., Russia, and France until 6 April 2001. The Co-Chairs are continuing to work with the two Presidents in the hope of finding a lasting peace.
The two countries are still technically at war and the situation remains tense. It has often been referred to as a "frozen conflict".
Caspian Sea 
Caspian Sea boundaries are not yet determined with Iran and Turkmenistan. Issues with Russia and Kazakhstan were settled in 2003.
See also 
- Azerbaijan and the European Union
- List of diplomatic missions in Azerbaijan
- List of diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan
- Visa requirements for Azerbaijani citizens
Further reading 
- Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
- Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
- Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
- Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"
- CIA World Factbook 2000 and the 2003 U.S. Department of State website
- USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors
- "Anglo Asian Mining Floats on AIM". RNS. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Foreign Embassies in Baku". Retrieved 21 April 2010.[dead link]
- "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Azerbaijan Embassies Abroad". Retrieved 21 April 2010.[dead link]
- National Holiday of Uzbekistan marked in Baku, AzerTAj
- Azerbaijani embassy in Vienna
- Austrian embassy in Baku
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belarus
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belgium
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Bulgaria
- Embassy of Bulgaria in Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic
- "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Denmark". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
- Azerbaijani embassy in Paris
- French embassy in Baku
- Azerbaijani embassy in Berlin
- Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijan embassy in Athens
- "Missions and representations accredited to Ireland". Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Azerbaijani embassy in Italy
- Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in Riga
- Embassy of the Russian Federation in Baku
- Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Embassies and consulates / Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in Bern
- Swiss embassy in Baku
- State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine
- Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijani embassy in London
- British embassy in Baku
- Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
- Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.
- "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
- James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
- "Country Studies/Azerbaijan/The Foreign Policy Establishment". http://countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 January 2008.
- Lili Di Puppo. "Israel interested in strategic cooperation with Azerbaijan", Caucaz Europenews, Online Publication, June 8, 2006
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Japan
- Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan
- Культурный обмен "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
- Embassy of Pakistan in Azerbaijan
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan
- [dead link]
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in the PRC
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов "Region plus" 2 February 2010
- Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой "1news.az " 13 November 2007
- Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
- Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
-  "Topix" 29 December 2010
- Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
- Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Mexico
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City
- Embassy of Mexico in Turkey
- Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
- "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
- Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
- Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения "AZE.Az " 16 Сентября 2009
- Azerbaijan MFA – diplomatic relations
- U.S. Embassy in Azerbaijan in Baku
- Embassy of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Washington
- Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan relations