Foreign relations of Azerbaijan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Emblem of Azerbaijan.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Azerbaijan
See also

Azerbaijan is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO's Partnership for Peace, Euro-Atlantic Partnership, the World Health Organization, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Council of Europe, CFE Treaty, the Community of Democracies; the International Monetary Fund; and the World Bank.

Azerbaijan has formal involvement with senior ex-U.S. government officials including James Baker and Henry Kissinger, as they serve on the Honorary Council of Advisors[1] of the U.S.-Azerbaijan Chamber of Commerce (USACC). USACC is co-chaired by Tim Cejka, President of Exxon Mobil Corporation and Reza Vaziri, President of R.V. Investment Group and Chairman of the Anglo Asian Mining Plc (LSE Ticker: AAZ).[2]

International organization participation[edit]

AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, United Nations, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Countries[edit]

Diplomatic missions of Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan currently has diplomatic relations with 160 countries:[3][4] Afghanistan, Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, the People's Republic of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Republic of Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Kuwait, Libya, Luxembourg, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Netherlands,Nicaragua, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Qatar, Republic of India, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Togo, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uzbekistan and Vietnam.[5]

Azerbaijan is one of the few countries with predominantly Muslim populations that shares a strategic alliance with Israel. Today, Israel is a major arms supplier to the country. (See Azerbaijan–Israel relations).

Azerbaijan also maintains good relations with the European Union, in the framework of its Eastern European Neighbourhood Policy (See Azerbaijan and the European Union).

Information on some of the countries with which Azerbaijan maintains formal relations[edit]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Austria
 Belarus
1992
See Azerbaijan–Belarus relations
 Belgium
 Bulgaria
5 June 1992
 Croatia
26 January 1995
 Czech Republic
29 January 1993
 Denmark
2 April 1992[14]
See Azerbaijan-Denmark relations
 Estonia
20 April 1992
See Azerbaijan-Estonia relations
 France
 Germany
 Greece
1992
See Azerbaijan–Greece relations
Republic of Ireland Ireland
1996
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[20]
  • Ireland is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara (Turkey).
 Italy See Azerbaijan–Italy relations
 Latvia
11 January 1994
 Lithuania
27 November 1995
 Poland
1991
See Azerbaijan-Poland relations
 Romania
21 June 1992
See Azerbaijan–Romania relations
 Russia
4 April 1992
See Azerbaijan–Russia relations
 Serbia See Azerbaijan–Serbia relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Baku.
 Sweden
 Switzerland See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine
1919
See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
 United Kingdom
1918
See Azerbaijan – United Kingdom relations

Asia[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Armenia
1918–1921

Armenia and Azerbaijan do not have diplomatic relations today.

See Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, Nagorno-Karabakh War, Khojaly Massacre, Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan

The neighboring nations of Armenia and Azerbaijan have had formal governmental relations between 1918–1921, when both countries were briefly independent. The two nations have fought two wars in 1918–20 (Armenian–Azerbaijani War) and in 1988–94 (Nagorno-Karabakh War), in the past century, with last one ended with provisional cease fire agreement signed in Bishkek. There are no formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, because of the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict and dispute. In 2008, Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev declared, "Nagorno Karabakh will never be independent; the position is backed by international mediators as well; Armenia has to accept the reality," and "in 1918, Yerevan was granted to the Armenians. It was a great mistake. The khanate of Iravan was the Azeri territory, the Armenians were guests here."[33]

During the Soviet period, many Armenians and Azeris lived side by side in peace. However, when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the policies of Glasnost and Perestroika, the majority of Armenians from the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan SSR began a movement to unify with the Armenian SSR. In 1988, the Armenians of Karabakh voted to secede and join Armenia. This, along with mutual massacres in Azerbaijan and Armenia resulted in the conflict that became known as the Nagorno-Karabakh War. The violence resulted in de facto Armenian control of former NKAO and seven surrounding Azerbaijani regions, which was effectively halted when both sides agrees to observe a cease-fire, which has since been in effect since May 1994, and in late 1995 both also agreed to mediation of the OSCE Minsk Group. The Minsk Group is currently co-chaired by the U.S., France, and Russia and comprises Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkey, and several Western European nations. Despite the cease fire, up to 40 clashes are reported along the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict lines of control each year.[citation needed]

The two countries are still technically at war. Citizens of the Republic of Armenia, as well as citizens of any other country who are of Armenian descent, are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan. If a person's passport shows any evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh, they are forbidden entry to the Republic of Azerbaijan.[34]

In 2008, in what became known as the 2008 Mardakert Skirmishes, Armenia and Azerbaijan clashed over Nagorno-Karabakh. The fighting between the two sides was brief, with few casualties on either side.[35]

 Cyprus

Azerbaijan formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus, as the sole representative of the island, but has not yet established diplomatic relations with Cyprus.

See Azerbaijan–Cyprus relations

Azerbaijan, like all other countries except Turkey, formally recognizes the government of the Republic of Cyprus (with whom it has not yet established diplomatic relations), which under UN and EU law represents the entire island, but interestingly enough, the parliament of Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic issued a resolution recognizing the Turkish Cypriot North (The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus) as a sovereign state. While this recognition is not regarded by Azerbaijan and internationally as 'official state-to-state', Azerbaijan itself maintained cordial unofficial relations with the TRNC. In 2004, Azerbaijan threatened to formally recognize the TRNC if the Annan Plan was voted down by the Greek Cypriots (who rejected the plan in one of twin referendums held 24 April 2004 in both the Greek and Turkish zones simultaneously), but Azerbaijan backed off the threat when it was pointed out by Cyprus that doing so would be hypocritical, as a portion of its territory just like that of Cyprus itself is under occupation and would probably result in negative impact on its ongoing dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh. Recently, in July 2005, Azerbaijan announced its intentions to recognize TRNC passports and to commence direct flights from Baku to Ercan Airport in the TRNC (by-passing both Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus); however, aside from a flight handled by the private company Imair in August 2005, none have taken place. Azerbaijan has become very cool towards the Turkish Cypriot North, due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[36]

 Georgia
1918
See Azerbaijan–Georgia relations
 Iran
1918
See Azerbaijan–Iran relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Tehran and a consulate-general in Tabriz.
  • Iran has an embassy in Baku and a consulate-general in Nakhchivan City.
  • Both countries are full members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Iran recognized Azerbaijan on 4 January 1992, upgraded its consulate in Baku to establish full diplomatic relations.[37][38]
 Israel
1991
See Azerbaijan–Israel relations
  • Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries besides Turkey, Egypt, Jordan and the former Soviet Central Asian republics to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel.[39]
 Japan
7 September 1992
 Kazakhstan
27 August 1992
See Azerbaijan–Kazakhstan relations
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Astana.
  • Kazakhstan has an embassy in Baku since 16 December 1994.
 United Arab Emirates
1 September 1992[42]
 Pakistan
1992
See Azerbaijan–Pakistan relations
 People's Republic of China
 Turkey
1918
See Azerbaijan–Turkey relations

Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea. All this however has recently come under threat due to tensions arising from the possible normalization of diplomatic ties between Turkey and Armenia, which Azerbaijan fears will mean the loss of key leverage in the resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.

Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Burkina Faso
31 May 2004[47]
 Comoros
2 February 2010[48]
 Eritrea
2004[49]
 Kenya
31 May 2004[47]
 Malawi
21 May 2004[50]
 Rwanda
31 May 2004[47]
 Swaziland
7 January 2010[51]
 Togo
29 December 2010[52]

North and South America[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Canada
1992[53]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Ottawa that opened in September 2004.[53]
 Dominican Republic
2007[49]
 Grenada
23 September 2010[54]
 Mexico
10 February 1992[55]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Mexico City.[56]
  • Mexico is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.[57]
 Nicaragua
10 February 1994[58]
  • Azerbaijan is represented in Nicaragua through its embassy in Havana,Cuba.
  • Nicaragua is represented in Azerbaijan through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.[59]
 Paraguay
2004[49]
 Saint Lucia
11 March 2010[60]
 Trinidad and Tobago
2011[49]
 United States
1919
See Azerbaijan – United States relations

On 25 December 1991 President George H. W. Bush announced that the United States recognized the independence of all 12 former Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan.[37]

Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Fiji
19 March 2010[61]
 Marshall Islands
10 March 2010[62]
 Tuvalu
16 September 2009[63]

No relations[edit]

Diplomatic relations of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan maintains diplomatic relations with 174 states (including Palestine and the Vatican City) and the European Union. Azerbaijan has not yet established diplomatic with:[64]

Disputes[edit]

50th Anniversary UN High Commissioner for Refugees. The refugees under the Armenia aggression. and the tent small town are pictured on the souvenir sheet.

Nagorno-Karabakh/Armenia[edit]

The frozen conflict over the largely Armenian autonomous region of Nagorno-Karabakh within the republic of Azerbaijan began when in 1988 the Armenian majority of Nagorno-Karabakh demanded autonomy with demonstrations following in Armenia. This led to anti-Armenian rioting in Azerbaijan, with Azerbaijani militias beginning their effort to expel Armenians from the enclave. In 1992 a war broke out and pogroms of Armenians and Azeris forced both groups to flee their homes. In 1994, a Russian-brokered ceasefire ended the war but more than 1 million ethnic Armenians and Azeris are still not able to return home. The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh remains unresolved despite negotiations, that are ongoing since 1992 under the aegis of the Minsk Group of the OSCE, to resolve the conflict peacefully.[65][66]

Caviar diplomacy[edit]

The European Stability Initiative (ESI) has revealed in a report from 2012 with the title "Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe", that since Azerbaijan's entry into the Council of Europe, each year 30 to 40 deputies are invited to Azerbaijan and generously paid with expensive gifts, including caviar (worth up to 1.400 euro), silk carpets, gold, silver and large amounts of money.[67][68] In return they become lobbyists for Azerbaijan. This practice has been widely referred to as "Caviar diplomacy".[69]

ESI also published a report on 2013 Presidential elections in Azerbaijan titled "Disgraced: Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it". The report revealed the ties between Azerbaijani government and the members of certain observation missions who praised the elections.[70] Azerbaijan's "Caviar diplomacy" at 2013 presidential elections sparked a major international scandal, as the reports of two authoritative organizations Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe/European Parliament and OSCE/ODIHR completely contradicted one another in their assessments of elections.[71][72][73][74]

Non-governmental anti-corruption organization Transparency International has regularly judged Azerbaijan to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world[74][75] and has also criticized Azerbaijan for the "Caviar diplomacy".[69][76]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Valiyev, Anar: "Azerbaijan and the North Caucasus: A Pragmatic Relationship" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 27
  • Hübner, Gerald: "Foreign Direct Investment in Azerbaijan—the Quality of Quantity" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 28
  • Abbasov, Shahin: "Azerbaijan's Eurovision Story: Great Chances to Improve, But No Political Will" in the Caucasus Analytical Digest No. 32
  • Mazziotti, Marius; Sauerborn, Djan; Scianna, Bastian Matteo: "Multipolarity is key: Assessing Azerbaijan's foreign policy"[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ USACC. Honorary Council of Advisors
  2. ^ "Anglo Asian Mining Floats on AIM". RNS. 29 July 2005. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  3. ^ "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Foreign Embassies in Baku". Retrieved 21 April 2010. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Azerbaijan International. Directory. Azerbaijan Embassies Abroad". Retrieved 21 April 2010. [dead link]
  5. ^ National Holiday of Uzbekistan marked in Baku, AzerTAj
  6. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Vienna
  7. ^ Austrian embassy in Baku
  8. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belarus
  9. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belgium
  10. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Bulgaria
  11. ^ Embassy of Bulgaria in Azerbaijan
  12. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Croatia
  13. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in the Czech Republic
  14. ^ "Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Denmark". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  15. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Paris
  16. ^ French embassy in Baku
  17. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Berlin
  18. ^ Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Azerbaijan
  19. ^ Azerbaijan embassy in Athens
  20. ^ "Missions and representations accredited to Ireland". Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  21. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Italy
  22. ^ Italian embassy in Azerbaijan
  23. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Riga
  24. ^ Embassy of the Russian Federation in Baku
  25. ^ Ministry for Foreign Affairs / Embassies and consulates / Azerbaijan
  26. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Bern
  27. ^ Swiss embassy in Baku
  28. ^ State Secretariat for Economic Affairs SECO, Economic Cooperation and Development Azerbaijan
  29. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine
  30. ^ Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan
  31. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in London
  32. ^ British embassy in Baku
  33. ^ Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan, REGNUM News Agency, 17 January 2008
  34. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page. NCSJ: Advocates on Behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.[dead link]
  35. ^ "Azerbaijani president: Armenians are guests in Yerevan". REGNUM News Agency. 17 January 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  36. ^ Turkey and Azerbaijan: The Honeymoon is Over by Fariz Ismailzade. Turkishpolicy.com
  37. ^ a b James P. Nichol. Diplomacy in the Former Soviet Republics, Praeger/Greenwood, 1995, ISBN 0-275-95192-8, p. 150
  38. ^ "Country Studies/Azerbaijan/The Foreign Policy Establishment". http://countrystudies.us. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  39. ^ Lili Di Puppo. "Israel interested in strategic cooperation with Azerbaijan", Caucaz Europenews, Online Publication, June 8, 2006
  40. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Japan
  41. ^ Embassy of Japan in Azerbaijan
  42. ^ Культурный обмен "Russian Emirates Advertisement"
  43. ^ Embassy of Pakistan in Azerbaijan
  44. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Pakistan
  45. ^ [1][dead link]
  46. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in the PRC
  47. ^ a b c Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Буркина-Фасо, Руандой и Кенией "Рол" 31 мая 2004 г.
  48. ^ Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Союзом Коморских островов "Region plus" 2 February 2010
  49. ^ a b c d Азербайджан установил дипломатические отношения с Доминиканкой Республикой "1news.az " 13 November 2007
  50. ^ Азербайджан установил дипотношения с Республикой Малави Day.Az 27 Мая 2004
  51. ^ Азербайджан и Свазиленд установили дипломатические отношения Day.Az 7 января, 2010
  52. ^ [2] "Topix" 29 December 2010
  53. ^ a b [3]
  54. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Гренадой подписано коммюнике об установлении дипломатических связей "Информационное агентство TREND " 24 September 2010
  55. ^ Bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and Mexico
  56. ^ Embassy of Azerbaijan in Mexico City
  57. ^ Embassy of Mexico in Turkey
  58. ^ [4]
  59. ^ [5]
  60. ^ Азербайджан и Сент-Люсия установили дипломатические отношения 1NEWS.az 12.03.2010
  61. ^ "Azerbaijan, Fiji establish diplomatic relations" news.az 18 March 2010 Link accessed 21 March 2010
  62. ^ Азербайджан и Маршалловы острова установили дипломатические отношения "1NEWS.az " 12.03.2010
  63. ^ Между Азербайджаном и Тувалу установились дипломатические отношения "AZE.Az " 16 Сентября 2009
  64. ^ Azerbaijan MFA – diplomatic relations[dead link]
  65. ^ "Fighting Intensifies in Armenian-Azerbaijani War". The New York Times. p. 10. Retrieved 6 August 2013. 
  66. ^ Armenia and Azerbaijan still skirting war in Nagorno-Karabakh. thestar.com. 20 February 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013
  67. ^ Aserbaidschan: Die Kaviar-Diplomatie (German). Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved August 3, 2013
  68. ^ ESI Caviar Diplomacy: How Azerbaijan silenced the Council of Europe Part 1
  69. ^ a b Europe's caviar diplomacy with Azerbaijan must end. EUobserver. Retrieved April 6, 2014
  70. ^ "Disgraced. Azerbaijan and the end of election monitoring as we know it." 5 November 2013, Berlin
  71. ^ Who Are The Shadowy Western Observers Weighing In On Azerbaijan's Election? October 09, 2013
  72. ^ Europe, Azerbaijan, and caviar
  73. ^ European MPs' praise for Azerbaijan election sparks row BBC News, 17 October 2013
  74. ^ a b Plush hotels and caviar diplomacy: how Azerbaijan's elite wooed MPs The Guardian 24 November 2013
  75. ^ CORRUPTION BY COUNTRY: Azerbaijan
  76. ^ How Baku’s ‘caviar diplomacy’ neutered Europe’s rights standards. Democracy Digest. Retrieved August 4, 2013

External links[edit]