Foreign relations of Belgium
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politics and government of
As a federal state, the Communities and Regions have their own foreign relations and are able to conclude treaties themselves.
Because of its location at the crossroads of Western Europe, Belgium has historically been the route of invading armies from its larger neighbours. With virtually defenceless borders, Belgium has traditionally sought to avoid domination by the more powerful nations which surround it through a policy of mediation. The Concert of Europe sanctioned the creation of Belgium in 1831 on the condition that the country remain strictly neutral. This policy of neutrality ended after the experience of German occupation during World War I. In the years preceding World War II, Belgium tried to return to a policy of neutrality, but once again, Germany invaded the country. In 1948, Belgium signed the Treaty of Brussels with the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, and one year later became one of the founding members of the Atlantic Alliance.
The Belgians have been strong advocates of European integration, and most aspects of their foreign, economic, and trade policies are coordinated through the European Union (EU), which has its main headquarters (the European Commission, the Council of the European Union and sessions of the European Parliament) in Brussels. Belgium's postwar customs union with the Netherlands and Luxembourg paved the way for the formation of the European Community (precursor to the EU), of which Belgium was a founding member. Likewise, the Benelux abolition of internal border controls was a model for the wider Schengen Accord, which today is integrated in the acquis communautaire and aims at common visa policies and free movement of people across common borders. At the same time the Belgians, perceiving their diminutive role on the international scene, are strong advocates of strengthening economic and political integration within the EU. Belgium actively seeks improved relations with the new democracies of central and eastern Europe through such fora as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, EU association agreements, and NATO's Partnership for Peace with the former Warsaw Pact countries and several others.
Belgium remains a strong proponent of NATO. It cooperates closely with the United States within the alliance framework, in addition to supporting European defense efforts through the Western European Union (WEU). Both NATO (since 1966) and the EU have their headquarters in Brussels; SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe) is in the south of the country, near Mons. Since January 1993, the WEU has been headquartered in Brussels.
Subregional integration with the Netherlands and Luxembourg
Belgium has been involved in (sub)regional integration since the first half of the 20th century, first with the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, founded in 1925, and then, since 1944, with the Netherlands and Luxembourg in the Benelux.
Belgium's federalism and international relations
A peculiar feature of Belgian federalism is the fact that the country's Communities and Regions maintain their own international relations, including the conclusion of treaties. Thus, there are a number of bilateral Dutch-Flemish international institutions, such as the Dutch Language Union or the institutions for the control of the river Scheldt, in which only Flanders takes part. Likewise, only the French Community of Belgium takes part in La Francophonie. Ministers of the Communities and the Regions represent Belgium in the Council of the European Union when their competencies are dealt with.
Belgium retains special (important) but often stormy relationships with its former colonies, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi. The current constitution of Democratic Republic of the Congo was designed with the assistance of Belgian legal scholars.
Belgium has resorted several times to international dispute settlement, notably in cases at both the International Court of Justice and the Permanent Court of Arbitration with the Netherlands concerning the diversion of water from the Meuse (1937) the frontier at the enclave of Baarle-Hertog (1959) and the revitalisation of the so-called Iron Rhine railroad (2005). There have been other points of contention with the Netherlands, such as the deepening of the river Scheldt or the route for the high-speed rail link between Brussels and Amsterdam. This does however not influence the overall amicable character of Belgo-Dutch relationship. Other former cases at international courts between Belgium and other countries are — in chronological order — the Oscar Chinn Case of 1934 (with the United Kingdom, the Borghgrave Case of (1937), the cases of the electricity company of Sofia (with Bulgaria) and of the "société commerciale de Belgique" (with Greece) of 1939, the case concerning the Barcelona Traction Company of 1970 (with Spain), the arrest warrant case of 2002 (with the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the case concerning legality of use of force of 2004 (with Serbia and Montenegro).
The arrest warrant case of 2002 was caused by the application of Belgium's so called genocide law, providing for universal jurisdiction over the gravest international crimes. The same law stirred relations with, amongst others, Israel and the United States, since complaints were filed against high-ranking politicians and officials of both countries. The law was therefore repealed in 2003.
Belgium maintains significant bilateral relations with several countries.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Canada||See Belgium–Canada relations
Both are close allies and members of NATO and Francophonie. Both have a stance of multilateralism and both have similar government systems. Both are actively involved in the current war in Afghanistan under ISAF.
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||June 1960||See Belgium–Democratic Republic of the Congo relations|
|Denmark||See Belgium–Denmark relations|
They are both members of the European Union and NATO. Also, the majority of the people in East Belgium speak German. Currently, Belgium has an embassy in Berlin and a consulate-general in Cologne, while Germany has one embassy in Brussels.
|Greece||1874||See Belgium–Greece relations
|Israel||See Belgium–Israel relations|
|Japan||1866||See Belgium–Japan relations|
|Kosovo||2008-02-14||See Belgium–Kosovo relations|
|Malaysia||See Belgium–Malaysia relations
Belgium has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has an embassy in Brussels.
|Mexico||1838||See Belgium–Mexico relations
In 1836, Belgium—itself newly independent—recognized the independence of Mexico. In 1919, the Belgian chamber of commerce of Mexico was established. Belgium opened its embassy in Mexico on June 5, 1954.
|Netherlands||See Belgium–Netherlands relations
Both nations are allies and have cultural similarities.
|Pakistan||See Belgium–Pakistan relations
Belgium is the sixth largest European importer of Pakistani goods, and the bilateral trade between the two is approaching to US $600 million.
Former Pakistani president, Pervez Musharraf, has also previously extended a visit to Belgium during his tour of Europe in early 2008, which also included visits to the United Kingdom, France and Sweden. During his stay in Brussels, he met the then-Prime Minister of Belgium, Guy Verhofstadt, and the two leaders held significant talks on trade and defence co-operation.
|Russia||See Belgium–Russia relations|
|Turkey||See Belgium–Turkey relations|
|Ukraine||1992||See Belgium–Ukraine relations
Belgium has an embassy in Kiev; Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels and two honorary consulates (in Antwerp and Mons). Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately US$1 billion.
|United Kingdom||See Belgium–United Kingdom relations
Historically, the two countries have trading links going back to the 10th century, especially wool trade from England to the County of Flanders. In the early years of the Hundred Years' War, Edward III allied with the nobles of the Low Countries and the burghers of Flanders against France.
|United States||See Belgium–United States relations
The United States and Belgium are good friends and allies, despite occasional disagreements on a limited number of foreign policy issues. Good will and affection for Americans continues as a result of the U.S. role during and after the two World Wars, which was exhibited in 2004 during the 60th anniversary commemorations of the Battle of the Bulge and the liberation of Belgium. Continuing to celebrate cooperative U.S. and Belgian relations, 2007 marks the 175th anniversary of the nations' relationship.
- List of diplomatic missions in Belgium
- List of diplomatic missions of Belgium
- Visa requirements for Belgian citizens
- Belgian embassy Baku
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Belgium
- Belgian embassy Sofia
- Bulgarian embassy in Brussels (in Bulgarian and French only)
- Embassy of Belgium in Bujumbura (in Dutch and French)
- Embassy of Burundi in Brussels (in French)
- Belgian embassy in Bogota (in Spanish)
- Colombian embassy in Brussels
- Belgian embassy in Prague
- Czech embassy in Brussels
- Embassy of Belgium in Kinshasa (in French and Dutch)
- Embassy of the DR Congo in Brussels (in French)
- Embassy of Belgium in Copenhagen (in Danish, Dutch and French)
- Embassy of Denmark in Brussels (in Danish and French)
- Belgian embassy in Tallinn
- Estonian embassy in Brussels
- Embassy of Belgium in Helsinki
- Embassy of Finland in Brussels
- Belgian embassy in Athens
- Greek embassy in Brussels
- Belgian embassy in Budapest
- Hungarian representation to the European Union in Brussels
- Belgian embassy in Dublin
- Belgian embassy in Tel Aviv
- Israeli embassy in Brussels
- Belgian embassy in Rome (in Dutch, French and Italian only)
- Italian embassy in Brussels
- Italian general consulate in Charleroi
- Italian general consulate in Liège (in French and Italian only)
- Italian consulate in Genk (in Dutch and Italian only)
- Italian consulate in Mons (in French and Italian only)
- Belgian embassy in Tokyo
- Japanese embassy in Brussels
- Website Japanese Embassy in Brussels - Japan-Belgium Relations. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- "België erkent Kosovo" (in Dutch). Algemeen Dagblad. 2008-02-25.
- "MFA Belgium". 2008-03-05.
- "Geschiedenis van Belgie en de Belgen in Mexico" (in Flemish). Belgium. Retrieved 2009-06-10. "Sommigen zijn matrozen, andere huursoldaten, nog anderen oefenen uiteenlopende beroepen uit: misionarissen, artisanen, handelaars...zonder rekening te houden met drie grote Vlaamse brouwers die in 1537 naar Mexico kwamen op aanvraag van de Vice-Koning, en die beschouwd worden als de pioniers van het brouwen van het Mexicaanse bier."
- "Herdenking van de 50e verjaardag van de Belgisch-Mexicaanse diplomatieke relaties op niveau van Ambassadeur" (in Flemish). Belgium. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- Embassy of Belgium in Mexico City (in Dutch, French and Spanish)
- Embassy of Mexico in Brussels (in Dutch, French and Spanish)
- Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in Belgium
- Belgian Embassy in Bucharest (French)
- Embassy of the Netherlands in Brussels (in Dutch and French)
- Embassy of Belgium in The Hague (in Dutch and French)
- Lettet på sløret – utløste diplomatisk krise
- Embassy of Belgium in Kigali (in Dutch, English and French)
- Embassy of Rwanda in Brussels (in French)
- Belgian embassy in Belgrade
- Belgian embassy in Ljubljana
- Embassy of Belgium in Turkey
- Diplomatic missions of Belgium in Turkey
- Diplomatic missions of Turkey in Belgium
- Embassy of Turkey in Brussels
- Consulate–General of Turkey in Antwerp
- "The first session of Ukrainian-Belgian Intergovernmental Joint Commission on trade, economic and financial cooperation had taken place". Ministry of the Economy of Ukraine. October 31, 2009.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State (Background Notes).
- Egmont Institute Commentary July 2014
- Belgian ministry of foreign affairs
- Belgian directorate-general for development co-operation
- Flemish service for foreign affairs
- Francophone service for foreign affairs