Foreign relations of Luxembourg

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Foreign relations

Luxembourg has long been a prominent supporter of European political and economic integration. In efforts foreshadowing European integration, Luxembourg and Belgium in 1921 formed the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) to create an inter-exchangeable currency and a common customs regime. Luxembourg is a member of the Benelux Economic Union and was one of the founding members of the European Economic Community (now the European Union). It also participates in the Schengen Group (named after the Luxembourg village where the agreements were signed), whose goal is the free movement of citizens among member states. At the same time, the majority of Luxembourgers have consistently believed that European unity makes sense only in the context of a dynamic transatlantic relationship, and thus have traditionally pursued a pro-NATO, pro-US foreign policy.

Luxembourg is the site of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat) and other vital EU organs. The Secretariat of the European Parliament is located in Luxembourg, but the Parliament usually meets in nearby Strasbourg.

Luxembourg maintains embassies in the following countries[edit]

Austria, Belgium, China, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States

Luxembourg intends to open embassies in the following countries[edit]

Turkey and the United Arab Emirates[1]

The following countries maintain embassies in Luxembourg[edit]

Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States

Relations by country[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium). Luxembourg is represented in Australia through the embassy of the Netherlands in Canberra and through an honorary consulate in East Lindfield.

Canada[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Luxembourg recognised Estonia on February 22, 1923 and re-recognised Estonia on August 27, 1991.[clarification needed][7] Both countries re-established diplomatic relations on August 29, 1991.[7] Estonia is represented in Luxembourg through its embassy in Brussels (Belgium) and an honorary consulate in Luxembourg.[7] Luxembourg is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Prague (Czech Republic).[7]

In 1937, a prominent Estonian political leader Artur Sirk, while a fugitive in Luxembourg was found dead, having apparently committed suicide by jumping out a second-story window. Although the Luxembourg Gendarmerie report assumed suicide, because of inconsistencies in the report, the Estonian chargé d'affaires in Paris, Rudolph Mollerson was sent to investigate.[8] Estonian historians including Pusta[9] and Tomingas[10] have argued that the death was an act of defenestration by agents of the first President of Estonia, Konstantin Päts.

As of December 31, 2007, foreign investments made in Estonia originating from Luxembourg totaled 225 million EUR accounting for 2% of the total volume of foreign direct investments. There are about 300 Estonians living in Luxembourg.[7] An Estonian cultural association was founded in 1998.[11] The Estonian President Arnold Rüütel's state visit to Luxembourg was in May 2003,[7][12] prime minister Andrus Ansip's in 2006. The Luxembourg Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker visited Estonia in 1999 and 2007.

  • Trade agreement between Estonia and Belgium and Luxembourg (1935)[13]
  • Agreement on Road Transport between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands (came into force 1.12.94)[14]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments (came into force 23.09.99)[15]
  • Agreement Between Estonia and the States of Benelux on Readmission of Persons (came into force 1.02.05)
  • Agreement on the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Income and Capital Tax evasion (signed 23.05.2006)[16][17]

Finland[edit]

Greece[edit]

Hungary[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Israel[edit]

In November 1947, Luxembourg voted in favor of the partition plan to create a Jewish state. Israel and Luxembourg established full diplomatic relations in 1949. Due to Luxembourg's small size, the Israeli embassy is located in Brussels and Luxembourg is represented politically by the Dutch embassy and economically by the Belgian embassy.

Italy[edit]

Kosovo[edit]

Luxembourg recognized the independence of Kosovo on 21 February 2008.[23] Luxembourg has promised to give Kosovo €30 million over the next five years. Luxembourg said that the money was mainly for focus on professional training for Pristina and Mitrovica North authorities.

Lithuania[edit]

Malta[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Romania[edit]

Both countries established diplomatic relations on December 10, 1910. Since August 19, 1991, Romania has an embassy in Luxembourg City.[25] Luxembourg is represented in Romania through its embassy in Athens (Greece) and two honorary consulates (in Bucharest and Sibiu).

Russia[edit]

Luxembourg has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg. Russia has an embassy in the city of Luxembourg.

Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, and the United Nations.

In the history of bilateral relations, the first Russian president to come on an official visit to Luxembourg was Vladimir Putin on 24 May 2007. As bilateral trade had more than tripled from USD 66.6 million in 2003 to USD 228.3 million in 2006, time had come to strengthen the ties between the two countries, energy and finance being the key areas of cooperation between Russia and Luxembourg.

Turkey[edit]

Luxembourg is represented in Turkey through its embassy in Ankara, which was opened in 1987.[26]

There are 500 ethnic Turk's living in Luxembourg, 200 of whom have dual citizenship. The trade volume between the two States had reached $217 million in 2011.[26]

Luxembourg strongly supports Turkey's candidacy as a full European Union member.[27][28]

Ukraine[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

The United States, fighting on the Allied side, contributed to Luxembourg's liberation in World War I and World War II. More than 5,000 American soldiers, including U.S. Army General George S. Patton, are buried at the Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial near the capital of Luxembourg City, and there are monuments in many towns to American liberators. The strong U.S.-Luxembourg relationship is expressed both bilaterally and through common membership in NATO, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

Vietnam[edit]

Both countries signed diplomatic relations in 1973. Luxembourg's representation in Vietnam is through its embassy in Beijing, China.[30] Vietnam is represented through its embassy in Brussels, Belgium.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 'Déclaration sur la politique étrangère et européenne de Jean Asselborn à la Chambre des Députés, le mardi 16 novembre 2010" (Declaration on foreign and European Policy to the Chamber of Deputies by Jean Asselborn, Tuesday 16 November 2010)
  2. ^ Canadian embassy in Brussels (also accredited to Luxembourg)
  3. ^ Luxembourg embassy in Washington (also accredited to Canada)
  4. ^ Czech embassy in Luxembourg City (in Czech and French only)
  5. ^ Luxembourg embassy in Prague
  6. ^ Embassy of Denmark in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
  7. ^ a b c d e f Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "Estonia and Luxembourg". 
  8. ^ The radical right in interwar Estonia, Andres Kasekamp, Pg 117
  9. ^ K. Pusta, Saddiku Paevik, Gesilingen, 1964, vol. 1
  10. ^ W. Tomingas, Vaikiv Ajustu Eestis, New York, 1961
  11. ^ "Luksemburgi Eesti Selts". 
  12. ^ "Visite d'Etat au Luxembourg de S.E.M. Arnold Rüütel, Président de la République d'Estonie". 
  13. ^ "Convention pour favoriser les échanges et les règlements commerciaux entre l'Union économique belgo-luxembourgeoise et l'Estonie". 
  14. ^ Text of Agreement on Road Transport between Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
  15. ^ Text of the Agreement Between Estonia and the Belgo-Luxembourg Economic Union on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments.
  16. ^ "Convention de double imposition : Luxembourg-Estonie". 
  17. ^ "Estonia, Luxembourg sign tax treaty". 2006-06-15. 
  18. ^ http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=17234&contentlan=2&culture=en-US
  19. ^ Embassy of Finland in Luxembourg
  20. ^ Irish embassy in Luxembourg City
  21. ^ Italian embassy in Luxembourg City (in French and Italian only)
  22. ^ Luxembourg embassy in Rome (in Italian only)
  23. ^ "Le Luxembourg reconnaît formellement le Kosovo" (in French). Le Gouvernement du Grande-Duché de Luxembourg. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-21. 
  24. ^ Lithuanian embassy in Brussels (also accredited to Luxembourg)
  25. ^ Romanian embassy in Luxembourg City (in French and Romanian only)
  26. ^ a b http://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-the-grand-duchy-of-luxembourg.en.mfa
  27. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-11/30/c_131279225.htm
  28. ^ http://www.todayszaman.com/news-264336-luxembourg-fm-says-eu-needs-turkey-to-become-global-actor.html
  29. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Brussels (also accredited to Luxembourg)
  30. ^ "Embassy Information", EmabssyInformation.com, retrieved 28 April 2009.
  31. ^ "List of Vietnamese Embassies and Consulates abroad", 48th International Mathematical Olympiad, retrieved 28 April 2009.

External links[edit]