Foreign relations of Monaco
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The Principality of Monaco is a sovereign and independent state, linked closely to France by the Treaty of July 1918, which was formally noted in Article 436 of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919. The foreign policy of Monaco is one illustration of this accord: France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests, whilst at the same time maintaining complete independence. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.
Although not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco is closely associated with the economic apparatus of the EU through its customs union with France and its reliance upon the euro as its official currency.
Monaco actively participates in the United Nations, which it joined in 1993. Monaco joined the Council of Europe on October 4, 2004. Monaco also is a member of many international and intergovernmental organizations, including Interpol, the UNESCO, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The International Hydrographic Bureau (IHB) is headquartered in Monaco.
Monaco has 10 diplomatic missions in Western Europe and permanent representation at the United Nations and the Council of Europe. It maintains honorary consulates in 106 cities in 45 countries. Seventy-six countries have consulates general, consulates, or honorary consulates in or accredited to Monaco.
Relations by country
Monaco maintains formal diplomatic legations, some as consulates others with the stature of an embassy, in the following nations:
Monaco participates in a number of European Union policies through its interaction with France. Monaco is in the EU's customs and VAT area, is a de facto member of the Schengen Area due to its open border with France and uses the euro as is sole currency.
Formal relations were established in 1918. France has agreed to defend the independence and sovereignty of Monaco, while the Monegasque Government has agreed to exercise its sovereign rights in conformity with French interests. Since then, the relations between the sovereign states of France and Monaco have been further defined in the Treaty of 1945 and the Agreement of 1963.
In 2002, Monaco renegotiated its 1918 treaty with France. In 2005, it was ratified by both parties and entered into force. The terms of the treaty upgrade France's representation in Monaco from Consulate General to that of an embassy; permit, for the first time, other countries to accredit ambassadors to Monaco; and formally recognize the succession scheme set out in the 1962 Constitution, which extends eligibility to the Prince's daughters and other family members.
It is part of Monaco's generally accepted cultural and political history that Monaco and the Holy See have maintained a diplomatic friendship bound by the Catholic faith since the founding of the Principality. Article 9 of the Monegasque Constitution, dated 17 December 1962, and modified in 2002, establishes the Catholic religion as the official religion of the sovereign state, which is a Catholic constitutional monarchy ruled by the Catholic Grimaldi dynasty. According to the Annuario Pontificio, the official yearbook of the Holy See, Monaco has maintained a diplomatic representative to the Holy See with the rank of minister plenipotentiary since 1915. In 1982, following the July 1981 signing of a new convention between Monaco and the Holy See reaffirming the close Catholic friendship and diplomatic relations which exists between the Catholic Principality and the Holy See, the rank of Monaco's diplomatic legation was elevated from that of a ministerial rank diplomatic legation to that of an embassy, with H.E. Cesar Charles Solamito, being elevated from the rank of minister plenipotentiary to ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary in June 1982. Ambassador Solamito served as Monaco's first ambassador to the Holy See until 1997. In 1999, the position of ambassador of Monaco to the Holy See was assumed by Monegasque ambassador H.E. Jean Claude Michel.
With respect to the Holy See, the Holy See has only maintained a diplomatic legation in Monaco since 2006. The appointment of a papal diplomatic representative to the Principality was subsequent to the revision of Monaco's treaty with France which was revised in 2002 and ratified in 2005. This revised treaty granted the Principality the sovereign prerogative of establishing formal diplomatic relations with other sovereign states at the highest diplomatic level, that of ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary—for the Holy See this means at the nunzorial level, i.e., that of an apostolic nunciature headed by an apostolic nuncio (apostolic nuncios normally hold the ecclesiastical rank of archbishop). The first, and current, apostolic nuncio to represent the Holy See to Monaco, with residence and coterminous accreditation to the EU in Brussels, is H.E. Archbishop Andre Dupuy. Archbishop Dupuy presented his credentials to HSH Prince Albert II on 26 September 2006.
- Italy has an embassy in the city of Monaco.
- Monaco has an embassy in Rome.
- Around 10,000 Italians live in Monaco.
- Monaco and Russia had bilateral relations since 1858, when Russia and Monaco signed treaties and agreements of extradition of criminals, of mutual legal assistance, on recognition of civil status of natural persons and of medical aid. However diplomatic relations suspended in 1917.
- Diplomatic relations were reestablished in April 2002.
- Monaco has an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg
- Russian interests in Monaco is represented by its consulate-general in Marseille.
- The United States and Monaco enjoy excellent relations. From 1956 until her death in 1982, the American-born Grace Kelly was married to Prince Rainier III, Prince Albert's father. The United States does not yet have a diplomatic mission located in Monaco but there is an embassy in Paris, and a consulate general in Marseille.
- In December 2006, the United States and Monaco upgraded from consular to full diplomatic relations. Shortly thereafter, Craig Stapleton (ambassador to France) was accredited to Monaco, and ambassador Gilles Noghes became the first Monegasque ambassador to the United States.
- On December 3, 2013, Her Excellency Maguy Maccario Doyle replaced Noghes as the Principality's new emissary to Washington DC following her appointment by His Serene Highness Prince Albert II of Monaco. Ambassador Maccario Doyle is the first woman to hold the post at the Embassy. She previously served as Consul General of Monaco in New York since 1997 and head of the Principality's Tourism Board in North America since the early 1990s.
- (English)/(French) Official External Relations Website of the Principality of Monaco
- (English)/(French) Permanent Mission of the Principality of Monaco to the United Nations
- (English) Consulate General of Monaco in New York
- (English) Honorary Consulate of Monaco in Las Vegas
- (French) Honorary Consulate of Lebanon in Monaco
- Consulats de Monaco à l'Etranger
- L'Ambassadeur de Saint-Siège au Palais Princier de Monaco from www.lepetitjournal.com 28 September 2006
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- Background Note: Monaco