Foreign relations of Norway

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The foreign relations of Norway are based on the country's membership in NATO and within the workings of the United Nations (UN). Additionally, Norway takes part in the integration of the European Union (EU) through its membership in the European Economic Area. Norway's foreign ministry includes both the minister of foreign affairs and minister of international development.

History[edit]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was established on the same day that Norway declared the dissolution of the union with Sweden: June 7, 1905. Although diplomats could not present credentials to foreign governments until the Swedish king formally renounced his right to the Norwegian throne, a number of unofficial representatives worked on the provisional government's behalf until the first Norwegian ambassador, Hjalmar Christian Hauge, sought accreditation by the United States Secretary of State Elihu Root on November 6, 1905.

The initial purposes of the newly formed Foreign Ministry were to represent Norway's interests through diplomatic channels, and to provide consular services for Norwegian shipping and commerce overseas. In 1906, the Storting decided to establish six embassies in Europe, with two more in the Americas: one in the United States and one in Argentina. 20 consular offices were also opened.

During World War I, the foreign ministry was confronted with unprecedented challenges in maintaining neutrality for Norway, in particular in order to protect its merchant fleet.

In 1922, the ministry was consolidated and reorganised to ensure fuller cooperation between the diplomatic and consular branches. The reorganization included the formation of a designated career path for diplomats that included completion of a university entrance examination and professional experience from international trade. The economic hardship of the times forced austerity measures at the ministry for the next several years.

When Norway was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1940, the government fled to the United Kingdom and reconstituted in exile in Bracknell, outside London. Kingston House in London was later used. The government moved back to Norway following the peace in 1945.

After the end of World War II, Norway was a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and the United Nations, the latter having Norwegian Trygve Lie as inaugural Secretary-General.

Elements of policy[edit]

Since the end of the Cold War, Norway has developed a model to foreign policy known as the "Norwegian model," the goal of which is to contribute to peace and stability through coordinated response among governmental and non-governmental Norwegian organizations; acting as an honest broker in international conflicts; an informal network of Norwegian individuals with access and credibility among parties; and the willingness to take the long view in international issues.

The post-war foreign policy of Norway can be described along four dimensions:

Strategic alliances[edit]

Norway's strategic importance for waging war in the North Atlantic became important in the failed neutrality policy of World War II. Norway became a founding member of NATO in order to ally itself with countries that shared its democratic values. Both through diplomatic and military cooperation, Norway has played a visible role in the formation and operations of NATO. It allowed a limited number of military bases and exercises to be based in its territories, which caused some controversy when NATO decided to put forward bases in Northern Norway in preparation for a conflict with the Soviet Union.

International cooperation[edit]

Norway supports international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of disputes, recognizing the need for maintaining a strong national defence through collective security. Accordingly, the cornerstones of Norwegian policy are active membership in NATO and support for the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Norway also pursues a policy of economic, social, and cultural cooperation with other Nordic countries--Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland—through the Nordic Council. Its relations with Iceland are very close due to the cultural bond the two nations share. Norway ended a 2-year term on the UN Security Council in January 2003, and chaired the Iraq Sanctions Committee.

Norway is the only Scandinavian country that is not a member of the European Union. Membership has been proposed within Norway, and referendums over Norwegian membership were held in 1972 and 1994. Popular opinion was split between rural and urban areas. See Norway and the European Union.

The present government is not planning to raise the possibility for future membership.

Norway also has a history of co-operation and friendship with the United Kingdom, due to their shared cultural heritage since Viking times. The Vikings conquered areas including the Hebrides, Orkney and Shetland for several hundred years. Norway is only 300 kilometres (159 Nautical miles) east of Unst, the northernmost island of Shetland. The Norwegian embassy to the United Kingdom is located in London, and Norway also maintains a Consulate General in Edinburgh. A Norway Spruce is given by the city of Oslo and presented to London as a Christmas tree for display in Trafalgar Square as a token of gratitude for the UK's support during World War II. King Haakon, his son Crown Prince Olav and the country's government lived in exile in London throughout the war. As part of the tradition, the Lord Mayor of Westminster visits Oslo in the late autumn to take part in the felling of the tree, and the Mayor of Oslo then goes to London to light the tree at the Christmas ceremony.

Third party mediation in international conflicts[edit]

Norway has played an active role as a third party mediator in a number of international conflicts. The late foreign minister Johan Jørgen Holst was instrumental in forging the Oslo Accords between Israel and the PLO. Thorvald Stoltenberg was part of the unsuccessful mediation team in seeking an end to the war in Bosnia. Norway has contributed both mediation services and financial assistance in Guatemala.

As of 2005, Norwegian diplomats are acting as mediators in Sudan, Bosnia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Some of those countries accuse Norway of supporting and propping up separatist groups. Israel is often bitter with harsh criticisms from Norwegian politicians. The spat was at its highest when finance minister Kristin Halvorsen supported boycott of Israeli goods.[1] in early 2006. Finance ministry spokesman, Runar Malkenes, told the BBC News website that "there are no moves to push for a boycott of Israeli goods" at government level.[2] Eritrea has been actively supported by Norway during its liberation from Ethiopia.[3] As of recent, Ethiopia expelled six Norwegian diplomats due to Norway's alleged support to 'Terrorist group and Eritrea'.[4] Norway retaliated by cutting aid to Ethiopia.

International disputes[edit]

Territorial claims in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and Peter I Island) are only recognized by Australia, France, New Zealand and the United Kingdom.

Bilateral Relations[edit]

 Bulgaria[edit]

 Canada[edit]

 China[edit]

  • China has an embassy in Oslo.

 Croatia[edit]

 Cyprus[edit]

Cyprus-Norway relations are foreign relations between Cyprus and Norway.[9] Diplomatic relations were established on March 22, 1963.[10] The government in Cyprus considers that "bilateral relations between Cyprus and Norway are excellent in all fields".[11]

Neither country has resident ambassadors. Cyprus is represented in Norway through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden and 2 honorary consulates, one in Oslo and the second in Kristiansand. Norway is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Athens, Greece and an honorary consulate in Nicosia.[12] Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.[11]

On August 21, 1951 there was a Consular Convention and an Exchange of Letters relating to establishing diplomatic relations. On May 2, 1951 there was a Convention for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income. On May 17, 1962 there was an Exchange of Letters constituting an Agreement on the Abolition of Visa Requirement in Nicosia. On March 5, 1963 there was an Agreement on Commercial Scheduled Air Transport signed in London.[13]

Norway provides direct funding to the Cypriot Government and also to local authorities, NGOs and educational institutions through EEA and Norway Grants.[14] The NGO Fund in Cyprus is co-financed by the European Economic Area (EEA) Financial Mechanism and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism. It was established in 2004.[15] In 2006, Norway increased its commitment to offer a total contribution of 4.66 million euros.[15] In 2007 a delegation from the EEA and Norway Grants went to Cyprus to "monitor the spending of Norwegian funds given to Cyprus as part of the European Economic Area."[16] In 2008 Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre traveled to Cyprus to meet President Demetris Christofias. They met to discuss Norway's assistance to the Cypriot village of Salamiou, in Paphos. The Norwegians plan to rebuild an old elementary school in the village. It will then become a Regional Centre for Environmental Education at the cost of 735,000.[17]

The taxation levels in Cyprus are considerably lower than in Norway, and Cyprus has actively courted Norwegians to move to Cyprus.[18] Among the Norwegians who moved to Cyprus is the shipping billionaire John Fredriksen, who was the richest man in Norway.[19][20][21]

In 1996 tax rules in Norway were changed to keep shipping companies competitive and under the Norwegian flag. By 2008 changes to the tonnage tax regime to harmonize them with the European Union forced some companies to register in Cyprus.[22] Norwegian Service rig company Prosafe moved their headquarters to Cyprus.[23]

Several Norwegian retirees also moved to Cyprus; this too is largely to benefit from the lower tax rate on Cyprus and the minimal crime.[24][25] The Norwegian colony on Cyprus is in Paphos.[25]

 Denmark[edit]

Both countries have a very long history together, both countries were part of the Kalmar Union between 1397 and 1523. Norway was in Union with Denmark between 1537 and 1814. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1905, after Norway’s independence. Denmark has an embassy in Oslo. Norway has an embassy in Copenhagen. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States, of NATO, and of the Council of Europe. There are around 15,000 Norwegian people living in Denmark and around 20,000 Danish people living in Norway.[26]

 Estonia[edit]

 Finland[edit]

 Greece[edit]

 Hungary[edit]

 Iceland[edit]

Iceland has an embassy in Oslo and Norway has an embassy in Reykjavík. In 2007, the two countries signed a defence agreement, covering surveillance and military defense of Icelandic air space and economic zone. It means that Norwegian jet fighters and surveillance aircraft will be patrolling Icelandic air space. It is underlined that the agreement with Norway only covers peace time. In case of a military conflict it is still NATO and the United States Government that will carry the main responsibility for Iceland's defence.[27] The agreement was signed following the decision to pullout US military from the Keflavík naval air base.[28]

 Ireland[edit]

 Israel[edit]

Norway was one of the first countries to recognize Israel on February 4, 1949. Both countries established diplomatic relation later that year. Israel has an embassy in Oslo.[29] Norway has an embassy in Tel Aviv and 2 honorary consulates (in Eilat and Haifa).[30]

 Kazakhstan[edit]

Kazakhstan has its embassy in Oslo.

 Kosovo[edit]

Norway recognized Kosovo in 28 March 2008.[31] Norway has an embassy in Pristina, while Kosovo has hinted that it will include Norway in the second wave of embassy openings.

 Mexico[edit]

Both nations established diplomatic relations in 1922.

  • Norway has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico has an embassy in Oslo.

 Morocco[edit]

   Nepal[edit]

Diplomatic relations were established on 26 January 1973. Norway established an embassy in Kathmandu in 2000.[32] Norway's aid to Nepal was around 2 million NOK in 2008. Norwegian aid prioritizes education, good governance and energy.[citation needed] In 2008, Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and Minister of the Environment and International Development Erik Solheim visited Nepal.[33] In 2009, Prime Minister Prachanda visited Norway.[34] In May 2008, a small bomb exploded outside the Norwegian embassy in Kathmandu. No one was injured.[35][36]

 Netherlands[edit]

  • Netherlands has an embassy in Oslo.
  • Norway has an embassy in The Hague.

 New Zealand[edit]

  • Reidar Sveaas, director of P&O Maritime Ltd. and honorary consul to Auckland said in 2000 that excellent opportunities existed for New Zealand to trade with the world's second largest oil-producing country, Norway.[38]
  • New Zealand joined 11 other countries in 2006 in delivering a formal diplomatic protest to the Norwegian Foreign Ministry in Oslo over Norway's plans to increase its whaling activities.[39]

 Pakistan[edit]

  • Pakistan and Norway have friendly ties. Norway and Pakistan ties date back to 1980s, the Pakistani community is the largest foreign immigrant community in Norway.
  • Norway has an embassy in Islamabad and an honorary consulate in Lahore and Pakistan has an embassy in Oslo.

 Palestinian Authority[edit]

  • A Palestinian representation in Oslo has had status of "general delegation". In December 2010 during a visit to Norway Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad announced that this mission would be upgraded to a diplomatic mission. This will take effect early in 2011. With the rank of ambassador its head will have the title "head of the Palestinian mission". Norway thus becomes the fourth European country to take similar steps, following Spain, France and Portugal. The upgrade does not constitute recognition of a Palestinian state by Norway, however.[41]

 Romania[edit]

 Russia[edit]

 Serbia[edit]

 Sweden[edit]

Norway and Sweden established diplomatic relations in 1905, after the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. Sweden has an embassy in Oslo,[49] while Norway has an embassy in Stockholm and three consulates in Gothenburg, Malmö and Sundsvall.

 Syria[edit]

In March 2012 the Norwegian Foreign Ministry announced that the Norwegian embassy in Damascus will be temporarily closed, mainly due to the deteriorating security situation in the country, however Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre also emphasized the closing being a political signal. One Norwegian diplomat will remain, stationed at the Danish embassy.[50] Norway has been aligned with the Western nations' criticism of the Assad government and with allegations from human rights organizations of violence against protesters from the military and security forces.

 Ukraine[edit]

 United Kingdom[edit]

  • The two countries established formal relations in 1905 when Norway became independent.
  • Norway has an embassy in London and Consulate General in Edinburgh. Norway also has Honorary Consulates in Aberdeen, Ardrossan, Barrow-on-Furness, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Douglas, Dundee, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Grimsby, Inverness, Jersey, Kirkwall, Lerwick, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle, Plymouth, Southampton and Stornoway.[53]
  • United Kingdom has an embassy in Oslo The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Alesund, Bergen, Stavanger, Tronheim, Bodø, Kristiansand and Tromsø.[54]

 United States[edit]

The United States and Norway have a long tradition of positive relations. There are millions of Americans with Norwegian heritage in the United States and around 10,000 U.S. citizens residing in Norway.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USA threats after boycott support". Aftenposten. 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  2. ^ "Norway split over Israel boycott". BBC News. 2006-01-05. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  3. ^ "Norwegian Assistance to Eritrea". Norway - the official site in Eritrea. 2005-01-28. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  4. ^ "Ethiopia: Norway supports ‘terrorists’ in Africa". Aftenposten. 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  5. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Oslo
  6. ^ Norwegian embassy in Sofia
  7. ^ Canadian embassy in Oslo
  8. ^ Norwegian embassy in Ottawa
  9. ^ Ibp Usa; USA International Business Publications (1 May 2002). Norway: Country Study Guide. Int'l Business Publications. pp. 77–78. ISBN 978-0-7397-4398-0. Retrieved 9 February 2013. . Section includes extensive copying from this source, which is public domain. See inline in text below for additional sources supporting material.
  10. ^ "Kingdom of Norway". Cyprus. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  11. ^ a b "Cyprus – Norway Bilateral Relations". Embassy of Cyprus in Sweden. Retrieved May 3, 2009. 
  12. ^ "Consulates in Greece and Cyprus". Norway. Retrieved 2010-05-15. "There are several Norwegian Honorary Consulates in Greece, and one in Nicosia, Cyprus." [dead link]
  13. ^ "Kingdom of Norway". Cyprus. Retrieved 2010-05-21. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Norwegian partners get valuable insight in Cyprus". Royal Norwegian Embassy in Athens. 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-15. [dead link]
  15. ^ a b "NGO Fund Launch Event". The Fund for Non Governmental Organisations in Cyprus. Retrieved May 1, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Norway allocates 4.7 million euro to Cyprus". Cyprus News Agency. November 13, 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-16. "A delegation of the Norwegian EEA Financial Mechanism is on the island to monitor the spending of Norwegian funds given to Cyprus as part of the European Economic Area Agreement. A meeting on this issue was held at the Planning Bureau between the Norwegian delegation and a Cypriot ..." 
  17. ^ "Norway’s FM visits to inaugurate environmental project". Cyprus Mail. June 29, 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  18. ^ "Kypros jakter på rike nordmenn". Dagsavisen (in Norwegian). May 11, 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-06. "Det ble i går kjent at skipsreder John Fredriksen tidligere Norges rikeste mann har gitt opp sitt norske pass og blitt kypriot. Fredriksen kom dermed kypriotene i forkjøpet." 
  19. ^ "Norway's richest man no longer". Aftenposten. May 11, 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-15. 
  20. ^ "Skatteflyktet til Kypros". Ukeavisenledelse (in Norwegian). August 23, 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-15. "Norges rikeste mann, god for minst 33 milliarder kroner, John Fredriksen (61), har gitt opp sitt norske statsborgerskap og allerede fått innvilget kypriotisk – av skattemessige årsaker." 
  21. ^ "Fredriksen blir kypriot". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). May 10, 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  22. ^ "Norway's Whilhelmsen moving shipping unit to Malta". Reuters. June 18, 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-15. "The changes were aimed at making Norwegian shipping rules more like those in the European Union, but industry groups have said the move might force some to register in tax havens such as Bermuda or Cyprus." 
  23. ^ "Rømmer norsk utbytteskatt". E24 Næringsliv (in Norwegian). February 9, 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  24. ^ Rowlinson, Liz (April 9, 2009). "Cyprus is surging forward with state-of-the-art homes". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 2010-05-21. "What's more, since Norway's richest man, John Fredriksen, took Cypriot citizenship in 2006, the flow of his fellow countrymen has increased, too, with investors taking advantage of the lowest income tax in Europe and minimal crime rates." 
  25. ^ a b "Norske pensjonister: Flytter til 8% skatt på Kypros". VG Nett. December 4, 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-06. "Low taxation, low living costs and summery winter temperature limits more and more Norwegians to settle on the Mediterranean island. Now we have established a Norwegian "colony" in Paphos in Cyprus similar seen in Spain." 
  26. ^ Statistics Norway
  27. ^ "Norway, Iceland to sign defense agreement". People's Daily Online. Xinhua. 25 April 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  28. ^ "Norway, Iceland to boost defence cooperation". Reuters. 24 April 2007. Retrieved 15 June 2009. "Norway and Iceland will sign an agreement on Thursday to step up defence cooperation to improve the Atlantic island nation's security following the U.S. withdrawal from the Keflavik naval air base, officials said on Tuesday." 
  29. ^ Israeli embassy in Oslo (in Norwegian only)
  30. ^ Norwegian embassy in Tel Aviv
  31. ^ "Norway recognises Kosovo as an independent state". 2008-03-28. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
  32. ^ http://www.norway.org.np/Devcoop/In+Nepal/DevCoop.htm
  33. ^ Nepal’s Prime Minister visits Norway April 10, 2009
  34. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-03/28/content_11088688.htm
  35. ^ "Politics/Nation". The Times Of India. 2008-05-17. 
  36. ^ http://www.fco.gov.uk/content/en/travel-advice/asia-oceana/nepal/fco_trv_ca_nepal?ta=safetySecurity&pg=2
  37. ^ Statistics Norway
  38. ^ "Building a bridge to Norway". The New Zealand Herald. May 22, 2000. Retrieved September 30, 2011. 
  39. ^ NZ urges Norway to stop commercial whaling
  40. ^ Whaling issue splits Norway and New Zealand in official visit
  41. ^ Medzini, Ronen (December 17, 2010). "Norway upgrades Palestinian mission". Ynetnews. AP. Retrieved December 17, 2010. 
  42. ^ Norwegian embassy in Bucharest
  43. ^ Romanian embassy in Oslo
  44. ^ Norwegian embssy in Moscow
  45. ^ Russian embassy in Oslo
  46. ^ Norwegian embassy in Moscow
  47. ^ Embassy of Norway in Belgrade
  48. ^ Embassy of Serbia in Oslo
  49. ^ "Norway". Regeringskansliet. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  50. ^ Zondag, Martin Herman Wiedswang (March 26, 2012). "– Indirekte er ambassadestenging et politisk signal" [– In an indirect manner, closing embassy is a political signal] (in Norwegian). NRK. Retrieved March 27, 2012. 
  51. ^ Norwegian embassy in Kiev
  52. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Oslo
  53. ^ [1]
  54. ^ [2]

External links[edit]