Foreign relations of the Palestine Liberation Organization

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The foreign relations of the Palestine Liberation Organization have been conducted since the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964.[1] In November 1988, the PLO's Palestinian National Council declared the independence of the State of Palestine and in 1994 the PLO established the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) following the Oslo Accords. The PLO Executive Committee performs the functions of the government of the State of Palestine. Currently, the PLO maintains a network of offices in foreign countries and also represents the PNA abroad.

From 2011, the PLO's diplomatic effort has been focused on the so-called Palestine 194 campaign, which aims to gain membership for the State of Palestine in the United Nations. It seeks to effectively gain collective recognition for a Palestinian state based on the 1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital.

Background[edit]

The Palestine Liberation Organization was created in 1964 as a paramilitary organization and has sought to conduct foreign relations with states and international organisations since that time.[1] Initially, the PLO established relations with Arab and communist countries. In 1969 the PLO became a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation[2][3] In October 1974, the Arab League designated the PLO as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people".[4] The new status of the PLO was recognised by all Arab League states except Jordan. (Jordan recognised that status of the PLO at a later stage.) On 22 November 1974, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3236 recognised the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination, national independence, and sovereignty in Palestine. It also recognised the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people to the United Nations. By Resolution 3237 on the same date, the PLO was granted non-State observer status at the United Nations.[5][6] In September 1976, the PLO became a non-state member of the Arab League, and in the same year became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement.

On 15 November 1988, in support of the First Intifada, the PLO declared the establishment of the State of Palestine, which was widely recognised by many foreign governments,[7] although often statements made were of an equivocal nature.[8] - at times referring to the PLO or the State of Palestine or one acting on behalf of the another, or by the generic "Palestine". Many countries and organisations "upgraded" representation from the PLO to the new State, though in practice the same PLO offices, personnel and contacts continued to be used. In February 1989 at the United Nations Security Council, the PLO representative claimed recognition from 94 states.[9][10] Since then, additional states have publicly extended recognition.

The PNA was established by the PLO in 1994 following the Oslo Accords and the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement. The Israeli government transferred certain powers and responsibilities of self-government to the PNA, which are in effect in parts of the West Bank, and used to be effective in the Gaza Strip before its takeover by Hamas. The Foreign Affairs Minister of the Palestinian National Authority, who since July 2007 has been Riyad Al-Maliki, is responsible for the foreign relations of the PNA. States maintain official relations with the PNA through offices in the Palestinian territories, and the representation of the PNA abroad is accomplished by the missions of the PLO, who represents it there.

Both the PLO (representing itself, the State of Palestine, or the PNA) and the PNA now maintain an extensive network of diplomatic relations,[11] and participate in multiple international organisations with status of member state, observer, associate, or affiliate. The designation "Palestine", adopted in 1988 by the UN for the PLO,[12] is currently also used as reference to the PNA and the State of Palestine by states and international organisations, in many cases regardless of the level of recognition and relations they have with any of these entities.

Bilateral relations[edit]

Countries with standing relations with the PLO and the PNA.

The PLO maintains a network of missions and embassies,[13] and represents abroad the PNA.[13][14] Most states that have recognised the State of Palestine have elevated the PLO representation in their country to the status of embassy.[15] A number of other states have granted some form of diplomatic status to a PLO delegation, falling short of full diplomatic recognition. In some cases, as a matter of courtesy, these delegations and missions have been granted diplomatic privileges,[15] and are often referred to as "embassies" with their heads as "ambassadors".[16]

In the United States, an unofficial PLO information office was established in New York in 1964 and run by Sadat Hassan, who served as Permanent Representative of Yemen to the United Nations.[17] The Palestine Information Office was then registered with the Justice Department as a foreign agent and operated until 1968, when it was closed. The PLO was designated a terrorist organization by the United States in 1987,[18][19] but in 1988 a presidential waiver was issued which permitted contact with the organization.[20] A PLO office was reopened in 1989 as the Palestine Affairs Center.[21] The PLO Mission office, in Washington D.C., was opened in 1994, and represented the PLO in the United States. On 20 July 2010, the United States Department of State agreed to upgrade the status of the PLO Mission in the United States to "General Delegation of the PLO".[22]

States that recognise the State of Palestine accredit to the PLO[14] (acting as its government-in-exile[23][24][25][26][note 1]) non-resident ambassadors residing in third countries.[34][35] Representation of foreign countries to the PNA is performed by missions or offices in Ramallah and Gaza.

Alphabetical table of relations[edit]

A total of 147 states currently have some form of diplomatic relations with the PLO and PNA, in addition to the European Union and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

  Full diplomatic relations (total 112)
  No diplomatic recognition of the State of Palestine (total 35, the European Union and the Order of Malta)
State Relations established Palestinian representation Foreign mission in Palestine Notes
 Afghanistan Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[36] OIC
 Albania Yes[when?] Embassy (Tirana)[37] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] OIC; Albania–Palestine relations
 Algeria Yes[when?] Embassy (Algiers)[38] Embassy, non-resident (Tunis)[39] Arab League, OIC; Algeria–Palestine relations
 Angola Yes[when?] Embassy (Luanda)[40]
 Argentina 2009 or before[41][42][43][when?] Embassy (Buenos Aires)[43][44][45] Office (Ramallah)[46]
 Australia Yes[47][when?] General delegation (Canberra)[47] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed]
 Austria 13 December 1978[48][49] Ambassador mission (Vienna)[50][51] Office (Ramallah)[52] EU
 Azerbaijan 15 April 1992[53] Embassy (Baku)[54] OIC
 Bahrain 15 June 1974[55] Embassy (Manama)[56] Arab League, OIC
 Bangladesh Yes[when?] Embassy (Dhaka)[57][58] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] OIC
 Belarus Yes[when?] Embassy (Minsk)[59][60] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[citation needed]
 Belgium Yes[when?] General delegation (Brussels)[40][citation needed] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[61][62] EU
 Belize Yes[when?] Special delegation, non-resident (Mexico City)[63]
 Benin Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Lagos)[64][65] OIC
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 30 October 1992[66] Embassy (Sarajevo)[67] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed]
 Brazil 1993 or before[68][when?] Special delegation (Brasília)[68] Office (Ramallah)[68] —; Brazil–Palestine relations
 Brunei 24 May 1994 Embassy, non-resident (Kuala Lumpur)[69] OIC
 Bulgaria Yes[when?] Embassy (Sofia)[70] Office (Ramallah)[71] EU
 Burkina Faso Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Bamako)[72][73] OIC
 Cambodia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Hanoi)[74]
 Cameroon Yes[75][when?] OIC
 Canada Yes[when?] General delegation (Ottawa)[76] Office (Ramallah)[77]
 Chad Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Bamako)[40] OIC
 Chile March 1990[78] Embassy (Santiago)[40][78][79] Office (Ramallah)[80]
 China Yes[when?] Embassy (Beijing)[81] Office (Ramallah)[82] —; China–Palestine relations
 Colombia 3 October 1988[83] Special mission (Bogota)[84] Delegation, non-resident (Cairo)[83]
 Comoros Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Djibouti)[40] Arab League, OIC
 Republic of the Congo Yes[when?] Embassy (Brazaville)[citation needed]
 Costa Rica 5 February 2008[85] Embassy, non-resident (New York)[86][87]
 Côte d'Ivoire Yes[when?] Embassy (Abidjan)[88] OIC
 Croatia 31 March 2011[89][90] Representation, non-resident (Zagreb) [75]
 Cuba Yes[when?] Embassy (Havanna)[91] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[92]
 Cyprus Yes[when?] Embassy (Nicosia)[93] Office (Ramallah)[94] EU
 Czech Republic 1983[95] Embassy (Prague)[96] Office (Ramallah)[97] EU
 Denmark Yes[when?] General delegation (Copenhagen)[40] Office (Ramallah)[98] EU; Denmark–Palestine relations
 Djibouti Yes[when?] Embassy (Djibouti)[40] Arab League, OIC
 Dominican Republic 15 July 2009[99] Embassy, non-resident (New York)[100]
 East Timor 1 March 2004[47][101] Embassy, non-resident (Canberra)[47]
 Ecuador 2008 or before[102][when?] Delegation, non-resident (Lima)[102]
 Egypt Yes[when?] Embassy (Cairo)[40] Embassy, non-resident[citation needed]
Office (Ramallah, Gaza)[citation needed]
Arab League, OIC; Egypt–Palestine relations
 El Salvador 10 May 2013 [103]
 Eritrea Yes[75][when?] Embassy, non-resident (Djibouti)[40]
 Estonia 2004 or before[104][when?] Mission, non-resident (Helsinki)[104][105] EU
 Ethiopia Yes[when?] Embassy (Addis Ababa)[106]
 European Union 1994 or before[when?] General delegation (Brussels)[40] Office (Ramallah)[107] EU; Palestine–European Union relations
 Finland 1982[108] General delegation (Helsinki)[108] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed] EU
 France Yes[when?] Ambassador mission (Paris)[109][110] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[111] EU
 Gabon Yes[when?] Embassy (Libreville)[citation needed] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] OIC
 Gambia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dakar)[112] OIC
 Georgia 25 April 1992[113]
 Germany Yes[when?] Ambassador mission (Berlin)[114] Office (Ramallah)[115] EU
 Ghana Yes[when?] Embassy (Accra)[116] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed]
 Greece Yes[when?] Representation (Athens)[117] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[118][clarification needed] EU
 Grenada 27 september 2013[119]
 Guinea Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dakar)[40][120] OIC
 Guinea-Bissau Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dakar)[40] OIC
 Guyana Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Havana)[121] OIC
 Haiti 27 september 2013[119]
 Holy See 25 October 1994[122] Representation, non-resident (London)[123][124][125] Apostolic nunciature, non-resident (Tunis)[123]
Apostolic delegation (Jerusalem)[126][127][clarification needed]
—; Holy See–Palestine relations
 Honduras 4 June 2013[128] Embassy, non-resident (Managua)[129] —; Honduras-Palestine relations
 Hungary Yes[when?] Embassy (Budapest)[130][131] Office (Ramallah)[132]
Honorary Consulate (Bethlehem)[133]
EU
 Iceland Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Oslo)[134] Embassy, non-resident (Reykjavík)[135] —; Iceland–Palestine relations
 India 1974[136] Embassy (New Delhi)[137] Office (Ramallah)[136] —; India–Palestine relations
 Indonesia 19 October 1989[138] Embassy (Jakarta)[138][139] Embassy, non-resident (Amman)[138][139] OIC; Indonesia–Palestine relations
 Iran Yes[when?] Embassy (Tehran)[40] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[citation needed] OIC; Iran–Palestine relations
 Iraq Yes[when?] Embassy (Baghdad)[140] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC; Iraq–Palestine relations
 Ireland Yes[when?] Ambassador mission (Dublin)[16][141][142] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed] EU
 Israel 20 August 1993 Department, non-resident (Gaza)[143] Department, non-resident (Tel Aviv)
 Italy 1974[48][when?] General delegation (Rome)[144] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[145][146] EU
 Japan Yes[when?] General delegation (Tokyo)[147] Office (Ramallah)[148]
 Jordan Yes[when?] Embassy (Amman)[149] Office (Ramallah, Gaza)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Kazakhstan 6 April 1992[150] Embassy (Astana)[150] Embassy, non-resident (Tel Aviv)[150] OIC
 Kenya Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Harare)[40][151]
 Korea, North Yes[when?] Embassy (Pyongyang)[40][152] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] —; North Korea–Palestine relations
 Korea, South Yes[when?] Office (Ramallah)[153]
 Kuwait Yes[when?] Embassy (Kuwait)[40][citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Kyrgyzstan November 1995[citation needed] Embassy, non-resident (Tashkent)[154] OIC
 Laos 15 May 1989[155] Embassy, non-resident (Hanoi)[155]
 Latvia Yes[when?] General delegation, non-resident (Helsinki)[108] EU
 Lebanon Yes[when?] Embassy (Beirut)[156] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Libya Yes[when?] Embassy (Tripoli)[157] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Lithuania Yes[when?] General delegation, non-resident (Helsinki)[108] EU
 Luxembourg 2006 or before[when?] General delegation, non-resident (Brussels)[158] EU
 Malawi Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[159] Embassy, non-resident (Harare)[160]
 Malaysia Yes[when?] Embassy (Kuala Lumpur)[161][162] OIC; Malaysia–Palestine relations
 Maldives Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Colombo)[163] Embassy, non-resident (London)[164] OIC
 Mali Yes[when?] Embassy (Bamako)[72][165] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[72][166] OIC
 Malta Yes[when?] Embassy (Valletta)[167] Office (Ramallah)[168] EU
 Mauritania Yes[when?] Embassy (Nouakchott)[40][169] Arab League, OIC
 Mauritius Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dar es Salaam)[170]
 Mexico Yes[when?] Special delegation (Mexico City)[171] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed]
 Moldova 7 June 1994[172]
 Mongolia 25 April 1979[173] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed]
 Montenegro 1 August 2006[174] Embassy, non-resident (Belgrade)[175]
 Morocco Yes[when?] Embassy (Rabat)[176] Office (Ramallah, Gaza)[177] Arab League, OIC
 Mozambique Yes[when?] Embassy (Maputo)[178] OIC
 Namibia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Pretoria)[179]
 Netherlands Yes[when?] General delegation (The Hague)[40] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed] EU
 New Zealand Yes[47][when?] General delegation, non-resident (Canberra)[47]
 Nicaragua Yes[when?] Embassy (Managua)[180][181] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed]
 Niger Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Bamako)[40] OIC
 Nigeria Yes[when?] Embassy (Abuja)[182] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] OIC
 Norway Yes[183][when?] General delegation (Oslo)[184] Office (Ramallah)[185]
 Oman Yes[when?] Embassy (Muscat)[186] Embassy, non-resident[citation needed]
Office (Gaza)[citation needed]
Arab League, OIC
 Pakistan Yes[when?] Embassy (Islamabad)[187] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[citation needed] OIC; Pakistan–Palestine relations
 Papua New Guinea 4 October 2004[47][188] Embassy, non-resident (Canberra)[47]
 Paraguay 25 March 2005[189] Embassy, non-resident (Brasília)[190]
 Peru 2008 or before[102][when?] Embassy (Lima)[191]
 Philippines September 1989[192] Embassy, non-resident (Kuala Lumpur)[35][40] Embassy, non-resident (Amman)[35]
 Poland Yes[when?] Embassy (Warsaw)[193] Office (Ramallah)[194] EU
 Portugal Yes[when?] General delegation (Lisbon)[40] Office (Ramallah)[citation needed] EU
 Qatar Yes[when?] Embassy (Doha)[195] Embassy, non-resident[citation needed]
Office (Gaza)[citation needed]
Arab League, OIC
 Romania Yes[when?] Embassy (Bucharest)[196][197] Office (Ramallah)[198] EU; Romania–Palestine relations
 Russia 1974[199] Embassy (Moscow)[200][201] Office (Ramallah)[202] —; Russia–Palestine relations
 Saudi Arabia Yes[when?] Embassy (Riyadh)[203] Arab League, OIC
 Senegal 1 December 1981[48] Embassy (Dakar)[204] OIC
 Serbia 1989[205] Embassy (Belgrade)[206] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[34] —; Palestine–Serbia relations
 Seychelles Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dar es Salaam)[207]
 Slovakia 1 January 1993[208] Embassy (Bratislava)[209][210] Embassy, non-resident (Damascus)[citation needed]
Office, non-resident (Tel Aviv)[211][212]
EU
 Slovenia Yes[when?] General delegation, non-resident (Rome)[213] Office (Ramallah)[213] EU
 Somalia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Djibouti)[40] Arab League, OIC
 South Africa 15 February 1995[214] Embassy (Pretoria)[215] Office (Ramallah, Gaza)[214][216][217] —; Palestine–South Africa relations
 Sovereign Military Order of Malta September 2011[218][219] [219] [219]
 Spain 14 August 1986[48][when?] General delegation (Madrid)[220] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[221] EU
 Sri Lanka Yes[when?] Embassy (Colombo)[222] Office (Ramallah)[223]
 Sudan Yes[when?] Embassy (Khartoum)[224][225] Arab League, OIC
 Swaziland Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Maputo)[226]
 Sweden Yes[when?] General delegation (Stockholm)[227] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[228] EU
  Switzerland Yes[when?] General delegation (Bern)[229][230] Office (Ramallah)[231]
 Syria 2006 or before[232][when?] Embassy (Damascus)[233] Embassy, non-resident (Amman)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Tajikistan 1994 or before[234][when?] Embassy, non-resident (Tashkent)[235] OIC
 Tanzania Yes[when?] Embassy (Dar es Salaam)[236][237] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[236]
 Thailand 1 August 2012[238] Embassy, non-resident (Kuala Lumpur)[238] Embassy, non-resident (Amman)[238]
 Tunisia 1994[239] Embassy (Tunis)[40] Office (Ramallah)[240] Arab League, OIC
 Turkey 1975[241] Embassy (Ankara)[242] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[243] OIC; Palestine–Turkey relations
 Turkmenistan 17 April 1992[244] Embassy, non-resident (Tashkent)[245] OIC
 Uganda Yes[when?] Embassy (Kampala)[40] OIC
 Ukraine Yes[when?] Embassy (Kiev)[246]
 United Arab Emirates Yes[when?] Embassy (Abu Dhabi)[247] Embassy, non-resident (Amman)[248] Arab League, OIC; Palestine–United Arab Emirates relations
 United Kingdom Yes[when?] General delegation (London)[249][250] Office (Gaza)[251]
Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[252][253][254][clarification needed]
EU; Palestine–United Kingdom relations
 United States Yes[when?] General delegation (Washington, D.C.)[255][256] Consulate-General (Jerusalem)[257][258] —; Palestine–United States relations
 Uruguay 20 April 2010[259] [260][261] [260][261]
 Uzbekistan 25 September 1994[262] Embassy (Tashkent)[263] OIC
 Vanuatu 19 October 1989[264] Embassy, non-resident (Canberra)[47]
 Venezuela 27 April 2009[265][266] Mission (Caracas)[40][267] Embassy, non-resident[citation needed]
Office (Ramallah)[citation needed]
—; Palestine–Venezuela relations
 Vietnam 1968[268] Embassy (Hanoi)[269] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] —; Palestine–Vietnam relations
 Yemen Yes[when?] Embassy (Sana'a)[270] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed] Arab League, OIC
 Zambia Yes[when?] Embassy (Lusaka)[40]
 Zimbabwe Yes[when?] Embassy (Harare)[151][271] Embassy, non-resident (Cairo)[citation needed]

Relations with international organisations[edit]

The Palestine Liberation Organization and the Palestinian National Authority are represented in various international organizations as member, associate or observer. Because of inconclusiveness in sources, in some cases it is impossible to distinguish whether the participation is executed by the PLO as representative of the Palestinian state, the PLO as a non-state entity, or the PNA. Often, the designation by the international organisation is usually simply with "Palestine".

International Organisation Status Representation Application date Admission date
Membership
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation [note 2] member State of Palestine 1969 [note 3]
Non-Aligned Movement member [273] Palestine[clarification needed] 1976 [274]
Arab League [note 4] member State of Palestine 1976 [note 3]
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia member [276] Palestine Liberation Organization[277] (as in the UNGA) 1977
Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly member [278] Palestinian National Council (PLO) 2003
International Coordinating Committee of National Human Rights Institutions [note 5] member [279] Palestinian Independent Commission for Human Rights (PNA)[note 6] 2004 [280]
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
and International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
member Palestine Red Crescent Society (PLO)[281] 2006 [274]
Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean member [282] Palestinian National Council (PLO) 2006 [274]
Union for the Mediterranean member Palestinian National Authority 2008
Inter-Parliamentary Union member [283] Palestinian National Council (PLO)[note 7] 1995[284] 2008 [note 7]
Asian Parliamentary Assembly member [290] Palestinian Legislative Council (PNA)
Group of 77 member [291] Palestine[clarification needed]
International Trade Union Confederation member [292] Palestine General Federation of Trade Unions
Airports Council International member [293] Palestinian Civil Aviation Authority (PNA)
Alliance for Financial Inclusion member [294] Palestinian Monetary Authority (PNA) 2010
UNESCO member State of Palestine 1989[295] 2011 [note 8]
IBAN member [299] Palestinian Monetary Authority (PNA)[300] 2012
Non-member status
United Nations [note 9] observer state State of Palestine[305] 1974 [note 10]
World Health Organization observer [307] Palestine Liberation Organization (as in the UNGA) 1998
International Telecommunication Union observer [308] Palestine Liberation Organization (as in the UNGA) 1998 [309]
World Tourism Organization special observer [310] Palestine Liberation Organization (as in the UNGA)[citation needed] 1999
International Organization for Standardization correspondent [311][note 11] Palestine Standards Institution (PNA)[313][314] 2001 [note 12]
World Intellectual Property Organization observer [315] Palestine Liberation Organization (as in the UNGA) 2005 2005 [316]
Universal Postal Union special observer Palestinian National Authority 2008
Energy Charter Conference observer [317] Palestinian National Authority 2008
International Electrotechnical Commission affiliate participant [318] Palestine Standards Institution (PNA)[314][319] 2009
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe partner for democracy Palestinian National Council (PLO) 2010 [278] 2011 [320]

Arab League[edit]

In 1964, the first summit of the League of Arab States, held in Cairo in January, resulted in a mandate for the creation of a Palestinian entity.[321][322] Subsequently, in May, the Palestine Liberation Organization was established during a meeting of the Palestinian National Congress in Arab-controlled Jerusalem.[323] The organisation's establishment was formally approved at the Arab League's second summit, held in Alexandria in October.[324] The PLO was granted full membership in 1976.[325] Its seat was assumed by the State of Palestine following the declaration of independence in 1988.[325][specify]

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation[edit]

The PLO was accorded full membership in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC; now named Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in 1969;[326] it attended the founding conference, held in Rabat in September 1969, as an observer.[327] Its seat was assumed by the State of Palestine following the declaration of independence in 1988.[specify] It is also a member of the Islamic Development Bank, an international financial institution for member states of the OIC.[328][329]

Status at the United Nations[edit]

The Palestine National Council (PNC) sent formal notification to the U.N. Secretary-General regarding the establishment of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in May 1964. The following year in October, some Arab states requested that a PLO delegation be allowed to attend meetings of the Special Political Committee, and it was decided that they could present a statement, without implying recognition. PLO participation in the discussions of the Committee took place under the agenda item of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) from 1963 to 1973.[330]

The Palestine Liberation Organization was granted observer status at the United Nations General Assembly in 1974 through General Assembly Resolution 3237. In the UNGA's regional groupings, the PLO gained full membership in the Group of Asian states on 2 April 1986.[note 9] Acknowledging the proclamation of the State of Palestine,[331] the UN re-designated this observer to be referred to as "Palestine" in 1988 (General Assembly Resolution 43/177) and affirmed "the need to enable the Palestinian people to exercise their sovereignty over their territory occupied since 1967".[331][332] In July 1998, the General Assembly adopted a new Resolution (52/250) conferring upon Palestine additional rights and privileges, including the right to participate in the general debate held at the start of each session of the General Assembly, the right of reply, the right to co-sponsor resolutions and the right to raise points of order on Palestinian and Middle East issues.[333] By this resolution, "seating for Palestine shall be arranged immediately after non-member States and before the other observers."[333] This Resolution was adopted by a vote of 124 in favour, 4 against (Israel, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, United States) and 10 abstentions.[334][335]

Since 2011, Palestinian diplomacy has been centred around the Palestine 194 campaign, which aims to gain membership for the State of Palestine in the United Nations at its 66th Session in September 2011. It seeks to effectively gain collective recognition for a Palestinian state based on the borders prior to the Six Day War, with East Jerusalem as its capital. In September 2012, the Palestine Liberation Organization submitted a draft resolution according non-member observer state status to Palestine,[336][337] which the General Assembly approved on 29 November 2012.[26] The change in status was described by The Independent as "de facto recognition of the sovereign State of Palestine".[338]

The vote was a historic benchmark for the sovereign State of Palestine and its citizens, whilst it was a diplomatic setback for Israel and the United States. Status as an observer state in the UN will allow the State of Palestine to join treaties and specialised UN agencies, such as the International Civil Aviation Organisation,[339] the Law of the Seas Treaty and the International Criminal Court. It shall permit Palestine to claim legal rights over its territorial waters and air space as a sovereign state recognised by the UN. It shall also provide the citizens of Palestine with the right to sue for control of their territory in the International Court of Justice and with the legal right to bring war-crimes charges, mainly those relating to the unlawful Israeli occupation of the State of Palestine, against Israel in the International Criminal Court.[340]

As of 2013, after Palestine was granted UN observer status, the UN authorised the PLO to title its representative office to the UN as 'The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations',[341] and Palestine has started to re-title its name accordingly on postal stamps, official documents and passports,[342][343] whilst it has instructed its diplomats to officially represent 'The State of Palestine', as opposed to the 'Palestine National Authority'.[342] Additionally, on 17 December 2012, UN Chief of Protocol Yeocheol Yoon decided that "the designation of 'State of Palestine' shall be used by the Secretariat in all official United Nations documents",[344] thus recognising the PLO-proclaimed State of Palestine as being sovereign over the territories of Palestine and its citizens under international law. Hussein Ibish, Senior Research Fellow, American Task Force on Palestine, mentioned that the terminology that was usually used regarding the Palestinian United Nations application was that the Palestinians seek recognition from the United Nations, which he claims is meaningless, He wrote that: "the United Nations doesn’t recognize states; states recognize each other. The United Nations has member states."[345]

Applications[edit]

Following the 2012 observer state status at the General Assembly,[26] the PLO Executive Committee studied a report including concrete steps on accession to international treaties and joining other international bodies.[346] On 9 January 2013 PLO-EC member Hanan Ashrawi studied steps relevant to joining UN agencies and organizations.[347]

World Health Organization

The PLO currently holds observer status at the World Health Organization (WHO), but applied for full membership status for the State of Palestine in 1989. The United States, which provided one-quarter of the WHO's funding at the time, informed the WHO that its funding would be withheld if Palestine was admitted as a member state. Yasser Arafat described the U.S. statement as "blackmail". The PLO was asked to withdraw its application by the WHO director general. The WHO subsequently voted to postpone consideration of the application and no decision on the application has been made yet.[348] John Quigley writes that Palestine's efforts to gain membership in several international organisations connected to the United Nations was frustrated by U.S. threats to withhold funding from any organisation that admitted Palestine.[349] On October 31, 2011, following the admission of Palestine to UNESCO, the Minister of Health Fathi Abu Moghli announced that the PNA will now seek membership at the WHO.[350] However, following protests by the UN Secretary-General, al-Malki announced on 3 November that at this point the PLO would not seek membership in other UN agencies until the issue of membership has been resolved at the Security Council.[351]

World Trade Organization

In 2005[352] and 2009, the Palestinian Authority submitted a request for World Trade Organization (WTO) observer status.[353][354] In 2013 Palestinian private sector representatives proposed that the 1994 agreement about customs union with Israel should be canceled and a separate customs territory administration should be established.[355]

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization Preparatory Commission

In 2007, the Palestinian Authority submitted a request for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization Preparatory Commission (CTBTO) observer status, but it was declined.[356]

International Criminal Court

In January 2009, the Minister of Justice of the Palestinian Authority (PA), Ali Kashan, expressed the PA's wishes to recognize the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court (ICC) over “the territory of Palestine”[357] and to invoke Article 12 (3) of the Rome Statute, which specifically enables "a state which is not a party to this Statute" to request that the ICC exercise its jurisdiction on “the territory of Palestine” or involving its nationals.

The ICC rejected the request in April 2012.[358][359] According to the Jerusalem Post, "had the ICC accepted the PA’s recognition of its jurisdiction, it would have also tacitly accepted its statehood."[360] In September 2012 the ICC prosecutor Fatou Bensouda suggested that the issue may be re-visited following the vote at the UNGA.[361]

United Nations

In September 2011, the PLO submitted an application for full membership of the United Nations. In a speech to the General Assembly, President Mahmoud Abbas said:[362]

"I would like to inform you that, before delivering this statement, I, in my capacity as President of the State of Palestine and Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization, submitted to H.E. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations an application for the admission of Palestine on the basis of the 4 June 1967 borders, with Al-Kuds Al-Sharif as its capital, as a full member of the United Nations."

In 2011 the Security Council's membership committee deadlocked on the issue and had been "unable to make a unanimous recommendation to the Security Council".[363] Its report was the result of seven weeks of meetings, detailing myriad disagreements between the council members on whether Palestine fulfills the requirements set forth in the U.N. charter for members countries.[364]

Participation in international sports federations[edit]

International Organisation Status Representation Application date Admission date
International Olympic Committee (and Olympic Council of Asia) member Palestine Olympic Committee[clarification needed] 1986 1995
International Paralympic Committee member Palestinian Paralympic Committee[clarification needed]
FIFA (International Federation of Association Football)[note 13] member [365] Palestinian Football Association[clarification needed] 1998

International treaties and conventions[edit]

The Palestine Liberation Organization, representing the Palestinian National Authority, participates in trade liberalisation:

Treaty or convention Signature Ratification
Customs Union with Israel [note 14] 1994[note 15]
Free Trade Agreement with the European Union[366] 1997-02-24[366] 1997-07-01[366]
Free Trade Agreement with the European Free Trade Association[367] 1998-11-30[368] 1999-07-01[368]
Bilateral Investment Treaty with Egypt[352] 1998-04-28[369] 1999-06-19[369]
Free Trade Agreement with Turkey[370] 2004-07-20[370] 2005-06-01[370]
Greater Arab Free Trade Area of the Council of Arab Economic Unity[371] [when?] [when?]
free trade agreement with Mercosur[372] 2011-12-21[372]
free trade agreement with Jordan[373] 2012-10-07[373]

The Palestine Liberation Organization and the Palestinian National Authority are jointly[note 16] accepted as party to the international agreements in the Arab Mashreq:

Treaty or convention Signature Ratification
On roads[375] 2001-05-10[375] 2006-11-28[375]
On railways[376] 2003-04-14[376] 2006-11-28[376]
On maritime transport[377] 2005-05-09[377]

Applications[edit]

Following the 2012 UN resolution according observer status for the State of Palestine, foreign minister Maliki stated that a committee will be formed to examine all possible options for the State of Palestine to join international treaties and conventions.[346][347][378]

Geneva Conventions

In 1989, the Palestine Liberation Organization, on behalf of the State of Palestine, submitted a letter of accession to the Geneva Conventions. However, Switzerland, as the depositary state, determined that because the question of Palestinian statehood had not been settled within the international community, it was therefore incapable of recognising Palestine as a "power" that could accede to the Conventions.[348]

"Due to the incertainty [sic] within the international community as to the existence or the non-existence of a State of Palestine and as long as the issue has not been settled in an appropriate framework, the Swiss Government, in its capacity as depositary of the Geneva Conventions and their additional Protocols, is not in a position to decide whether this communication can be considered as an instrument of accession in the sense of the relevant provisions of the Conventions and their additional Protocols."[379]

Nevertheless, the Palestine Red Crescent Society is currently a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, which requires its participants to adhere to the Geneva Conventions.[note 17]

Aftermath of Hamas' victory[edit]

After the victory of the Change and Reform list (led by Hamas) in the 2006 elections, many governments, including the United States, as well as the European Union, cut ties with the organs of the PLC,[381][382] but not those connected to the PNA President, Mahmoud Abbas. The boycott led to the withholding of foreign aid, upon which much of the Palestinian economy is dependent, promised to the PNA. The European Union set up a mechanism to transfer some aid to PNA employees, many of whom had gone unpaid for months, that bypassed the government. After Abbas' sacking of Prime Minister Ismail Haniya as a response by Hamas' takeover of the Gaza Strip in June 2007, the boycott was lifted.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The members of the institutions of the State of Palestine meet inside its claimed territory[27][28][29][30] without having control over any part of it.[31][32][33]
  2. ^ Including its subordinated organizations of Islamic Development Bank (joined in 1977, three years after its establishment in 1974) and Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (one of the founders in 1982).[272]
  3. ^ a b The State of Palestine succeeded the seat of the Palestine Liberation Organization following the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence.
  4. ^ Including its subordinated organizations of Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, Arab Monetary Fund and Arab Satellite Communications Organization. The PLO's Palestinian National Council is one of the founders of the Arab Inter-parliamentary Union in 1974.[275]
  5. ^ Including its regional subgroup Asia Pacific Forum of National Human Rights Institutions (APF).
  6. ^ Established by 1993 decree of the President of the State of Palestine and the Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization and organized according to 1997 PNA's Palestinian Legislative Council law stipulating that "The Commission shall submit its reports to the President of the National Authority, and to the Palestinian Legislative Council."[280]
  7. ^ a b Palestine Liberation Organization delegation has been IPU observer since the 117th session of the IPU Governing Council in 1975.[275] At various sessions in 1996,[284] 1997[285] and 1998[286] it was decided that the Palestine National Council does not fulfill the conditions for membership laid down in Article 3 of the IPU Statutes,[286] but in 1998 the rights of the observer delegation of Palestine were strengthened.[287] Following the approval of the amendment to Article 3[288] in 2008 the PNC was accepted as IPU member.[289]
  8. ^ The PLO participated in UNESCO as observer since 1974.[296] In 1989 an application was submitted for the State of Palestine to become full member.[295] In 2011 UNESCO accepted the application.[297][298]
  9. ^ a b For the purposes of United Nations Regional Groups arrangement, the Palestine Liberation Organization participates in the Asia group since 2 April 1986.[301][302][303][304]
  10. ^ Since 1974 the Palestine Liberation Organization has the status of UN non-state observer entity. Since 1988 its designation in the UN is "Palestine".[12] Since 2012 the UN observer mission of the PLO is changed into UN observer mission of the State of Palestine,[305] whose government is the Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization.[26][306]
  11. ^ Representation for "Occupied Palestinian Territory" equivalent to that of a state; assigned the code "ps"[312]
  12. ^ The PSI became a subscriber member of ISO in 2001 and a correspondent member in 2004.[313] It is still not a full member.[311]
  13. ^ The Palestinian Football Association is also member of Asian Football Confederation and Union of Arab Football Associations.
  14. ^ Israel has free trade agreements with the EU, EFTA, Turkey, USA, Canada and Mexico. The PNA participates in the free trade agreement between the United States and Israel.
  15. ^ Established following the Oslo Accords and the Paris protocol.
  16. ^ Palestine was accorded membership in ESCWA pursuant to ECOSOC Resolution 2089 (LXIII) dated 22 July 1977.[277] Full powers for the signature of the Agreements were issued by the leaders of the PLO and the PNA.[374]
  17. ^ The ICJ noted that Palestine gave a unilateral undertaking, by declaration of 7 June 1982, in the name of the 'State of Palestine' to apply the Fourth Geneva Convention – and that Switzerland, as depositary State, considered that unilateral undertaking valid.[380]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ OIC member states
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  152. ^ "Floral basket to Kim Jong Il from Palestinian President". Korean Central News Agency. 14 February 2000. Retrieved 2011-03-10.  "Ambassador E.P. of the State of Palestine to the DPRK".
  153. ^ Chungnam Park; Government of South Korea. "Greetings". Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 2010-12-31. 
  154. ^ (Kyrgyz) Government of Kyrgyzstan. "Embassy of the State of Palestine to Kyrgyzstan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
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  228. ^ Consulate General of Sweden in Jerusalem. "About the Consulate General". Government of Sweden. Retrieved 2011-01-29.  "The Consulate General also follows and reports about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process through contacts with the Palestinian Authority."
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  248. ^ Government of the United Arab Emirates. "UAE Ambassador in Amman to visit and meet with the Mufti of Jerusalem". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-03-18.  "UAE Ambassador to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, the non-resident Ambassador to the State of Palestine".
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  257. ^ U.S. Consulate in Jerusalem. "About the Consulate". Government of the United States. Retrieved 2010-12-05.  "The mission was designated a Consulate General in 1928. It now represents the United States in Jerusalem, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip as an independent mission, with the Consul General serving as chief of mission."
  258. ^ Anon. "Jerusalem – History". The Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 2011-08-01.  "United States maintains a consulate in east Jerusalem that deals with Palestinians in the territories and works independently of the embassy, reporting directly to Washington."
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  269. ^ Government of Vietnam. "Vietnam-Palestine Relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-01-30.  "Embassy of State of Palestine".
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  271. ^ "Foreign Representation in Zimbabwe (N-Z)". ZimTrade.co.zw. Retrieved 2010-12-31.  "Embassy of the State of Palestine".
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  278. ^ a b Request for Partner for Democracy status with the Parliamentary Assembly submitted by the Palestinian National Council, section B, point 7
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  280. ^ a b "Palestinian Territories — Asia Pacific Forum". Asia Pacific Forum. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
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  282. ^ "List by National Delegation, Associate Members and Observers". Parliamentary Assembly of the Mediterranean. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  283. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "Members of the Union". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  284. ^ a b Inter-Parliamentary Union. "159th SESSION OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL, Beijing (China), 16 and 21 September 1996". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2012-11-25. : "communication from the Speaker of the Palestine National Council to the 93rd Conference (April 1995) concerning the situation of Palestine in the IPU".
  285. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "160th SESSION OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL, Seoul (Republic of Korea), 10, 12 and 15 April 1997". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  286. ^ a b Inter-Parliamentary Union. "THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL DECIDES ON PALESTINE'S AFFILIATION TO THE IPU". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2012-11-25. : "Palestine National Council...was not created by decision of a Parliament constituted in conformity with the laws of a sovereign State whose population it represents and on whose territory it functions ... does not have legislative power or the right to oversee the action of government."
  287. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "163rd SESSION OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY COUNCIL, Moscow (Russian Federation), 7 and 12 September 1998". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  288. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "AMENDMENTS TO THE STATUTES AND RULES OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2011-11-25. : "Membership - Article 3, add a new Article 3.1 bis as follows: Ibis. The parliament constituted in conformity with the basic law of a territorial entity whose aspirations and entitlement to statehood are recognized by the United Nations, and which enjoys the status of Permanent Observer to that Organization with substantial additional rights and privileges, may also become a Member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union."
  289. ^ Inter-Parliamentary Union. "119th ASSEMBLY OF THE INTER-PARLIAMENTARY UNION AND RELATED MEETINGS, Geneva, 13-15.10.2008". unispal.un.org. Retrieved 2011-11-25. : "The Governing Council,...conditions laid down in Article 3 of the Statutes...Considering that...United Nations has on numerous occasions recognized the aspirations and entitlement to statehood of Palestine...Palestine enjoys the status of Permanent Observer to the United Nations...Considering also that the current situation on the Palestinian territories impedes the functioning of the Palestinian Legislative Council and that its participation in the work of the Inter-Parliamentary Union may therefore, for the time being, be facilitated by the Palestine National Council...Decides to admit the Parliament of Palestine as a Member of the Inter-Parliamentary Union...Annuls...the decisions...at its 117th and 163rd sessions regarding the participation of Palestine as an observer"
  290. ^ Secretariat, Asian Parliamentary Assembly. "Asian Parliamentary Assembly member parliaments". Asian Parliamentary Assembly. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  291. ^ The Group of 77 (2010). "Member States of the Group of 77". Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
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  293. ^ Airports Council International. "Airports Council International membership". Retrieved 2011-03-20. :"Palestinian Civil Aviation Authority, Yasser Arafat International Airport ..., Gaza, Palestinian Authority".
  294. ^ AFI members
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  300. ^ http://www.wafainfo.ps/atemplate.aspx?id=2617 (Arabic)
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  302. ^ United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2002). "Government structures". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-12-05. : "At present, the PLO is a full member of the Asian Group of the United Nations".
  303. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 52/250: Participation of Palestine in the work of the United Nations (1998): "Palestine enjoys full membership in the Group of Asian States".
  304. ^ Palestine/PLO (being a GA observer only) is not included in the list of "Members of the General Assembly, arranged in current regional groups". Further, a recent document of UN-HABITAT, which classifies countries by explicit lists according to the "United Nations Regional Groups" (see: "UN-HABITAT's Global Report on Human Settlements" (2007), pp. 329-330), along with a more recent document of UN-AIDS - which classifies countries by explicit lists according to the "Regional Groups that are used by the UN General Assembly, ECOSOC, and its subsidiary bodies" (see: UNAIDS, The Governance Handbook (2010), pp. 28-29), do not include Palestine/PLO in any Regional Group, but instead write: "the General Assembly conferred upon Palestine, in its capacity as observer, additional rights and privileges of participation. These included the right to participation in the general debate of the General Assembly, but did not include the rights to vote or put forward candidates" (see: UN-HABITAT's Global Report on Human Settlements, p. 335, 2nd footnote; UNAIDS, The Governance Handbook, p. 29, 4th footnote).
  305. ^ a b Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations: "since ... Vote in the United Nations General Assembly which accorded to Palestine Observer State Status, the official title of the Palestine mission has been changed to The Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations."
  306. ^ Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN 9780198296430.  "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."
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  309. ^ International Telecommunication Union (1998). "RESOLUTION 99 (Minneapolis, 1998) - Status of Palestine in ITU". Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  310. ^ World Tourism Organization. "Observers pursuant to General Assembly resolution". Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  311. ^ a b "ISO members". Iso.org. Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  312. ^ Maintenance Agency for ISO 3166 country codes (2010). "English country names and code elements". International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  313. ^ a b International Organization for Standardization (2010). "Palestine Standards Institution". Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  314. ^ a b Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. "Palestinian Authority Agencies and Organizations". Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  315. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization (23 March 2010). "List of Observers". Retrieved 2010-12-05. 
  316. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization. "Forty-First Series of Meetings, Geneva, September 26 to October 5, 2005". Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  317. ^ Energy Charter Secretariat. "Energy Charter". Retrieved 2011-03-02. :"The Palestinian National Authority became an Observer on 28 November 2008".
  318. ^ International Electrotechnical Commission. "IEC Affiliates". Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  319. ^ International Electrotechnical Commission. "Palestine Standards Institution". Retrieved 2012-04-01. 
  320. ^ 2011 ORDINARY SESSION, Thirtieth sitting, Tuesday 4 October 2011
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  324. ^ Sela, Avraham. "Arab Summit Conferences." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 158-160
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  339. ^ Abbas has not taken practical steps toward seeking membership for Palestine in UN agencies, something made possible by the November vote
  340. ^ "Palestine threatens to sue Israel at ICC". 2013-01-30. Retrieved 2013-02-10. 
  341. ^ [1]
  342. ^ a b [2]
  343. ^ [3]
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  345. ^ Ibish, Hussein (25 July 2011). "Senior Research Fellow, American Task Force on Palestine". Symposium: Arab and Israeli Peace Initiatives. 
  346. ^ a b PLO studies steps to join UN treaties, bodies
  347. ^ a b Ashrawi Urges Europeans to End Israeli Occupation
  348. ^ a b Quigley, John (2009). "The Palestine Declaration to the International Criminal Court: The Statehood Issue". Rutgers Law Record (Newark: Rutgers School of Law) 35. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 
  349. ^ Quigley, 1990, p. 231.
  350. ^ Palestine to Apply for Full Membership in WHO, Says Minister of Health, WAFA, Oct. 31, 2011
  351. ^ Staff writers (4 November 2011). "Al-Malki: Palestine will not apply to other UN bodies". Ma'an News Agency. Retrieved 2011-11-05. 
  352. ^ a b EVOLUTION OF INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS (IIAS) IN THE MENA REGION
  353. ^ Pa Formally Requests Observer Status At Wto Ministerial, Bilateral Consultations With Ustr
  354. ^ Palestinian Authority Request For Wto Observer Status: Ustr Meetings With Palestinian Officials And Private Sector
  355. ^ Under the paper reconsider joint agreements with the Israeli side, away from the so-called customs union, so there should be an independent Palestinian customs area
  356. ^ Palestinian Authority refused observer status at CTBTO
  357. ^ "Averting Palestinian Unilateralism" (PDF). Retrieved 1 March 2011. 
  358. ^ "International arenas are routinely hijacked for political purposes, but today’s decision was markedly different," said Anne Herzberg, legal adviser for NGO Monitor. International Criminal Court prosecutor rejects Palestinian attempt to recognize jurisdiction
  359. ^ Prosecutor Rejects Palestinian Recognition of ICC
  360. ^ ICC: No Cast Lead probe as PA not a state
  361. ^ International Criminal Court to consider implications of UN vote on Palestine
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  366. ^ a b c Council of the European Union. "Euro-Mediterranean Interim Association Agreement on Trade and Cooperation between the European Community, of the one part, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) for the benefit of the Palestinian Authority of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, of the other part". Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  367. ^ EFTA Secretariat. "Interim Agreement between the EFTA States and the PLO for the benefit of the Palestinian Authority". Retrieved 2011-03-19. 
  368. ^ a b EFTA Free Trade Agreements Palestinian Authority
  369. ^ a b Bilateral Investment Treaties Signed and into force by Egypt
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  371. ^ Pan-Arab Free Trade Area (PAFTA), WTO
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  373. ^ a b Jordan, Palestine Sign Free Trade Agreement
  374. ^ United Nations (2010). "Historical Information". Office of Legal Affairs; United Nations Publications. Retrieved 2010-11-20. 
  375. ^ a b c United Nations (2010). "Agreement on International Roads in the Arab Mashreq". Office of Legal Affairs; United Nations Publications. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  376. ^ a b c United Nations (2010). "Agreement on International Railways in the Arab Mashreq". Office of Legal Affairs; United Nations Publications. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  377. ^ a b United Nations (2010). "Memorandum of Understanding on Maritime Transport Cooperation in the Arab Mashreq". Office of Legal Affairs; United Nations Publications. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  378. ^ Maliki meets Norwegian special envoy to the United Nations
  379. ^ "Note of Information" (Press release). Government of Switzerland. 13 September 1989. 
  380. ^ International Court of Justice (9 July 2004), Legal consequences of the construction of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory: Advisory Opinion (in French and English), paragraph 91. 
  381. ^ See for example, Palestinian Anti-Terrorism Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–446 (21 December 2006). United States Code, Cornell University Law School. 120 Stat. 3318. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
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