Foreign relations of South Sudan

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The foreign relations of South Sudan are the relations between the Republic of South Sudan and sovereign states and international organisations. The establishment of the relationships followed the formation of the South Sudanese state on 9 July 2011. Sudan became the first state in the world to recognise South Sudan.

Foreign policy[edit]

In the immediate aftermath of the country's independence, South Sudan's foreign policy prerogative was seen as a challenge in the quest to balance relations between the West, other African states and the Arab states.[1] Since independence, South Sudan has sought to shed its reliance on Sudan, reportedly planning to introduce the Swahili language and orient itself toward East Africa.[2][3][4]

Chronology of relations[edit]

Sudan was the first country to recognise the independence of South Sudan on 8 July 2011, 1 day prior to independence. Four other states followed suit on 8 July. Over 25 countries had recognised the country on 9 July, including all permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.[5][6][7][8][9]

On 14 July 2011, South Sudan was admitted as a member of the United Nations without a vote[10][11] or objections raised by its members.[12][13][14]

Both before and after South Sudan admission to the UN, many states have issued official explicit statements about its diplomatic recognition and some have established diplomatic relations with it. In less than half a year the number of recognitions reached over 115 and the number of relations established over 40.

United Nations member states[edit]

Country Recognition of South Sudan[note 1] Relations established[note 2] Notes
1  Sudan 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[15][16]
9 July 2011[17] South Sudan – Sudan relations
African Union (AU) member
 Arab League member
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (OIC) member
First state to recognise South Sudan.[15][16]
2  Egypt 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[18][19]
9 July 2011[20] Egypt – South Sudan relations
AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
3  Germany 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[21]
9 July 2011 United Nations Security Council (UNSC) president at the time of declaration of independence [21]
4  Kenya 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[22]
9 July 2011[23] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member[24]
 East African Community (EAC) member[25]
5  Equatorial Guinea 9 July 2011 [26]
6  Albania 9 July 2011[27][28]  OIC member
7  Mozambique 9 July 2011[29][30] 15 July 2011[31] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member [29][30]
8  People's Republic of China 9 July 2011[32] 9 July 2011[33] UNSC permanent member [32]
9  United Kingdom 9 July 2011[9][34] 9 July 2011  Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC permanent member [9][35]
10  Turkey 9 July 2011[36] [when?][37]  OIC member
11  Italy 9 July 2011[38] [when?][39]
12  Poland 9 July 2011[40] 31 January 2013[41]
13  United States 9 July 2011[42] 9 July 2011[43] South Sudan–United States relations
UNSC permanent member [42]
14  Canada 9 July 2011[44] 22 December 2011[45]  Commonwealth of Nations member [44]
15  Australia 9 July 2011[46] 24 September 2011[47]  Commonwealth of Nations member [46]
16  Japan 9 July 2011[48] 9 July 2011[49] [48]
17  Ireland 9 July 2011[50]
18  France 9 July 2011[51] 9 July 2011[52] UNSC permanent member [51]
19  Cuba 9 July 2011[53][54][55][56] 10 July 2011[57]
20  Sweden 9 July 2011[58] [when?]
21  Norway 9 July 2011[59] [when?][60]
22  Uganda 9 July 2011[61] [when?] South Sudan – Uganda relations
AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
 EAC member
 OIC member
23  Armenia 9 July 2011[62]
24  Russia 9 July 2011[6][63] 22 August 2011[64] UNSC permanent member
 OIC observer [6][63]
25  Brazil 9 July 2011[65] 9 July 2011[66] UNSC non-permanent member
 Arab League observer
26  Romania 9 July 2011[67] 17 April 2013[68]
27  Spain 9 July 2011[69] 21 September 2011[70]
28  Austria 9 July 2011[71] 21 September 2011 [72]
29   Switzerland 9 July 2011[73]
30  Netherlands 9 July 2011[74] 9 September 2011[75] Date given as that of establishment of diplomatic relations is that of the nomination of first Dutch ambassador to South Sudan, since no previous announcement of bilateral relations being established had until then been made by either side
31  Belgium 14 July 2011[76] 14 October 2011[77]
32  South Africa 9 July 2011[78] 22 September 2011[79] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC non-permanent member [78]
33  Tanzania 9 July 2011[80] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
 EAC member
34  Ethiopia 9 July 2011[81] AU member
35  Zimbabwe 9 July 2011[82][83][84][85] AU member
36  Central African Republic 9 July 2011[86] AU member
 OIC observer
37  Togo 9 July 2011[87] AU member
 OIC member
38  Mali 9 July 2011[88] AU member
 OIC member
39  Algeria 9 July 2011[89][90] AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
40  Libya 9 July 2011[91] 23 October 2011 AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
41  Rwanda 9 July 2011[92] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
 EAC member
42  Latvia 9 July 2011[93]
43  Greece 9 July 2011[94]
44  Jordan 9 July 2011[95]  Arab League member
 OIC member
45  India 9 July 2011[96] [when?] India – South Sudan relations
 Commonwealth of Nations member
UNSC non-permanent member
 Arab League observer
46  Luxembourg 9 July 2011[97] 14 December 2011[98] [99]
47  Chile 9 July 2011[100]
48  Cambodia 9 July 2011[101] 22 July 2011[102] [101]
49  South Korea 9 July 2011[103] 9 July 2011[104] [103]
50  Qatar 9 July 2011[105]  Arab League member
 OIC member
51  Maldives 9 July 2011[106]  Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member
52  Portugal 9 July 2011[107] UNSC non-permanent member
53  Slovakia 9 July 2011[108]
54  Ghana 9 July 2011[109][110] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
55  Nigeria 9 July 2011[111] UNSC non-permanent member
AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member
56  Malta 9 July 2011[112]  Commonwealth of Nations member
57  Denmark 9 July 2011[113]
58  Botswana 9 July 2011[114] AU Member
 Commonwealth of Nations member
59  Angola 10 July 2011[115][116] AU Member
60  Israel 10 July 2011[117][118] 28 July 2011 South Sudan – Israel relations [117][118]
61  Somalia 10 July 2011[119] AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
62  Cape Verde 10 July 2011[120] AU member
63  Bahrain 10 July 2011[121] 30 September 2012[122]  Arab League member
 OIC member
64  Vietnam 10 July 2011[123]
65  Kuwait 10 July 2011[124]  Arab League member
 OIC member
66  Burkina Faso 10 July 2011[125] AU member
 OIC member
67  Estonia 11 July 2011[126][127][128][129]
68  United Arab Emirates 11 July 2011[130]  Arab League member
 OIC member
69  Czech Republic 11 July 2011[131]
70  Eritrea 11 July 2011[132] 24 July 2011[133] AU member
 Arab League observer
71  Saudi Arabia 11 July 2011[134]  Arab League member
 OIC member
72  Costa Rica 11 July 2011[135][136]
73  Indonesia 12 July 2011[137]  OIC member
74  Timor-Leste 12 July 2011[138] 13 October 2011[139] [138]
75  Namibia 12 July 2011[140] 12 July 2011 [141] AU member
 Commonwealth of Nations member[142]
76  Senegal 12 July 2011[143] AU member
 OIC member
77  Slovenia 12 July 2011[144] 23 September 2011[145] [144]
78  Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 July 2011[146] AU member
79  Liberia 13 July 2011[147] AU member
80  Mauritania 13 July 2011[148] AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
81  Djibouti 13 July 2011[149] 11 February 2012[150] AU member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
82  Uruguay 13 July 2011[151][152]
83  Guinea 14 July 2011[153] AU member
 OIC member
84  Guyana 14 July 2011[154]  Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member
85  Singapore 14 July 2011[155]  Commonwealth of Nations member
86  Montenegro 14 July 2011[156] 21 November 2011 [157] [156]
87  Kyrgyzstan 14 July 2011[158]  OIC member
88  Peru 14 July 2011[159]
89  Mexico 14 July 2011[160] 26 September 2011[161] [160]
90  Gabon 15 July 2011[162] UNSC non-permanent member
AU member
 OIC member
91  North Korea 15 July 2011[163] 18 November 2011 [164] [163]
92  Kazakhstan 15 July 2011[165]  OIC member
93  Hungary 15 July 2011[166][167] 24 September 2011 [168]
94  Colombia 16 July 2011[169] UNSC non-permanent member
95  Iran 16 July 2011[170]  OIC member
96  Cyprus 18 July 2011[171]  Commonwealth of Nations member
97  Lebanon 18 July 2011[172] UNSC non-permanent member
 Arab League member
 OIC member
98  Bulgaria 19 July 2011[173][174] 19 July 2011[175]
99  Bangladesh 20 July 2011[176]  Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member
100  Suriname 20 July 2011 [177][178]
101  Finland 22 July 2011[179] 29 June 2012[180]
102  Pakistan 22 July 2011[181]  Commonwealth of Nations member
 OIC member
103  Croatia 27 July 2011[182]
104  Philippines 1 August 2011[183] 13 March 2013[184]
105  Argentina 2 August 2011[185][186]
106  Panama 18 August 2011[187]
107  Serbia 18 August 2011[188] 4 January 2012
108  Belarus 18 August 2011[189]
109  Yemen 6 September 2011 [190] 9 October 2011 [191]
110  Thailand 6 September 2011 [192]
111  Macedonia 14 September 2011 [193]
112  Lithuania 14 September 2011 [194][195] 14 September 2011[196]
113  Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 September 2011 [197]
114  Vanuatu 28 September 2011 [198]  Commonwealth of Nations member
115  Jamaica 6 October 2011 [199]  Commonwealth of Nations member
116  Mongolia 20 December 2011 20 December 2011[200] [201]
117  Syria 26 December 2011 [202]
118  Venezuela 26 December 2011 [202]
119  Ukraine 11 January 2012[203] 25 September 2012[204]
120  Georgia 15 June 2012[205] 15 June 2012[205]
121  Fiji 25 September 2012 5 October 2012[206]  Commonwealth of Nations member
122  Azerbaijan 27 October 2012[207] 27 October 2012[207]
123  Benin 29 January 2013 30 January 2013[208]

Non-members of the UN[edit]

Country Recognition Relations established Notes
Holy See (Vatican City) 8 July 2011
effective 9 July 2011[209][210]
22 February 2013[211] Diplomatic relations on ambassadorial level[211]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 9 July 2011[212]
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 9 July 2011[213] 9 July 2011[214] African Union (AU) member [213]
 Somaliland 10 July 2011[215]
 Transnistria 12 July 2011[216]
 Palestinian Authority 14 July 2011[217]  Arab League member
 Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (OIC) member

Representation in South Sudan[edit]

The United States upgraded its Juba consulate to an embassy on 9 July 2011,[218] as did France.[219] Also Sudan has announced that it plans to open an embassy in Juba, upon independence,[220] while Egypt has announced it intends to convert its existing consulate in Juba into a full embassy.[18][221] The United Kingdom has opened an embassy in South Sudan, as well.[222]

On 16 September 2011, the ambassadors of the United Kingdom and Norway presented their credentials, the first to do so.[223] Credentials were presented on 15 November of that year by Chinese, German and Kenyan ambassadors.[224]

According to Indian officials, the country will upgrade its consulate in Juba to an embassy and appoint an ambassador to South Sudan.[225][226]

International organisations[edit]

South Sudan became a member of the United Nations on 13 July 2011.[227] It joined the African Union on 27 July 2011.[228] It's also a member in: the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS), the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the International Organization for Migration (IOM).

South Sudan has also either applied or is in the process of applying to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa,[229] the Commonwealth of Nations,[230] the East African Community,[231] the Intergovernmental Authority on Development,[229] the International Monetary Fund,[232] and the World Bank.[233] South Sudan has also been assured membership in the Arab League,[234] should it decide to pursue membership, though it could also opt for observer status.[235] it may also seek membership in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, which has expressed interest in giving South Sudan admission[236] despite not being a majority Muslim state.

On 24 July 2011, President Salva Kiir told the Speaker of the East African Legislative Assembly that he hoped the EAC will consider expediting South Sudan's accession to the supranational organisation. South Sudan is considered very likely to join the EAC, but an exact timetable for admission has not yet been mooted publicly.[237]

International organisation Status
African Union (AU) The African Union welcomed South Sudan as its 54th member state.[citation needed]
 Arab League The Arab League wishes South Sudan to become a member state.[238] However, South Sudan does not have a majority Arab population and in South Sudan there is strong opposition to joining.[239]
 East African Community (EAC) South Sudan's membership in the EAC is favoured by all members.[240]
 International Olympic Committee (IOC) South Sudan does not as yet have a National Olympic Committee. A South Sudanese marathon runner competed as an Independent Olympian at the 2012 London Olympics.[original research?]
 United Nations (UN) On 14 July, South Sudan became 193rd UN Member State.[241]
FIFA (FIFA) On 25 May 2012, South Sudan became the 209th member of FIFA.[242]

Individual states[edit]

China[edit]

China recognizes the independence of South Sudan on July 9, 2011.[243]

Egypt[edit]

Essam Sharaf, Prime Minister of Egypt after the Arab Spring-inspired revolution in 2011 made his first foreign visit to Khartoum and Juba in the lead-up to South Sudan's secession.[244] Egypt was one of four countries to recognise South Sudan as an independent state on the first day.

Israel[edit]

Relations between the two states commenced with Israel's recognition of South Sudan a day after its independence[245] and South Sudan announcing the following week its intention to establish full diplomatic relations with Israel.[246] On 28 July 2011, it was announced that full diplomatic ties had been established between the two countries.[247] This is considered a significant boon to Israel, as Sudan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and does not recognise Israeli sovereignty.[246]

Economic ties show the most potential. As of 23 July 2011, several Israeli companies are already in talks for various business deals.[248] Israel is host to thousands of refugees from South Sudan, who are now ready to return to their native country.[249]

Sudan[edit]

Since independence relations with Sudan have been under negotiation. Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir first announced, in January 2011, that dual citizenship in the North and the South would be allowed,[250] but upon the independence of South Sudan he retracted the offer. He has also suggested an EU-style confederation.[251] In February 2012, an agreement was reached by which citizens of both countries could live, work, and own property in both countries, and freely travel between the two.[252]

Uganda[edit]

Prior to independence relations between the two states were fostered through cultural contacts such as the presence of South Sudanese students in Uganda. As independence approaches the two states started to enhance their economic ties. However, the Lord's Resistance Army's presence in South Sudan was a stumbling block.

South Sudan and the Commonwealth of Nations[edit]

South Sudan has applied for full membership of the Commonwealth. If and when it is accepted, South Sudan will become the newest Commonwealth republic.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Diplomatic recognition is an explicit official unilateral act in the foreign policy of states in regards to another party. Not having issued such a statement doesn't necessarily mean the state has objections against the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. South Sudan is not one of the states with limited recognition.
  2. ^ Establishment of diplomatic relations is an official bilateral act between the governments of two states. Not having established such relations doesn't necessarily mean the states have objections against the existence, independence, sovereignty or government of the other party. South Sudan is not one of the states with limited recognition.

References[edit]

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