Foreign relations of Switzerland

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Coat of Arms of Switzerland (Pantone).svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Switzerland

The foreign relations of Switzerland are the primary responsibility of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA). Some international relations of Switzerland are handled by other departments of the federal administration of Switzerland.

History[edit]

The 1999 Swiss Constitution declares the preservation of Switzerland's independence and welfare as the supreme objective of Swiss foreign policy. Below this overarching goal, the Constitution sets five specific foreign policy objectives:

  • further the peaceful coexistence of nations;
  • promote respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of the law;
  • promote Swiss economic interests abroad;
  • alleviate need and poverty in the world;
  • promote preservation of natural resources.

These objectives reflect the Swiss moral obligation to undertake social, economic, and humanitarian activities that contribute to world peace and prosperity. This is manifested by Swiss bilateral and multilateral diplomatic activity, assistance to developing countries, and support for the extension of international law, particularly humanitarian law.

Traditionally, Switzerland has avoided alliances that might entail military, political, or direct economic action. Only in recent years have the Swiss broadened the scope of activities in which they feel able to participate without compromising their neutrality. Switzerland is not a member of the European Union and joined the United Nations very late compared to its European neighbors.

Switzerland maintains diplomatic relations with almost all countries and historically has served as a neutral intermediary and host to major international treaty conferences. The country has no major dispute in its bilateral relations.

Switzerland (mainly Geneva) is home to many international governmental and nongovernmental organisations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross (whose flag is essentially the Swiss flag with colours reversed). One of the first international organisations, the Universal Postal Union, is located in Bern.

United Nations[edit]

Session in the Palace of Nations in Geneva

On September 10, 2002, Switzerland became a full member of the United Nations, after a referendum supporting full membership won in a close vote six months earlier; Swiss voters had rejected membership by a 3-to-1 margin in 1986. The 2002 vote made Switzerland the first country to join based on a popular vote.

Prior to its formal accession to the United Nations, Switzerland had maintained an observer role at the UN's General Assembly and its Economic and Social Council. Prior to full membership it had no right to a seat as one of the elected members of the UN Security Council.

Switzerland has fully participated within many of the UN's specialised institutions, including the Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations Environment Programme, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UN Conference on Trade and Development, UN Industrial Development Organization, and the Universal Postal Union. Switzerland has also furnished military observers and medical teams to several UN operations.

Switzerland is a party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice.

Support of UN sanctions[edit]

The Swiss government on June 25, 2003, eased most of the sanctions against the Republic of Iraq in accord with UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1483. The government lifted the trade embargo, flight restrictions, and financial sanctions in place since August 1990. The weapons embargo and the asset freeze, the scope of which was extended, remain in force, and restrictions on the trade in Iraqi cultural goods were newly imposed. Though not a member at the time, Switzerland had joined UN sanctions against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait.

Switzerland also has joined UN economic sanctions imposed on Libya, Sierra Leone, UNITA (Angola), Liberia, and Serbia/Montenegro. On October 15, 2003, the Federal Council ended the import restrictions on raw diamonds from Sierra Leone and lifted sanctions against Libya.

Switzerland in October 2000 implemented an ordinance to enforce UN sanctions against the Taliban (UNSCR 1267), which it subsequently amended in April 2001 in accord with tighter UN regulations (UNSCR 1333). On May 2, 2002, the Swiss Government eased the sanctions regime in accord with UNSCR 1388 and 1390, lifting the ban on the sale of acetic acid (used in drug production), Afghan airlines, and Afghan diplomatic representations. The weapons embargo, travel restrictions, and financial sanctions remain in force.

The Swiss Government in November 2001 issued an ordinance declaring illegal the terrorist organisation Al-Qaida as well as possible successor or supporting organisations. More than 200 individuals or companies linked to international terrorism have been blacklisted to have their assets frozen. Thus far, Swiss authorities have blocked about 72 accounts totalling U.S.$22.6 million.

Other international organizations[edit]

Switzerland is a member of many international organisations, including the World Trade Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, European Free Trade Association, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, International Atomic Energy Agency, and INTELSAT. Its central bank is a member of the Bank for International Settlements, based in Basel.

Switzerland is an active participant in the OSCE, its foreign minister serving as Chairman-in-Office for 1996. Switzerland also is an active participant in the major nonproliferation and export control regimes.

Although it is surrounded by member nations, Switzerland is not a member nation of the European Union. In 1992 Swiss voters approved membership in the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, but later that year rejected the European Economic Area agreement, which the government viewed as a first step toward European Union membership.

(More complete list of memberships):

ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, CGPM, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD (World Bank), ICAO, ICC, ICC, ICDO, ICFTU, ICMM, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFCS, IFRCS, IGC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, IWC, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIE, OPCW, OSCE, OTIF, PCA, PFP, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC.

Participation in peacekeeping[edit]

While the Swiss electorate did reject a government proposition to directly deploy Swiss troops as UN peacekeepers (the Blue Helmets) in 1994, a total of 23 Swiss personnel including police and military observers (the Blue Berets) have served or are now serving for the United Nations. These dispositions are impartial, clearly defined and cover a number of UN projects around the globe.[1]

In 1996 Switzerland joined NATO's Partnership for Peace, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, and deployed Yellow Berets to support the OSCE in Bosnia. In June 2001, Swiss voters approved new legislation providing for the deployment of armed Swiss troops for international peacekeeping missions under UN or OSCE auspices as well as closer international cooperation in military training.

Since 1999, the Swiss army is participating through SWISSCOY in the peace keeping mission of the Kosovo Force (KFOR) based on UN-resolution 1244, with prolonged presence until 2014, after approval by the Swiss federal assembly in Spring 2011. Main duties include the supervision of civilian reconstruction efforts, monitoring and protection of patrimonial sites, military police and medical assistance.[2]

Representation of foreign entities and in foreign disputes[edit]

Under a series of treaties concluded after World War I, Switzerland assumed responsibility for the diplomatic and consular representation of Liechtenstein, the protection of its borders, and the regulation of its customs.

Due to its long-standing neutrality, Switzerland has served as the protecting power for many countries that did not have diplomatic relations with each other. This reached an apex during World War II, when Switzerland represented the interests of a total of 35 countries, numbering around 200 mandates. After World War II, Switzerland served an additional 67 mandates for various countries, including those between Cuba and other nations in the Western Hemisphere after the 1959 Cuban Revolution, between Middle Eastern nations following the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, and between India and Pakistan prior to the formalization of relations in 1976.

Today, Switzerland has six protecting power mandates:

  • United States interests in both Cuba and Iran
  • Cuban interest in the United States
  • Iranian interests in Egypt
  • Georgian and Russian interests with each other

Switzerland played a key role in brokering a truce agreement between the Sudanese Government and Sudan People's Liberation Army for the Nuba Mountains region, signed after a week's negotiations taking place near Lucerne in January 2002. Switzerland has also sent services to allied troops in the War in Afghanistan.[3]

Diplomatic representations[edit]

Disputes - International[edit]

As of 2009, there are a large number of disputes between Switzerland and Libya, and some Swiss politicians want to stop entry of Libyan nationals into Switzerland.[4][5]

On 29 November 2009, Swiss nationals voted to ban the building of new minarets in the country, provoking an angry reaction in Muslim countries.

Americas[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1834 See Argentina–Switzerland relations

Diplomatic relations were established in 1834, with the opening of a Swiss consulate in Buenos Aires, followed in 1891 by the opening of an embassy.

 Canada 1945 See Foreign relations of Canada
 Mexico 1827
 United States 1853 See Switzerland–United States relations

The first official U.S.-Swiss consular relations were established in the late 1820s. Diplomatic relations were established in 1853 by the U.S. and in 1868 by Switzerland. The U.S. ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to the Principality of Liechtenstein.

The U.S. Embassy in Switzerland is in Bern. The U.S. Mission to the European Office of the United Nations and other International Organizations, the U.S. Mission to the WTO, and the U.S. Delegation to the Conference on Disarmament are in Geneva. America Centers and Consular Agencies are also maintained in Zürich and Geneva.

 Uruguay 1828 See Switzerland–Uruguay relations

Both countries share a long history of mutual economic relations, and they established diplomatic relations in 1828.[10][11] Uruguay became a popular destination for Swiss migrants starting in the 1860s.[12] In 1931 Uruguay called for a Swiss style parliamentary system.[13] In the twentieth century, Uruguay has looked to Switzerland as a model for government, historical and cultural ties go back to at least the nineteenth century.[14] There are 956 people with Swiss passports residing in Uruguay in 2009.[15] Uruguay was described as the "Switzerland of the Americas" in a 1951 New York Times article for its popularity as a haven for capital fleeing Europe at the time and its adoption of Swiss-inspired banking laws.[16] Thomas J. Knight also wrote that "Uruguay has for most of its history been the 'Switzerland' of South America."[17]

Europe[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1 March 1922[18] See Albania–Switzerland relations

Albanians in Switzerland

  • Albania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tirana.
 Armenia See Armenia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Armenia as an independent state on December 23, 1991. The two countries have maintained diplomatic relations ever since. The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland and the Swiss ambassador to Armenia (based in Tbilisi, Georgia) were both accredited in 2002. The Armenian ambassador to Switzerland is based in Geneva, in the Armenian representation to the United Nations.

 Belarus 1992
 Croatia See Foreign relations of Croatia#Europe
 Denmark See Denmark–Switzerland relations
 European Union 1972 See Switzerland–European Union relations
 France See France–Switzerland relations
 Germany See Germany–Switzerland relations
 Georgia See Foreign relations of Georgia#Europe
 Ireland See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland#Europe and the European Union
 Italy See Italy–Switzerland relations
 Kosovo See Kosovo–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Kosovo on 27 February 2008.[21] Switzerland has an embassy in Pristina since 28 March 2008.[22] Kosovo will open an embassy in Bern. In September 2008, Designate Ambassador Naim Mala was refused by Swiss authorities due to his criminal record.[23] Switzerland currently has 212 troops serving in Kosovo as peacekeepers in the NATO led Kosovo Force.[24]

 Liechtenstein See Liechtenstein–Switzerland relations
 Moldova 1992-09-02 See Moldova–Switzerland relations
 Romania See Romania–Switzerland relations

Since the 1990s, Switzerland has helped Romania financially, for a total sum of 140 million Swiss Francs between 1996 and 2006, and an additional 23 million Francs in 2006-2007. Switzerland has become the 12th largest foreign investor in Romania.[25] In 2005, Romania exported goods to Switzerland for a total of 206 million Swiss Francs, with Switzerland exporting for 547 million Swiss Francs to Romania, making Romania the biggest partner of Switzerland in South-West Europe.[26] By 2006, this had increased by 26% from Romania and 38% from Switzerland.[27]

 Russia See Russia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland opened a consulate in Saint Petersburg in 1816, upgrading it to a legation 90 years later. The two countries broke off diplomatic relations in 1923, when Russia was going through a period of revolutionary turmoil – and they were not resumed until 1946. Russia has an embassy in Bern and a Consulate-General in Geneva. Switzerland has an embassy in Moscow and since 2006, a Consulate-General in Saint Petersburg.

 Serbia 1916 See Serbia–Switzerland relations
 Ukraine See Switzerland–Ukraine relations

Rest of world[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 1961 See Australia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland opened a consulate in Sydney in 1855 and one in Melbourne in 1856. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1961. Australia is represented to Switzerland through its embassy in Berlin (Germany) and Australia also has a consulate-general in Geneva. Switzerland has an embassy in Canberra, a consulate-general in Sydney and 6 honorary consulates in Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne and Perth.

 Azerbaijan See Azerbaijan–Switzerland relations
 Egypt See Foreign relations of Egypt#Other European countries
 Iran See Iran–Switzerland relations

Switzerland and Iran have greatly reduced their bilateral economic cooperation since the UN Security Council took up Iran's nuclear enrichment program in 2005.[35]

 Iraq See Iraq–Switzerland relations

In November 2000 Switzerland opened a diplomatic liaison office in Baghdad to safeguard its interests. Bilateral relations became closer after the Iraq war in 2003. Today Iraq has an embassy in Bern and Switzerland has a representative office in Baghdad.

 Israel See Israel–Switzerland relations

Switzerland recognized Israel on January 25, 1949 and opened a consulate in Tel Aviv. Israel has an embassy in Bern. Since 1958, Switzerland has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Eilat.[36] But recently, relations have been strained, due to the 2009 Durban Review Conference, which Israel had recalled its ambassador to Switzerland.[37]

 Japan See Foreign relations of Japan
 Malaysia 1963 See Malaysia–Switzerland relations

Switzerland has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur,[38] and Malaysia has an embassy in Bern.[39] The diplomatic relations has been established since 1963.[40]

 Pakistan

Switzerland recognised Pakistan's independence from Great Britain in 1947, and the two states established diplomatic relations in 1949.[41] Switzerland ranks fifth in terms of foreign direct investment in Pakistan.[42][43] Pakistan has an embassy in Bern, whilst Switzerland has an embassy in Islamabad, a Consulate-General in Karachi and an honorary consulate in Lahore.

 Philippines

Bilateral ties between the Philippines and Switzerland dates back to the early 19th century when Swiss traders, missionaries and travelers went to Southeast Asia. A Swiss representation in the Philippines was proposed in 1851, which was realized with the opening of a Swiss honorary consulate in Manila in 1862. Formal relations was established between the two countries on August 30, 1956.[44] The Philippines has an embassy in Bern and Switzerland has an embassy in Manila.

 South Africa See South Africa–Switzerland relations
 South Korea See Foreign relations of South Korea#Europe. South Korea and Switzerland have had a close relationship since the Korean War. Switzerland is one of the two countries, alongside Sweden, representing South Korea's interests at the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The two countries also share economic and political values. The Swiss embassy is located in Seoul, with a consulate in Busan, and South Korea maintains an embassy in Bern and a UN Mission in Geneva.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ International peace-keeping operations. Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Federal Administration admin.ch. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  2. ^ [1] Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport. Federal Administration admin.ch. Retrieved 2013-12-22.
  3. ^ http://www.vtg.admin.ch/internet/groupgst/en/home/peace/peace/laufende/afghanistan/factsheet.html
  4. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-11/05/content_12387873.htm
  5. ^ Thomasson, Emma (2009-10-26). "Swiss caution on Libya travel due Gaddafi row". Reuters. 
  6. ^ Argentine embassy in Bern
  7. ^ Argentine embassy in Bern
  8. ^ Mexican embassy in Bern
  9. ^ Swiss embassy in Mexico City
  10. ^ "Uruguay and Switzerland — cultural and economic Benefits from new Market opportunities". Mercosur. Retrieved 2009-05-14. "Switzerland and Uruguay feature relatively stable and reliable democracies. And both countries share a long history of mutual economic relations. ... This Swiss settlement was soon to become known for the exceptional quality of its cheese and other dairy products. As transport developed, the farmers began selling their products on an unprecedented scale, notably to Argentina and even to Switzerland. ... Uruguay and Switzerland laid down the cornerstone of their cooperation in 1938: The two countries signed a trade agreement aimed to enhance commercial cooperation. And in 1991, an agreement on the mutual protection of investments became effective." 
  11. ^ "Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Uruguay". Switzerland. Retrieved 2009-05-14. "The independent Republic of Uruguay came into being in 1828 and became a popular destination for Swiss migrants. It was German-Swiss farmers who in 1862-63 founded the colony of Nueva Helvecia. They introduced cheese-making and other agricultural innovations. Immigrants from Ticino were successful as skilled builders, artists and also footballers." 
  12. ^ "Uruguay to Honor the Swiss". New York Times. June 4, 1944. 
  13. ^ "President Calls for Commission Government Like Switzerland's to Overcome Defects.". New York Times. September 21, 1931. Retrieved 2009-05-14. "President Terra said today that Uruguay's experiment with the commission form of government, with divided executive power, had failed and the time had arrived to rewrite the Constitution and adopt a commission form like that of Switzerland or abolish the ..." 
  14. ^ Lijphart, Arend (1980). Democracy in plural societies. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02494-0. "Switzerland and republican Austria have not been colonial powers, but some attention should be paid to the case of Uruguay for which Swiss democracy served ..." 
  15. ^ "Key data for the Oriental Republic of Uruguay". Switzerland Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  16. ^ "Gold Flows to 'Switzerland of Americas' Since Korean War". New York Times. January 3, 1951. Retrieved 2009-05-14. "Uruguay's role as the "Switzerland of the Americas" was emphasized late in 1950 as ..." 
  17. ^ Thomas J. Knight, Latin America comes of age (Scarecrow Press, 1979), 24.
  18. ^ Ngritja e marrëdhënieve diplomatike, Balkanweb (in Albanian)
  19. ^ Office of the Swiss Embassy in Minsk
  20. ^ Belarussian embassy in Bern
  21. ^ "Bundesrat anerkennt Kosovo" (in German). Tages-Anzeiger. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2008-02-27. 
  22. ^ "Switzerland set to open embassy in Kosovo". Swissinfo. 2008-03-28. 
  23. ^ Switzerland Opposes Kosovo’s Envoy in Bern
  24. ^ "Kosovo Force (KFOR)" www.nato.int Link accessed 21-07-09
  25. ^ "Les relations économiques entre la Roumanie et la Suisse s’amélioreront après l'adhésion à l'UE, estime la ministre suisse des AE" (in French). Investir en Roumanie. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  26. ^ "Micheline Calmy-Rey est en visite officielle en Roumanie" (in French). Swissinfo. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 7 May 2009. [dead link]
  27. ^ "Suisse-Roumanie: du pain sur la planche" (in French). Swissinfo. 4 December 2007. Retrieved 7 May 2009. 
  28. ^ Swiss embassy in Belgrade
  29. ^ Serbian embassy in Bern
  30. ^ *Serbian general consulate in Zurich (in German only)
  31. ^ "Erstmals über eine Million EU- und EFTA Angehörige in der Schweiz". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 14 October 2008. 
  32. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Bern (in English)
  33. ^ Azerbaijani embassy in Bern
  34. ^ Swiss embassy in Baku
  35. ^ http://www.irantracker.org/foreign-relations/switzerland-iran-foreign-relations
  36. ^ Swiss embassy in Tel Aviv
  37. ^ "Walkout at Iran leader's speech". BBC News. 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2010-04-02. 
  38. ^ "Embassy Kuala Lumpur". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  39. ^ "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Bern". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  40. ^ "Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Malaysia". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 February 2014. 
  41. ^ http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/reps/asia/vpak/bilpak.html
  42. ^ http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Business/30-Jul-2010/Switzerland-ranks-5th-for-FDI-in-Pakistan.
  43. ^ http://www.opf.org.pk/download/anual/YEARBK.pdf
  44. ^ "Philippine Embassy | Bern, Switzerland". Philembassyberne.ch. Retrieved 2012-06-02. 

External links[edit]