Foreign relations of Ukraine
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politics and government of
Ukraine has formal relations with many nations and in recent decades has been establishing diplomatic relations with an expanding circle of nations. The foreign relations of Ukraine are guided by a number of key priorities outlined in the foreign policy of Ukraine.
Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement. The EU Common Strategy toward Ukraine, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe—OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also has a close relationship with NATO and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Former President Viktor Yushchenko indicated that he supports Ukraine joining the EU in the future. Plans for Ukrainian membership to NATO were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych was elected President. Yanukovych opted to keep Ukraine a non-aligned state. This materialized on June 3, 2010 when the Ukrainian parliament excluded, with 226 votes, the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy. "European integration" is still part of Ukraine's national security strategy and co-operation with NATO was not excluded. Ukraine considers its relations with NATO as a partnership. Ukraine and NATO still hold joint seminars and joint tactical and strategical exercises.
Relations with CIS states
Ukraine maintains peaceful and constructive relations with all its neighbors; it has especially close ties with Russia and Poland. Relations with the former are complicated by energy dependence and by payment arrears. However, relations have improved with the 1998 ratification of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. Also, the two sides have signed a series of agreements on the final division and disposition of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet that have helped to reduce tensions. Ukraine became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 8, 1991, but in January 1993 it refused to endorse a draft charter strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members. Ukraine was a founding member of GUAM (Georgia-Ukraine-Azerbaijan-Moldova).
In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia. Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.
Leonid Derkach (chairman of the SBU, which is Ukraine's security service, successor to the KGB) was fired due to Western pressure after he organized the sale of radar systems to Iraq while such sales were embargoed.
The 1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security.
Delimitation of the land boundary with Russia is incomplete, but the parties have agreed to defer demarcation. The maritime boundary through the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.
Ukraine and Romania have settled their dispute over the Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and the Black Sea maritime boundary at the ICJ. The 2010 CIA World Factbook states that "Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea".
State enterprise InvestUkraine was created under the State Agency for Investment and National Projects (National Projects) to serve as a One Stop Shop for investors and to deliver investment consulting services.
Relations by country
|Organization||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|European Union||2009||See Eastern Partnership program, Council of Europe
The Eastern Partnership is meant to complement the Northern Dimension by providing an institutionalised forum for discussing visa agreements, free trade deals and strategic partnership agreements with the EU's eastern neighbours.
|United Nations||1945 / 1992||See Economic Commission of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe|
|NATO||1995||See Ukraine–NATO relations, Partnership for Peace program, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council|
|Commonwealth of Independent States||1991|
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Austria||1992||See Austria–Ukraine relations
Ukraine includes a great deal of territory (some later part of Poland or Czechoslovakia before 1939) that used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, most of the Chernivtsi Oblast and the Zakarpattia Oblast. Austria has an embassy in Kiev and 3 honorary consulates (in Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv). Ukraine has an embassy in Vienna and 2 honorary consulates (in Klagenfurt and Salzburg).
|Belarus||See Belarus–Ukraine relations
Today, the two countries share 891 km of border. Belarus has an embassy in Kiev and an honorary consulate in Lviv Ukraine has an embassy in Minsk and a general consulate in Brest. Both countries are full members of the Baku Initiative, Common Economic Space, Central European Initiative and Commonwealth of Independent States.
|Belgium||1992||See Belgium–Ukraine relations
Belgium has an embassy in Kiev; Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels and two honorary consulates (in Antwerp and Mons). Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately USD1 billion.
|Bulgaria||1992||See Bulgaria–Ukraine relations|
|Croatia||See Croatia–Ukraine relations|
|Czech Republic||See Foreign relations of the Czech Republic|
|Denmark||See Denmark-Ukraine relations|
|Estonia||See Foreign relations of Estonia|
|Finland||See Foreign relations of Finland|
|France||See Foreign relations of France|
|Germany||See Germany–Ukraine relations|
|Greece||See Foreign relations of Greece|
|Holy See||See Foreign relations of the Holy See|
|Hungary||See Foreign relations of Hungary|
|Iceland||See Foreign relations of Iceland|
|Ireland||See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland|
|Italy||See Foreign relations of Italy|
|Latvia||1992-02-12||See Latvia–Ukraine relations|
|Lithuania||See Lithuania–Ukraine relations
|Malta||See Malta–Ukraine relations
The Maltese embassy in Moscow (Russia) is also accredited as a non resident embassy to Ukraine. Ukraine is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
|Moldova||See Moldova–Ukraine relations
Ukraine opened an Embassy in Chişinău in and a Consulate in Balti in 2005. The Ukrainian ambassador in Chişinău is Serhiy Pirozhkov. The border between Moldova and Ukraine is 985 kilometers. Ukrainians are the second largest ethnicity group in Moldova after ethnic Moldavians. There are 442,346 of Ukrainians in Moldova, which represents 11.2% of the population. Moldavians are the fourth ethnic minority in Ukraine. As of 2001 Ukrainian Census, there were 258,600 Moldavians in Ukraine – which represents 0,5% of the Ukrainian population. For 70.0% of Moldavian speaking Ukrainians, Russian 17.6% and Ukrainian 10.7% are the native languages.
|Montenegro||See Montenegro–Ukraine relations
Ukraine recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 15, 2006. Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 22, 2006. The Ukrainian embassy in Belgrade (Serbia) is accredited as a non resident embassy to Montenegro. In 2008, both countries indicated an intent to open resident embassies.
|Netherlands||1992||See Netherlands–Ukraine relations|
|Norway||1992||See Norway–Ukraine relations
|Poland||See Poland–Ukraine relations
Poland was the first country in the World to recognize Ukrainian independence. The relations have been improving since, with Poland and Ukraine forming a strong strategic partnership. Various controversies from their shared history occasionally resurface in Polish-Ukrainian relations, but they are not having a major influence on the bilateral relations of Poland and Ukraine.
Both countries share a border of about 529 km. Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.
|Portugal||1992||See Portugal–Ukraine relations|
|Romania||1992||See Romania–Ukraine relations|
|Russia||1991||See Russia–Ukraine relations
Russia has an embassy in Kiev and consulates in Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa and Simferopol. Ukraine has an embassy in Moscow and consulates in Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Tyumen and Vladivostok. Relations between the two country's governments have been unfriendly since the presidency of Leonid Kuchma expired. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea. Some analysts believe that the current Russian leadership is determined to prevent a Russian equivalent of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in Russia. This mindset is supposed to explain not only Russian domestic policy but its sensitivity over events abroad as well. Many in Ukraine and beyond believe that Russia has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller, dependent neighbour, but the Russian Government argues instead that it is internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite that is to blame for the deadlock. Later Putin stated that the government of the Russian Federation respects the sovereignty of Ukraine, while several Russian parliamentaries as well some governors were claiming for the liquidation of Ukraine.
|Serbia||1994-01-01||See Serbia–Ukraine relations|
|Slovakia||1993-01-01||See Slovakia–Ukraine relations
|Spain||See Foreign relations of Spain|
|Sweden||1992-01-13||See Sweden–Ukraine relations|
|Switzerland||See Switzerland–Ukraine relations|
|Turkey||See Turkish–Ukrainian relations
Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical, geographic, and cultural contact. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine. Turkey has an embassy in Kiev and a consulate general in Odessa. Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.
|United Kingdom||See Ukraine – United Kingdom relations
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Armenia||See Armenia–Ukraine relations
|Azerbaijan||1992||See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
Azerbaijan plays an important role in the foreign policy of Ukraine due its strategic role. Both countries are among the founding members of GUAM and after the independence from Soviet Union, they've remained very close friendship. The relations of strategic cooperation, political, economical and cultural relations between two countries are at very high level. Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kiev. Ukraine has an embassy in Baku. There are about 32.000 Ukrainians live in Azerbaijan, while there are over 45,000 Azerbaijanis in Ukraine. The two countries support each other in entering international organizations. Ukraine supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict within the framework of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and ready to take part in possible peacekeeping operation under the mandate of the United Nations. Azerbaijan also helped Ukraine in to shelter Chernobyl sarcophagus.
|Georgia||See Georgia–Ukraine relations
Since their independence from the Soviet Union, both countries consider each other as strategic partners and have forged close political and cultural relations. During the Shevardnadze era, the Georgian government maintained its close relations with Ukraine. However, the relationship has further enhanced after Rose Revolution in Georgia and Orange Revolution in Ukraine. During the Orange Revolutions, many Georgians rallied in Kiev in support of Viktor Yushchenko. Both countries maintain pro-western political orientation and aspire to join NATO and the European Union. The close friendship between Presidents Mikheil Saakashvili and Viktor Yushchenko has also played an important role in recent political and cultural unity of the two countries. However, the cultural and political unity between two nations existed long ago. There are many cultural events in both courtiers, celebrating close relations between Georgian and Ukrainian people. In 2007, Georgians unveiled a statue to Taras Shevchenko in Tbilisi while Ukrainians erected the statue of Georgia’s epic poet Shota Rustaveli in Kiev.
|India||See India–Ukraine relations
The Indian Embassy in Kiev was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its Mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.
|Indonesia||See Foreign relations of Indonesia|
|Iraq||See Iraq–Ukraine relations|
|Israel||1992||See Israel–Ukraine relations|
|Japan||See Japan–Ukraine relations
Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on December 28, 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union and full diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1992. Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo, and Japan maintains an embassy in Kiev.
|Kazakhstan||1991||See Kazakhstan–Ukraine relations|
|Malaysia||1992-03-03||See Malaysia–Ukraine relations|
|Pakistan||1992||See Pakistan–Ukraine relations
|People's Republic of China||See People's Republic of China – Ukraine relations
China has an embassy in Kiev and a Consulate-General in Odessa. Ukraine has an embassy in Beijing and a Consulate-General in Shanghai. Chinese Ukrainian trade relations have intensified since 2008 and are growing, for instance various Chinese companies are interested in investing in the construction of a large orbital road around Kiev and in building a number of bridges across the Dnipro River. China intends to provide a loan of 25 million yuan (about USD 3.7 million) to Ukraine.
|Saudi Arabia||1993-04||See Saudi Arabia – Ukraine relations|
|Singapore||1992-05-31||See Singapore–Ukraine relations
|South Korea||1992-06-06||See Foreign relations of South Korea|
|Thailand||See Thailand–Ukraine relations
Rest of the world
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Algeria||1993||See Algeria–Ukraine relations|
|Canada||See Canada–Ukraine relations
Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on January 27, 1992. Canada opened its embassy in Kiev in April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year, paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate general in Toronto in 1993 and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008. Canada also has a consulate in L'viv.
|Chile||See Foreign relations of Chile|
|Egypt||See Foreign relations of Egypt|
|Guinea||Ukraine has shown support for military dictatorships in Guinea by supplying the militia of Moussa Dadis Camara.|
|Paraguay||1993-02-26||See Paraguay–Ukraine relations
|South Africa||See South Africa – Ukraine relations|
|United States||See Ukraine – United States relations
The United States enjoys cordially friendly and strategic relations with Ukraine and attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's transition to a democratic state with a flourishing free market economy.
- Foreign policy of Ukraine
- List of diplomatic missions in Ukraine
- List of diplomatic missions of Ukraine
- State Agency for Investment and National Projects website (en)
- Ukraine: Quo Vadis?, edited by Sabine Fischer, Chaillot Paper No. 108, February 2008, European Union Institute for Security Studies
- Ukraine makes it official: Nation will abandon plans to join NATO, Kyiv Post (May 28, 2010)
- Yanukovych opens door to Russian navy keeping base in Ukraine GlobalSecurity.org Retrieved on March 09, 2010
- Ukraine drops NATO membership bid, EUobserver (June 6, 2010)
- Yanukovych: Ukraine currently not ready to join NATO, Kyiv Post (May 27, 2010)
- Yanukovych: Ukraine positively evaluates level of relations with NATO, Kyiv Post (September 21, 2011)
- Ukraine, NATO to hold security exercises during Euro 2012, Kyiv Post (26 March 2012)
- Yanukovych approves program of Ukraine-NATO cooperation for 2012, Kyiv Post (20 April 2012)
- (Ukrainian) The Imperial complex of Russians, Ukrayinska Pravda (July 3, 2008)
- Belarussian embassy in Kiev (in Russian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Minsk (in Russian and Ukrainian only)
- Bulgarian embassy in Kiev (in Bulgarian only)
- Cyprus honorary consulate in Kiev (in Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Nicosia
- "French embassy in Kiev (in French and Ukrainian only)". Ambafrance-ua.org. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
- "Ukrainian embassy in Paris". Mfa.gov.ua. Retrieved 2011-06-10.
- German embassy in Kiev (in German and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Berlin (in German and Ukrainian only)
- Latvian embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Riga
- Lithuanian embassy in Kiev (in Lithuanian and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Vilnius
- Interfax-Ukraine news agency, Kiev – October 14, 2008
- Dutch embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in The Hague
- Norwegian embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Oslo
- Zajączkowski, 2005.
- Copsey, 2006.
- (Polish) Informacje o Polsce – informacje ogólne. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
- Local Border Traffic Agreement With Poland Takes Effect, Ukrainian News Agency (July 1, 2009)
- Ukrainian embassy in Lisbon (in Portuguese and Ukrainian only)
- Russia: World watching for any change, BBC News (March 3, 2008)
- The rifts behind Europe's gas row, BBC News (January 8, 2009)
- Slovak embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Bratislava
- Serhy Yekelchyk "Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation", Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3 (page 128-130)
- Slovenian embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Ljubljana
- Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Ukraine
- Ukrainian embassy in Bern (in German only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Bern (in English)
- Turkish embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Ankara
- British embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in London
- Present Ukrainian-Armenian relations and Ukrainian policy in the South Caucasus – Olexandr
- Embassy of Azerbaijan in Ukraine
- Embassy of Ukraine in Azerbaijan
- Azerbaijan and Ukraine to support each other when entering into international standardization organizations
- Israeli embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Tel Aviv
- "Ukrainian embassy in Tokyo". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- "Embassy of Japan in Ukraine". Embassy of Japan in Ukraine. Retrieved 2009-04-22.
- Kazakh embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Astana
- Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: direction of the Malaysian embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Kuala Lumpur
- Pakistani embassy in Kiev
- Ukrainian embassy in Islamabad
- Ukraine hopes to step up trade, economic cooperation with China, says premier, Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
- China wants to invest in construction of large ring road around Kiev, says Tymoshenko, Interfax-Ukraine (June 22, 2009)
- China To Provide Grant Of USD 3.7 Million To Ukraine, Ukrainian News Agency (July 2, 2009)
- Ukrainian embassy in Riyadh
- Singaporian embassy in Moscow (also accredited to Ukraine)
- Ukrainian embassy in Singapore
- Ukrain-Algeria relations(At the site of the Ukrainian embassy in Israel; also at the Ukrainian Mission at the EU
- Argentine embassy in Kiev (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Buenos Aires (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian tourists now able to visit Argentina without visas, Kyiv Post (October 3, 2011)
- Ukrainian embassy in Canberra
- For a detailed discussion of Canada's early diplomatic engagement with Canada, see Bohdan Kordan, "Canadian Ukrainian Relations: Articulating the Canadian Interest," in L. Hajda, ed. (1996), Ukraine in the World: Studies in the International Relations and Security Structure of a Newly Independent State. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- The capital of Ukraine (commonly "Kiev" in English) is officially recognized by both the Canadian and Ukrainian governments as Kyiv in all English communications (although not in French).
- Edmonton Journal
- Mexican embassy in Kiev (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
- Ukrainian embassy in Mexico City (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
- Paraguayan Ministry of Foreign Relations
- South African Department of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ukraine
- Ukrainian embassy in Pretoria
- Ukrainian embassy in Buenos Aires, also accredited to Uruguay (in Spanish and Ukrainian only)
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