Foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The foreign relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) are conducted by the Polisario Front, which maintains a network of representation offices and embassies in foreign countries.

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is the government in exile claiming sovereignty of the former Spanish colony of Western Sahara. The Polisario Front, the national liberation movement that administers the SADR, currently controls the area that it calls the Liberated Territories, a strip of Western Sahara territory east of the Moroccan Wall. It also administers the Sahrawi refugee camps at Tindouf, Algeria, where its headquarters are. It has conducted diplomatic relations with states and international organisations since its inception in 1973. In 1966, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 22/29 affirmed for the first time the Sahrawi right on self-determination. In 1979, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 34/37 reaffirmed again the right of the Western Sahara people to self-determination and independence, recognising also the Polisario Front as the representative of the Western Sahara people.

Recognition[edit]

As of 2014, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has been recognized by 84 UN member states. Of these, 39 have "frozen" or "withdrawn" recognition for a number of reasons. Several states that do not recognise the Sahrawi Republic nonetheless recognize the Polisario Front as the legitimate representative of the population of the Western Sahara, but not as the government-in-exile for a sovereign state.

The republic has been a full member of the African Union (AU), formerly the Organization of African Unity (OAU), since 1984. Morocco withdrew from the OAU in protest and remains the only African nation not within the AU since South Africa's admittance in 1994. The SADR also participates as guest on meetings of the Non-Aligned Movement[1][2] or the New Asian–African Strategic Partnership,[3][4] over Moroccan objections to SADR participation.[5] On the other hand, upholding Moroccan "territorial integrity" is favoured by the Arab League.[6][7]

Besides Algeria, Mexico, Iran, Venezuela, Vietnam, Nigeria, and South Africa, India was the major middle power to have ever recognised SADR and maintained full diplomatic relations, having allowed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic to open an embassy in New Delhi in 1985. However, India "withdrew" its recognition in 2000.[8]

As with any fluid political situation, diplomatic recognitions of either party's rights are subject to frequent and sometimes unannounced change.

Bilateral relations[edit]

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has, since its proclamation established diplomatic relations with a number of states, mainly in Africa and Latin America, which have recognised its independence. In connection with the "freezing", "withdrawing" and resuming of recognition, similar changes have occurred at the level of diplomatic relations. SADR has stable and developed relationships with states such as Algeria and South Africa.

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic is represented abroad by the Polisario Front, which maintains a network of missions and embassies. Some states that have recognised the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic have elevated the POLISARIO representation in their country to the status of SADR embassy. The Polisario Front maintains also a network of representations on countries that do not recognized the SADR as a sovereign country, mainly in Europe, with some of them having relations with the host country governments. Representation of foreign countries to the SADR is performed by embassies located abroad, mainly in Algiers, due to the Western Sahara conflict and the settlement of the Sahrawi refugee camps in south-western Algeria.

Current diplomatic relations[edit]

Current relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR):
  SADR, as claimed
  Diplomatic relations and recognition of SADR
  Recognition of SADR only

A total of 34 states presently maintain diplomatic relations with the SADR. Of these, 28 have continuously maintained relations with SADR without any interruptions. As of 5 June 2013, Honduras is probably the most recent nation to have formally established diplomatic relations with the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Six states have frozen or canceled relations with the SADR in the past, but later resumed them. As of 6 March 2014, Malawi is probably the most recent nation that reestablished diplomatic relations with SADR.

State Relations established Sahrawi mission Mission to Sahrawi Republic Notes
 Algeria 6 March 1976 Embassy (Algiers)[9] AU, Arab League, OIC; Algeria–SADR relations
 Angola Yes[when?] Embassy (Luanda)[10] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers) AU
 Belize Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Managua)[11]
 Bolivia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Caracas)[12]
 Cape Verde 30 September 1980[13] AU; Relations were frozen from 27 July 2007[14][15] to 6 February 2012 or shorter.[16][17]
 Cuba 21 January 1980[18] Embassy (Havanna)[19] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers)[20] Cuba–SADR relations
 East Timor 20 May 2002[21] Embassy (Dili)[22] East Timor–SADR relations
 Ecuador Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Caracas)[23] Embassy, non-resident (New York)[24]
 El Salvador 1989[25][when?] Embassy, non-resident (Panama City) Embassy, non-resident (New York) Relations were cancelled from April 1997[26] to 6 June 2009 or shorter.[27]
 Ethiopia Yes[when?] Embassy (Addis Ababa)[28] Embassy, non-resident (Rome)[29] AU
 Ghana Yes[when?] Embassy (Accra)[30][31] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers) AU
 Guyana 28 September 2012[32][33] Embassy, non-resident [34][35][36][where?] OIC
 Honduras 5 June 2013[37][38]
 Kenya 31 March 2006[39] Embassy (Nairobi)[40][41] AU; Relations were frozen from 18 October 2006[39] to 6 February 2014 or shorter.[40]
 Laos 3 August 1987[46] Embassy, non-resident (New Delhi)
 Lesotho Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Pretoria) Embassy, non-resident (Kuwait City)[47] AU
 Liberia 30 October 2012 or before[48] Embassy, non-resident[48][where?] AU
 Malawi 24 March 2002[49][50] Embassy, non-resident[51][52][53][where?] AU; Relations were cancelled from 27 December 2002[54] to 1 February 2008[55] and from 16 September 2008[56][57] to 6 March 2014 or shorter.[51]
 Mexico 24 September 1979[61] Embassy (Mexico City)[62] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers) Mexico–SADR relations
 Mozambique Yes[when?] Embassy (Maputo)[63] AU, OIC
 Namibia Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Luanda)[64] AU
 Nicaragua Yes[when?] Embassy (Managua)[65] Relations were frozen from 21 July 2000 to 12 January 2007.[66]
 Nigeria 11 September 2000[citation needed] Embassy (Abuja)[67][68] AU, OIC; Nigeria–SADR relations
 Rwanda Yes[when?] Embassy, non resident (Kampala)[69] AU
 Sierra Leone Yes[70][when?] AU, OIC
 South Africa 15 September 2004[71] Embassy (Pretoria)[72] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers)[73] AU; SADR–South Africa relations
 South Sudan 9 July 2011[74] Embassy, non-resident (Addis Ababa)[75] AU
 Tanzania Yes[when?] Embassy (Dar es Salaam) AU
 Uganda Yes[when?] Embassy (Kampala)[76] Embassy, non-resident (Tripoli)[77] AU, OIC
 Uruguay 26 December 2005[78] Embassy (Montevideo)[79]
 Vanuatu 31 July 2008[80] Embassy, non-resident (Dili)
 Venezuela December 1982[81] Embassy (Caracas) Embassy, non-resident (Algiers)[82] SADR–Venezuela relations
 Zambia Yes[when?] AU; Relations were cancelled from 29 March 2011[83][84] to 21 November 2012.[85]
 Zimbabwe 3 June 1980[89] Embassy (Harare)[90][91][92] AU

Former diplomatic relations[edit]

Former relations of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR):
  SADR, as claimed
  Diplomatic relations[note 1] and recognition[note 2] of SADR in the past
  Recognition[note 2] of SADR in the past only

A total of 13 states or more [note 1] maintained official diplomatic relations with the SADR in the past. Their relations with SADR are now suspended, frozen or cancelled. As of 17 January 2014, Mauritius is the most recent nation to formally cancelled diplomatic relations with the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

State Relations established Former Sahrawi mission[note 3][note 4] Former mission to Sahrawi Republic[note 3] Notes
 Burundi Yes[when?] AU; Relations were frozen from 5 May 2006 to 16 June 2008,[95] they are cancelled from 25 October 2010.[96][97]
 Costa Rica Yes[when?] Embassy, non-resident (Panama City)[98] Relations are frozen from 22 April 2000.[98][99][100]
 Guinea-Bissau Yes[when?] Embassy (Bissau)[26] AU, OIC; Relations are cancelled from 30 March 2010.[101]
 Haiti 22 November 2006[102] Embassy (Port-au-Prince) Relations are cancelled from 2 October 2013.[103]
 India 1985[104] Embassy (New Delhi)[105] Embassy, non-resident (Algiers)[106] Relations are cancelled from 26 June 2000.[8]
 Madagascar Yes[when?] Embassy (Antananarivo)[105] AU; Relations are frozen from 6 April 2005.[107][108]
 Mauritius 1983[109][when?] Embassy, non-resident (Dar es Salaam)[110] AU; Relations are cancelled from 17 January 2014.[111]
 Panama 1 June 1979[112] Embassy (Panama City)[113] Relations are suspended from 20 November 2013;[114] Panama–SADR relations
 Paraguay 9 February 2000[115][116] Embassy, non-resident (Montevideo)[117] Relations were frozen from 25 July 2000 to 12 August 2008,[118] they are suspended from 3 January 2014.[119][120]
 Peru 5 May 1987[121] Embassy[122][where?] Relations are frozen from 9 September 1996.[123]
 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 14 February 2002[127] Embassy, non-resident (Tindouf)[128][129] Relations are frozen from 15 February 2013.[130]
 Seychelles Yes[when?] Embassy (Antananarivo,[131] then Algiers)[132] AU; Relations are cancelled from 17 March 2008.[133]
 Vietnam 2 March 1979[134] Current status of diplomatic relations with Vietnam is unclear.

Relations with international organisations[edit]

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic holds either 'member' or 'observer' status in several international organisations. It participates in the activities of organisations that have formalised its membership, as well as in activities of other organizations as a guest participant. The SADR is usually represented by a Government or national organisations such as the Sahrawi Trade Union.

International Organisation Status Representation Application date Admission date Notes
African Union (AU; formerly Organization for African Unity) member Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 23 June 1980[141] 31 August 1981[142] SADR representative is Vice President of the Pan-African Parliament (PAP) from May 2013.[143]
International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY) member Sahrawi Youth Union (UJSARIO) UJSARIO representative is one of IUSY Vice Presidents for 2012-2014.[144]
Women's International Democratic Federation (WIDF) member National Union of Sahrawi Women (UNMS)
World Federation of Trade Unions member Sahrawi Trade Union (UGTSARIO) 28 March 2000[145]
Non-member status
Andean Community of Nations Andean Community of Nations observer[note 5] Sahrawi National Council September 2011[146] 26 October 2011[147]
Central American Parliament (PARLACEN) participant[note 6] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR participated in the opening conference of the PARLACEN, July 2010.[148]
Ibero-American Summit participant[note 6] Polisario Front Polisario Front participated in 22nd Ibero-American Summit in Cádiz, November 2012.[149]
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies observer[150] Sahrawi Red Crescent April 1977[151]
New Asian–African Strategic Partnership (NAASP) participant[note 7] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR participated in first senior officials meeting of the NAASP in Durban, September 2006.[3][152]
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) guest[note 8] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR participated as guest in 16th Summit of NAM in Tehran, August 2012.
Permanent Conference of Political Parties of the Latin American and the Caribbean
(COPPPAL)
participant[note 6] Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic SADR participated in COPPPAL meeting in Managua, September 2006.[153]
SADR delegation participated in meeting of COPPPAL and ICAPP in Mexico City, October 2012.[154]
Socialist International observer[155] Polisario Front 30 June 2008[156]

International treaties and conventions[edit]

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has signed a number of international treaties, conventions, protocols and charters negotiated in the context of the African Union. SADR participates in protection of human rights, common defense or trade liberalisation by signature of following agreements.

International treaty or convention Signature Ratification Notes
African charter on human and people's rights 10 April 1986[157] 2 May 1986
African nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty (Treaty of Pelindaba) 20 June 2006[158]
AU Convention for the protection and assistance of internally displaced persons in Africa (Kampala Convention) 23 August 2009[159]
OAU Convention on the prevention and combating of terrorism 14 July 1999[160] 9 January 2002
Treaty establishing the African Economic Community (AEC Treaty) 03 June 1991[161] 25 August 1992[162] SADR signed to the AEC Treaty,[163] but not participates in any of the AEC pillars.

Participation in international sports federations[edit]

International Organisation Status Representation Application date Admission date Notes
NF-Board provisional member Sahrawi Football Federation December 2003 In 2012, a Sahrawi team participated for the first time in the Viva World Cup.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The number of States which maintained diplomatic relations with SADR in the past is likely to be more, but for any relations with States that "withdrew" or "froze" recognition of SADR many years ago we are missing sources.
  2. ^ a b According to international law regarding recognition of states, contained in article 6 of the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States: "Recognition of a state simply means that the state recognizes it accepts the personality of the other with all the rights and duties determined by international law. Recognition is unconditional and irrevocable". Therefore, once one state recognizes another as a fellow sovereign state, this recognition cannot be revoked, except when one or the other ceases to exist. One can only revoke the recognition of a government (for example by breaking off diplomatic relations), not of the state itself.[93][94]
  3. ^ a b The number of former Embassies which existed in the past is likely to be more, but for any embassies to/of States that "withdrew" or "froze" recognition of SADR many years ago we are missing sources.
  4. ^ The former Embassies usually continue to work, but as a unilateral Representative Offices without diplomatic privileges from the host country.
  5. ^ In the framework of the Andean Parliament.
  6. ^ a b c There is not a formal status of the SADR, but here is the SADR official participation in the activities of this international organization.
  7. ^ NAASP does not have formalised membership, it is open to States of Asia and Africa.
  8. ^ There is no permanent guest status, but often several non-member states are represented as guests at NAM conferences.

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "NAM reiterates support to right of Saharawi people to determination". Sahara Press Service. 2012-08-30. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  2. ^ "Algeria praises NAM’s continued support to struggle of Saharawi people for self-determination". Sahara Press Service. 2012-09-02. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  3. ^ a b "South Africa". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2006-09-09. Retrieved 2012-09-27. 
  4. ^ South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-01). "Asia-Afro partnership meeting kicked off today". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2006-09-01. [dead link]
  5. ^ South African Broadcasting Corporation (2006-09-02). "Moroccan objections taint Asian-Africa meeting". South African Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2006-09-02. [dead link]
  6. ^ "Arab League supports Morocco's territorial integrity". Arabic News. 1999-01-08. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  7. ^ "Arab League withdraws inaccurate Moroccan maps". Arabic News. 1998-12-17. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  8. ^ a b Punyapriya Dasgupta (2000-08-12). "Derecognition of Western Sahara". Economic and Political Weekly.  "The government of India has decided, suddenly without any explanation, to withdraw the recognition granted in 1985 to the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic"
  9. ^ "Embajada de la RASD en Argelia" (in Arabic). Embajada de la RASD en Argelia. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  10. ^ "Embaixadas em Angola - Embaixada Sahara Democratica" (in Portuguese). Portal da República de Angola. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  11. ^ "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Belize. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  12. ^ "Cinco nuevos embajadores presentaron cartas credenciales". El Diario (in Spanish). 2011-03-25. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  13. ^ "Relações diplomáticas da República de Cabo Verde - África" (in Portuguese). Ministério das Relações Exteriores - República de Cabo Verde. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  14. ^ Por Mario de Queiroz (2007-07-30). "Sáhara Occidental-Cabo Verde. Por un puñado de dólares" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  15. ^ "Cabo Verde: Governo congela reconhecimento da República Árabe Saaraui Democrática". Angola News Agency (in Portuguese). 2007-07-27. Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  16. ^ "President meets with representative from Sahrawi Republic". A Semana. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  17. ^ "JCF recebe ministro dos negócios estrangeiros da RASD" (in Portuguese). Liberal. 2012-02-06. Retrieved 2012-10-03. 
  18. ^ "Cuba y la RASD celebran 30 años de relaciones diplomáticas" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  19. ^ "Representaciones Diplomáticas y Consulares acreditadas en Cuba". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-02-20.  "Embajada de la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática"
  20. ^ "Embajada de Cuba en Argelia, concurrencias en República Saharaui Democrática, República Islámica de Mauritania" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la República de Cuba. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  21. ^ "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between East Timor and the SADR". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  22. ^ "Fourth Committee Approves Five Consensus Texts Reaffirming Inalienable Right to Self-Determination and Independence". United Nations General Assembly. Department of Public Information • News and Media Division • New York. 2011-10-10. Retrieved 2012-03-23.  Lisualdo Gaspar, Director of Bilateral Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Timor‑Leste: "In fact, he added, Timor‑Leste had accorded full diplomatic representation to the Embassy of the "Saharawi Republic" in its capital, Dili, in 2010"
  23. ^ "Embajadas y consulados extranjeras en el Ecuador - República Árabe Saharahui Democrática". Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Comercio e Integración - Ecuador. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  24. ^ "Ecuador appoints its UN permanent representative as ambassador to the Saharawi Republic". Sahara Press Service. 2011-09-21. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  25. ^ "Canciller Martínez apoya solución pacífica y negociada en el Sahara Occidental" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de El Salvador. 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2012-03-16. 
  26. ^ a b "States which recognize the SADR". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2009. Retrieved 2012-07-21. 
  27. ^ "President of Republic ends his visit to El Salvador". Sahara Press Service. 2009-06-06. Archived from the original on 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2012-09-23. 
  28. ^ Government of Ethiopia. "Embassy of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  29. ^ "Embassy of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia: Rome – Italy". Ethioembassy.org.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  30. ^ "Six Ambassadors to Ghana present Credentials". Ghana Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  31. ^ "Sahrawi Ambassador presents his credentials to Ghanaian President". Sahara Press Service. 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  32. ^ "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic to open mission here". Guyana Times. 2012-07-26. Retrieved 2012-08-08. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Lehbib Breika presents credentials as SADR ambassador to Guyana". Sahara Press Service. 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  34. ^ "Foreign Affairs highlights in 2013…". Guyana Chronicle. 2014-01-06. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 
  35. ^ "First Sahrawi Arab Republic Ambassador accredited". GINA (Government Information Agency). 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 
  36. ^ "Guyana accredits first Sahrawi Arab Ambassador". iNews Guyana. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-14. 
  37. ^ "La RASD y Honduras deciden establecer relaciones diplomáticas". Sahara Press Service (in Spanish). 2013-06-06. Retrieved 2013-06-10. 
  38. ^ "Comunicado conjunto" (in Spanish). Voz del Sahara Occidental en Argentina. Retrieved 2013-06-10. 
  39. ^ a b Muniu Riunge (2007-02-25). "Kenya: Why Links with Sahrawi Were Shortlived". AllAfrica.com (The Standard). Retrieved 2012-03-14. 
  40. ^ a b c "Opening of Saharawi embassy in Nairobi". Sahara Press Service. 2014-02-06. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  41. ^ Ramadhan Rajab (2014-02-07). "Sahrawi Republic opens embassy in Nairobi". The Star. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 
  42. ^ "Open an Embassy of the Sahrawi Republic soon in Kenya" (in Arabic). Elkhabar. 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  43. ^ "Chairman of the Kenyan National Council affirms his country's support of the right of the Saharawi people to self-determination in accordance with the UN resolutions" (in Arabic). Algérie Presse Service. 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  44. ^ "Saharawi President participates in the festivities immortalized the fiftieth anniversary of the independence of the Republic of Kenya" (in Arabic). Algérie Presse Service. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  45. ^ "President of Republic begins visit to Kenya for Independence Day celebrations (official)". Sahara Press Service. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  46. ^ "List of states with whom Lao has set up diplomatic relation since 1950". Lao embassy in Hanoi. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  47. ^ "Lesotho diplomatic missions - Lesotho Embassy in Kuwait". Embassy of the Kingdom of Lesotho in Ireland. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  48. ^ a b "Indian And Spanish Ambassadors Present Letters of Credence To President Sirleaf". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Liberia. 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2012-11-18. 
  49. ^ "La RASD et le Malawi établissent des relations diplomatiques". Sahrawi Press Service (in French). 2002-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  50. ^ "Western Sahara Weekly News". Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2002-04-06. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  51. ^ a b c "SADR ambassador presents credentials to President of Malawi". Sahrawi Press Service. 2014-03-06. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  52. ^ "Cyprus forecasts vibrant economy for Malawi". Malawi News Agency. 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  53. ^ "New Zealand to promote netball in Mw". Malawi Broadcasting Corporation. 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  54. ^ "Western Sahara Weekly News". Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2002-12-28. Retrieved 2013-08-26. 
  55. ^ "The Saharawi Republic and Malawi establish diplomatic relations". 2008-02-02. Retrieved 2012-08-16. 
  56. ^ "Sahara issue: Malawi withdraws its recognition of the so-called SADR". Maghreb Arab Press. Retrieved 2011-08-07. [dead link]
  57. ^ "Sahara issue: Malawi withdraws its recognition of the so-called SADR". Actualités&Revue De Presse Maghreb. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  58. ^ "Malawi Embassies Abroad - Accreditation Arrangement of Malawi’s Diplomatic Missions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Malawi. 2010-04-19. Archived from the original on 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  59. ^ "Jurisdiction". Embassy of Malawi - Cairo. Retrieved 2014-03-23. 
  60. ^ "Minister in charge of Africa received by foreign Minister of Malawi". Sahrawi Press Service. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2014-03-23. 
  61. ^ "Las Relaciones México y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Embajada de la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática en México. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  62. ^ "Representaciones Diplomáticas acreditada en México - República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, México. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  63. ^ Government of Mozambique. "Missões Diplomáticas em Moçambique com Residência em Moçambique" (in Portuguese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2011-03-10.  "Embaixada do República Arabe Saharaui Democratica"
  64. ^ Government of Namibia. "Embassies and High Commissions: R - S". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2010-11-20.  "Saharawi (Non-Resident) Embassy of the Arab Democratic Republic of Saharawi"
  65. ^ "Cuerpo Diplomático Residente en Nicaragua - Embajada de la República Arabe Saharaui Democrática (RASD)" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores - República de Nicaragua. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  66. ^ "Nicaragua y la RASD establecen oficialmente relaciones diplomáticas" (in Spanish). Um Draiga (SPS). 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2012-02-16. 
  67. ^ "Nigeria committed to August 14 Bakassi handover-President Yar’Adua". NigeriaFirst.org - Official Website of the State House, Abuja. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  68. ^ Michael Odigbe (2011-10-09). "Western Sahara: Independence Will Come For Its Oppressed People". Nigerian Observer. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  69. ^ "President Kagame receives credentials of six new Ambassadors". Republic of Rwanda - Office of the president. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  70. ^ "Special envoy brings President Koroma good message". State house - The Republic of Sierra Leone. 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  71. ^ "Bilateral agreements signed by South Africa between 01-01-1994 until 15-04-2011". Department of International Relations and Cooperation, Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2012-11-15. "Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic - Joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations"
  72. ^ "Foreign Representatives in South Africa - Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (Embassy of the Saharawi Republic)". Department: International Relations and Cooperation - Republic of South Africa. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  73. ^ "Welcome to the Embassy of the Republic of South Africa in Algiers". SA Embassy in Algeria. Retrieved 2012-11-15.  "Embassy of the Republic of South Africa in Algeria also accredited to the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic"
  74. ^ "Establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of South Sudan and Saharawi Republic". Sahara Press Service. 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  75. ^ "SADR takes part on eighth conference of the AU Population Commission". Sahara Press Service. 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  76. ^ "Sahrawi". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - The Republic of Uganda. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  77. ^ "Message from the Ambassador". Embassy of the Republic of Uganda, Libya. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  78. ^ "Uruguay establece relaciones diplomáticas con país árabe - La Cancillería dio a conocer un Comunicado Conjunto sobre el establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre la República Oriental del Uruguay y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática." (in Spanish). Presidencia - República Oriental del Uruguay. 2005-12-26. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  79. ^ "República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores - Uruguay. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  80. ^ "Vanuatu and the Saharawi Republic establish diplomatic relations at Ambassadorial level". UPES. 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  81. ^ "Venezuela y la República Saharaui continúan cooperación bilateral" (in Spanish). Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores - Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela. 2010-04-28. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  82. ^ "Embajada en la República Argelina Democrática y Popular - Concurrencia: República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores - Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  83. ^ "Zambia withdraws recognition of 'Sahrawi Republic'". Middle East Online. 2011-04-03. Retrieved 2011-08-07. 
  84. ^ "Zambia withdraws recognition of so-called SADR". Maroc.ma (Gouvernement Du Royaume Du Maroc). Retrieved 2012-08-25. 
  85. ^ "Zambia reafirma su apoyo al pueblo saharaui y a las relaciones con RASD". Sahara Press Service (in Spanish). 2012-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-27. 
  86. ^ "Was Zambia bribed to withdraw recognition of Sahrawi republic". Zambian Watchdog. 2011-08-23. Retrieved 2012-08-20. 
  87. ^ Ernest Chanda (2012-07-07). "Government to recognise Sahrawi". Zambia Post. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  88. ^ "Government to recognise Sahrawi". Zambia Online. 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  89. ^ "Announcement of the opening of an embassy for the Saharawi Republic in Zimbabwe". Sahara Press Service. 2011-09-17. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  90. ^ "New Sahrawi Ambassador presents his credentials to President of Zimbabwe". Sahara Press Service. 2011-09-09. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  91. ^ "Zim polls: No role for UK, EU". The Herald. 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2012-03-19. 
  92. ^ Embassy of the Saharawi Republic in Zimbabwe
  93. ^ Potočný, Miroslav (1996). Mezinárodní právo veřejné, zvláštní část (in Czech). Praha: C.H.Beck. pp. 20–24. ISBN 80-7179-088-5. 
  94. ^ David, Vítězslav; Sladký, Pavel; Zbořil, František (2004). Mezinárodní právo veřejné (in Czech). Praha: Linde. pp. 151–153. ISBN 80-7201-473-0. 
  95. ^ "Burundi restablish diplomatic relations with the SADR". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  96. ^ "Burundi withdraws recognition of 'SADR'". Maghreb Arab Press. 2010-10-25. Archived from the original on 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  97. ^ "Visite d’adieu d’Aziria Abdelkader, Ambassadeur algerien au Burundi" (in French). Républic de Burundi - Portail du Gouvernement. Retrieved 2012-03-13.  "Malgré le gel de la reconnaissance de la République Arabe de Sahraoui Démocratique, les relations entre les deux pays se sont nettement renforcées, a martelé l’Autorité burundaise."
  98. ^ a b "Costa Rica reafirma decisión de congelar relaciones con República del Sahara". La Nación (in Spanish). 2000-06-05. Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  99. ^ "Relaciones con los países de Asia, África y Oceanía - X. República Árabe Democrática Saharaui" (in Spanish). Asamblea Legislativa de la República de Costa Rica. [dead link]
  100. ^ "El Sahara quiere descongelar relaciones con Costa Rica". La Nación (in Spanish). 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2012-08-22. 
  101. ^ "Guinea Bissau withdraw its recognition of SADR and supports the autonomy initiative". ADN (in Spanish). 2010-03-30. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-09-22. 
  102. ^ "Dans le champ de mines marocain". Le Nouvelliste (in French). 2006-11-24. Retrieved 2012-03-17. 
  103. ^ "Communique". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Haiti. 2013-10-02. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  104. ^ "Annual Report Jan 01, 1986". Ministry of External Affairs Library, New Delhi. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  "Following our recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in October 1985, an SADR Embassy has started functioning in New Delhi."
  105. ^ a b "Embassies". GoAbroad. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  106. ^ "Annual Reports 1987-88". Ministry of External Affairs Library, New Delhi. Retrieved 2013-03-26.  "With the opening of the Embassy of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) in Delhi, India's Ambassador to Algeria was concurrently accredited to the SADR."
  107. ^ "Recognition freeze". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. 2005-04-06. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  108. ^ "Madagascar freezes recognition of so-called Sahrawi Republic". Arabic News. 2005-04-07. Retrieved 2012-09-17. 
  109. ^ "The Diplomat -Newsletter- issue nº 7". Republic of Mauritius - Ministry of Foreign affairs,Regional integration and International trade. July 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-15.  Arvin Boolell: "Mauritius has consistently supported the right to self-determination and independence of the people of Western Sahara and entertains close diplomatic relations with the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) since 1983."
  110. ^ "Diplomatic Corps - Embassy of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic". Republic of Mauritius - Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regional Integration and International Trade. Retrieved 2012-03-23. 
  111. ^ "Republic of Mauritius withdraws its recognition of the so-called SADR". TopWireNews.com. 2014-01-20. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  112. ^ "Saharaui" (in Spanish). Panama America. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2012-03-22. [dead link]
  113. ^ "Nuevos embajadores presentan Cartas Credenciales" (in Spanish). Gobierno Nacional - República de Panamá. 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  114. ^ "Declaración de suspensión de relaciones diplomáticas con la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Panama. 2013-11-20. Retrieved 2013-11-22. 
  115. ^ "Paraguay y República Árabe resuelven impulsar relaciones bilaterales". La Nación (in Spanish). 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  116. ^ "Paraguay y República Árabe estrechan relaciones bilaterales". ABC Digital (in Spanish). 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2012-03-15. 
  117. ^ "Embajada de la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores - Paraguay. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  118. ^ "Paraguay and the Saharawi Republic resume diplomatic relations (Paraguayan Minister)". Sahara Press Service. 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2010-06-09. [dead link]
  119. ^ "Declaración del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores - Paraguay. 2014-01-03. Retrieved 2014-03-22. 
  120. ^ "Paraguay suspende relación con Saharaui" (in Spanish). ABC color. 2014-01-04. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  121. ^ "Establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas entre el Perú y la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  122. ^ a b Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2011-11-28). "Los saharauis y el Perú" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  123. ^ Ricardo Sánchez Serra (2008-12-11). "El estoicismo del pueblo saharaui" (in Spanish). La Razón. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  124. ^ "Agenda del Ministro" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú. 2011-08-26. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  125. ^ "Andino Parliament for re-establishment of diplomatic relations between Peru and SADR". Sahara Press Service. 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  126. ^ "Al Gobierno peruano: Restablezca relaciones con la República Árabe Saharaui Democrática" (in Spanish). Change.org Inc. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  127. ^ "Joint Statement: Recognition of the SADR by the Government of St. Vincent and The Grenadines". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  128. ^ "Diplomatic missions accredited to Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  "Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, C/o Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic"
  129. ^ "Ambassadors/High Commissioners-Designate". Government of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-16.  "Sahrawi Arab Republic, H. E. Mr. Abd Mohamed Yahia, Ambassador"
  130. ^ "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines freezes recognition of pseudo "SADR"". Morocco World News. 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  131. ^ "Boletín informativo. Año 2. Mayo 1997. Nº 9 - Presentación de Cartas Credenciales" (in Spanish). ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. May 1997. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  132. ^ "Diplomatic missions accredited to the Seychelles". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Seychelles. Retrieved 2012-12-01. 
  133. ^ "Seychelles withdraws recognition for SADR". AfrikNews. 2008-03-18. Retrieved 2011-08-07. 
  134. ^ "General Information about Countries and Regions". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam. Retrieved 2013-08-25. 
  135. ^ "La consolidation des relations économiques, au centre d'un entretien entre M. El Fassi et son homologue vietnamien". Agence Maghreb Arab Presse. 2010-04-12. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  136. ^ "Morocco, Vietnam express will to reinforce bilateral relations". Agence Maghreb Arab Presse. 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  137. ^ "En marge du Sommet de Washington". L'Opinion. 2010-04-14. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  138. ^ "M. El Otmani s'entretient avec le chef de la commission des relations extérieures du Parti communiste vietnamien". Agence Maghreb Arab Presse. 2013-06-04. Retrieved 2013-09-02. 
  139. ^ "Entretiens PPS-PCV : Le Vietnam réaffirme sa position de soutien au Maroc dans le cadre du dossier de son intégrité territoriale". Party of Progress and Socialism. Archived from the original on 2013-08-18. "Le président de la délégation du Parti communiste du Vietnam (PCV) en visite au Maroc du 2 au 5 juin, à l’invitation du Parti du progrès et du socialisme (PPS) a réaffirmé, lundi 3 juin 2013 à Rabat, la position de soutien de son pays et de son parti à l’intégrité territoriale du Royaume." 
  140. ^ "Basic information about the country, the region and relations with Vietnam" (in Vietnamese). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Vietnam. 2013-05-02. Retrieved 2013-09-02. 
  141. ^ Aguirre, Diego; Ramón, Jose (1991). Guerra en el Sáhara. p. 242. ISBN 84-7090-252-0. "On June 23 the Sahrawi Republic had applied for its admission to the O.U.A., as because of the successive recognitions of African countries, 26 of 50 members recognized the S.A.D.R. and were favorable to the admission in accordance to article 28 of the O.U.A. Charter, that demanded a simple majority."
  142. ^ Aguirre, Diego; Ramón, Jose (1991). Guerra en el Sáhara. p. 247. ISBN 84-7090-252-0. "on August 31 General Secretary Edem Kodjo had communicated the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic government their admission to the Organization for the African Unity as member nº 51 according to article 28 of the O.A.U. Charter, as 26 states supported the S.A.D.R., representing a simple majority over 50 so it was, then, a mere administrative proceeding competence of the General Secretary"
  143. ^ "PAP Elects New Second Vice President". Pan-African Parliament. 2013-05-13. Retrieved 2013-05-27. 
  144. ^ "New IUSY Presidium 2012-2014". IUSY. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  145. ^ "Report on the World Trade Union situation and WFTU activities since the 14th congress". World Federation of Trade Unions. 2005-12-01. Retrieved 2012-11-15.  "New affiliations with the WFTU - No.12, Western Sahara, UGTSARIO"
  146. ^ "Venezuela es invitada por el Parlamento Andino a volver a la Comunidad Andina" (in Spanish). Parlamento Andino. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  147. ^ "Saharawi National Council granted observer membership in the Andino Parliament". Sahara Press Service. 2011-10-29. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  148. ^ "Saharawi Ambassador to Nicaragua participates in meetings of PARLACEN". Sahara Press Service. 2010-07-01. Retrieved 2010-07-02. [dead link]
  149. ^ "Polisario Front calls on Ibero-American states to help settling Western Sahara conflict". Sahara Press Service. 2012-11-17. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  150. ^ "Building a life in the desert". Refugee Participation Network (Refugee Studies Program). February 1990. pp. 18–21. Retrieved 2012-11-16. "The Sahrawi Red Crescent has observer status with the League of Red Cross Societies and is the formal channel for all external assistance to the Sahrawi people, (full membership is precluded until SADR has gained membership of the United Nations)."
  151. ^ Aguirre, Diego; Ramón, Jose (1991). Guerra en el Sáhara. p. 176. ISBN 84-7090-252-0. "...in April the Sahrawi Red Crescent obtained the status of observer at the IX Congress of the Arab Red Crescent, analog to the International Red Cross, what suppossed also the boycott of this reunion by Morocco."
  152. ^ "Asia-Afro partnership meeting held in Durban". IOL news. 2006-09-01. Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  153. ^ "Latin America". ARSO - Association de soutien à un référendum libre et régulier au Sahara Occidental. September 2006. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  154. ^ "Saharawi Representation to Mexico attends COPPPAL-ICAPP meeting". Sahara Press Service. 2012-10-15. Retrieved 2012-12-10. 
  155. ^ "Observer parties". International Socialist. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  156. ^ "Socialist International makes Polisario observer". The Daily Star. Agence France-Presse. 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  157. ^ "List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African charter on human and people's rights". African Union. 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  158. ^ "List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the African nuclear-weapon-free zone treaty". African Union. 2010-08-27. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  159. ^ "List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the AU Convention for the protection and assistance of internally displaced persons in Africa". African Union. 2010-08-06. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  160. ^ "List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the OAU Convention on the prevention and combating of terrorism". African Union. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  161. ^ "Treaty establishing the African Economic Community". World Bank. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  162. ^ "List of countries which have signed, ratified/acceded to the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community". African Union. 2010-02-04. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 
  163. ^ "Global Preferential Trade Agreements Database". World Bank. 2010. Retrieved 2014-04-17. 

External links[edit]