Foreign relations of the United Kingdom

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The diplomatic foreign relations of the United Kingdom are implemented by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The Prime Minister and numerous other agencies play a role in setting policy, and many institutions and businesses have a voice and a role. Great Britain was the world's foremost power during the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. Until the Suez crisis of 1956, the country was considered a 'superpower'. After 1956 however, with the loss of the empire, its dominant role in global affairs was gradually diminished. Nevertheless, the United Kingdom remains a major power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a Member state of the European Union, and a founding member of the G7, G8, G20, NATO, OECD, WTO, Council of Europe, OSCE, and the Commonwealth of Nations, which is a legacy of the British Empire.

History[edit]

British foreign relations since 1600 have focused on achieving a balance of power, with no country controlling the continent of Europe. The chief enemy, from the Hundred Years' War until the defeat of Napoleon (1337-1815) was France, a larger country with a more powerful army. The British were generally successful in their many wars, with the notable exception of the American War of Independence (1775–1783), when Britain, without any major allies, was defeated by the colonials who had the support of France, the Netherlands and Spain. A favoured diplomatic strategy was subsidising the armies of continental allies, such as Prussia, thereby turning London's enormous financial power to military advantage. Britain relied heavily on its Royal Navy for security, seeking to keep it the most powerful fleet afloat with a full complement of bases across the globe. The British built up a very large worldwide British Empire, which peaked in size in the 1920-40 era and in wealth around 1900, then began to shrink until by the 1970s almost nothing was left but a "Commonwealth of Nations" that had little to do.[1] Britain finally turned its attention to the continent, joining the European Union.[2]

After 1900 Britain ended its "splendid isolation" by developing friendly relations with the United States and Japan 1902. Even more important—by forming the Triple Entente with France (1904) and Russia (1907), thus forging the anti-German alliance that fought the First World War (1914-1918). The "special relationship" with the U.S. endured. It played a pivotal role in the Second World War and the Cold War, and is in effect today through NATO. By 2014, however, the debate was underway whether Britain should reduce or cuit its ties with the EU, and whether Scotland should leave the UK.[3][4]

Recent history[edit]

After 1945 Britain systematically reduced its overseas commitments. Practically all the colonies became independent. Britain reduced its involvements in the Middle east, with the humiliating Suez Crisis of 1956 marking the end of its status as a superpower. However Britain did forge close military ties with the United States, and with traditional foes such as France and Germany, in the NATO military alliance. After years of debate (and rebuffs), Britain joined the Common Market in 1973; it is now the European Union.[5] However it did not merge financially, and kept the pound separate from the Euro, which kept it partly isolated from the EU financial crisis of 2011.[6]

Lunn et al. (2008) argue:

Three key motifs of Tony Blair’s 10-year premiership were an activist philosophy of 'interventionism', maintaining a strong alliance with the US and a commitment to placing Britain at the heart of Europe. While the 'special relationship' and the question of Britain’s role in Europe have been central to British foreign policy since the Second World War...interventionism was a genuinely new element.[7]

Major international disputes since 1945[edit]

Sovereignty disputes[edit]

Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland[edit]

Members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

The UK has varied relationships with the countries that make up the Commonwealth of Nations which originated from the British Empire. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is the head of the Commonwealth and is head of state of 16 of its 53 member states. Those that retain the Queen as head of state are called Commonwealth realms. Over time several countries have been suspended from the Commonwealth for various reasons. Zimbabwe was suspended because of the authoritarian rule of its President[19] and so too was Pakistan, but it has since returned. Countries which become republics are still eligible for membership of the Commonwealth so long as they are deemed democratic. Commonwealth nations such as Malaysia enjoyed no export duties in trade with the UK before the UK concentrated its economic relationship with EU member states.

The UK was once a dominant colonial power in many countries on the continent of Africa and its multinationals remain large investors in sub-Saharan Africa. Nowadays the UK, as a leading member of the Commonwealth of Nations, seeks to influence Africa through its foreign policies. Current UK disputes are with Zimbabwe over human rights violations. Tony Blair set up the Africa Commission and urged rich countries to cease demanding developing countries repay their large debts. Relationships with developed (often former dominion) nations are strong with numerous cultural, social and political links, mass inter-migration trade links as well as calls for Commonwealth free trade.

United Kingdom Australia[edit]

Australia–United Kingdom relations are close, marked by shared history, culture, institutions and language, extensive people-to-people links, aligned security interests, and vibrant trade and investment cooperation. The long-standing relationship between the United Kingdom and Australia formally began in 1901 when the six British Crown colonies in Australia federated, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed as a Dominion of the British Empire. Australia fought alongside Britain in World War I, notably at Gallipoli, and again in World War II. Andrew Fisher, Australian prime minister from 1914 to 1916, declared that Australia would defend the United Kingdom "to the last man and the last shilling." Until 1949, the United Kingdom and Australia shared a common nationality code. The final constitutional ties between United Kingdom and Australia ended in 1986 with the passing of the Australia Act 1986. Currently, roughly 1/4 of the Australian population was born in the UK, giving strong mutual relations. Furthermore, investment and trade between the two countries, is still important.

United Kingdom Barbados[edit]

The two countries are related through common history, the Commonwealth of Nations and their sharing of the same Head of State, Queen Elizabeth II as their Monarch. As one of the first English colonies, the initial permanent European settlement took place in the early seventeenth century by English settlers. Barbados thereafter remained as a territory of the United Kingdom until it negotiated independence in 1966. In recent years, increasing numbers of British nationals have purchased secondary homes in Barbados,[20] and the islands ranked as the Caribbean regions' fourth largest export market of the United Kingdom.[21] The British High Commission was established in Bridgetown, Barbados in 1966 and there is also a Barbadian High Commission in London.

United Kingdom Brunei[edit]

In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate, gaining its independence from British rule less than 100 years later in 1984.

The UK and Brunei have a long-standing and strong bilateral relationship, particularly on defence co-operation, trade and education. The UK continues to play a strong role in developing Brunei’s oil and gas sector, and the Brunei Investment Agency is a significant investor in the UK, with their largest overseas operations in the City of London. The UK remains the destination of choice for Bruneian students, with about 1,220 of them enrolled in higher education in the UK in 2006-07.

The United Kingdom has a high commission in Bandar Seri Begawan, and Brunei has a high commission in London. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

United Kingdom Canada[edit]

London and Ottawa enjoy cooperative and intimate contact; the two countries are related through history, the Commonwealth of Nations, and their sharing of the same Head of State and monarch.[22] Both countries fought together in both World Wars, the Korean War, and more recently cooperate in the coalition in the War in Afghanistan. Both are founding members of NATO, and also belong to the G7 (and the G8). Winston Churchill said Canada was the "linchpin of the English-speaking world", as it connects two other anglophone countries: the US and the UK. These three countries were the first to share the knowledge of the atom bomb with each other, as all three worked on the Manhattan Project together. Despite this shared history, the UK and Canada have grown apart economically. The UK was Canada's largest trade partner is the 19th and early 20th centuries, but is now well down the list. The two nations now find themselves in separate trade blocs, the EU for the UK and NAFTA for Canada. However relations are still strong, with large migration between the two countries, as well as Canada having the highest favourable public opinion of the UK in the world.

United Kingdom Cyprus[edit]

The UK maintains two sovereign area military bases on the island of Cyprus. The UK is also a signatory to a treaty with Greece and Turkey concerning the independence of Cyprus, the Treaty of Guarantee, which maintains that Britain is a "guarantor power" of the island's independence.[23]

Both countries are members of the European Union.

United Kingdom India[edit]

India has a high commission in London and two consulates-general in Birmingham and Edinburgh.[24] The United Kingdom has a high commission in New Delhi and three deputy high commissions in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.[25] Although the Sterling Area no longer exists and the Commonwealth is much more an informal forum, India and the UK still have many enduring links. This is in part due to the significant number of people of Indian origin living in the UK. The large South Asian population in the UK results in steady travel and communication between the two countries. The British Raj allowed for both cultures to imbibe tremendously from the other. The English language and cricket are perhaps the two most evident British exports, whilst in the UK food from the Indian subcontinent are very popular.[26] The United Kingdom's favourite food is often reported to be Indian cuisine, although no official study reports this.[26]

Economically the relationship between Britain and India is also strong. India is the second largest investor in Britain after the US,[27][28] this being demonstrated by Tata Motors' ownership of British-based Jaguar Land Rover. Britain is also one of the largest investors in India.[29]

United Kingdom Ireland[edit]

Despite a long history of conflict from English Tudor plantation in Ireland to the Irish War of independence, the UK presently works closely with the government of the Republic of Ireland in areas concerning the peace process in Northern Ireland as well as on many security issues. In 1949 the Irish Houses of Parliament passed the Republic of Ireland Act, making the Republic of Ireland officially fully independent; the country withdrew from the Commonwealth. Under the Ireland Act 1949 Irish citizens are treated as though they are Commonwealth citizens and not aliens for the purposes of law. Until 1998, the Republic of Ireland claimed Northern Ireland, but this was rescinded under the Belfast Agreement through an amendment of the Irish Constitution, which now states an aspiration to peaceful unity. There is an ongoing dispute that also involves Denmark and Iceland, over the status of the ocean floor surrounding Rockall. However, this is for the most part a trivial issue that rarely makes it onto British-Irish meeting agendas.[17]

Both countries are members of the European Union.

United Kingdom Malaysia[edit]

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong in a carriage with Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom on the state visit to London, 1974.

The United Kingdom has a high commission in Kuala Lumpur, and Malaysia has a high commission in London. Both countries are full members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Both the UK and Malaysia are part of the Five Powers Defence Arrangements. Malaysia is a strong partner of Britain in the Far East. Britain has made numerous military sacrifices in guaranteeing a stable independent Malaysia, for example the Malaysian Emergency and the protection of the country during high tensions with Indonesia-Konfrontasi.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong Sultan Abdul Halim of Kedah paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1974.[30] The Yang di-Pertuan Agong Sultan Azlan Shah of Perak paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1993.[30] HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Malaysia in October 1989, and in September 1998.[31]

United Kingdom Malta[edit]

In the 1950s and 1960s, serious consideration was given in both countries to the idea of a political union between the United Kingdom and Malta. However, this plan for "Integration with Britain" foundered, and Malta gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1964. British Monarch Queen Elizabeth II remained Queen of Malta until the country became a Republic in 1974. There is a small Maltese community in the United Kingdom. In addition, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar has been influenced by significant 18th and 19th Century immigration from Malta (see "History of the Maltese in Gibraltar").

Both countries are members of the European Union.

United Kingdom Nauru[edit]

Nauru was part of the British Western Pacific Territories from September 1914 and June 1921.[32] The British Government had ceased to exercise any direct role in the governance of Nauru by 1968, when the island achieved its independence. The Nauruan government maintains an Hon. Consul, Martin W I Weston. The British High Commission in Suva is responsible for the United Kingdom's bilateral relations with Nauru.[33]

United Kingdom New Zealand[edit]

Up to about the 1960s, New Zealand also had extremely close economic relations with the United Kingdom, especially considering the distance at which trade took place. As an example, in 1955, Britain took 65.3 percent of New Zealand's exports, and only during the following decades did this dominant position begin to decline as the United Kingdom oriented itself more towards the European Union, with the share of exports going to Britain having fallen to only 6.2 percent in 2000.[34] Historically, some industries, such as dairying, a major economic factor in the former colony, had even more dominant trade links, with 80-100% of all cheese and butter exports going to Britain from around 1890 to 1940.[35] This strong bond also supported the mutual feelings for each other in other areas.

United Kingdom Nigeria[edit]

Nigeria, formerly a colony, gained independence from Britain in 1960.[36] Large numbers of Nigerians have since emigrated to Britain. The British government played an important role in resolving the Nigerian Civil War. Trade and investment between the two countries are strong, many British multinational companies are active in Nigeria, especially Shell in oil and gas production.

United Kingdom Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan before partition was part of Indian Empire from 1 November 1858 to 13 August 1947. Both UK and Pakistan are active members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Favourable opinion of Britain is much lower in Pakistan, relative to many other Commonwealth countries, this is because the UK is seen as an ally of the US. However, large numbers of Pakistanis live, work and study in the UK and the British government has refused to support US infringements into northern Pakistan during the Afghanistan War, thinking it wrong to violate Pakistani sovereignty as so.

United Kingdom Papua New Guinea[edit]

Papua New Guinea and the United Kingdom share Queen Elizabeth as their head of state. They have had relations since 1975 when Papua New Guinea gained independence from Australia (then still a British Dominion).

United Kingdom Singapore[edit]

Singapore and the United Kingdom share a friendly relationship since Singapore became independent from the United Kingdom in 1959. Singapore retained the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council as the final court of appeal up till 1989 (fully abolished in 1994) due to political reasons.

United KingdomUnited StatesUnited States[edit]

United States President Barack Obama talks to British Prime Minister David Cameron on the South Lawn of the White House, 20 July 2010

The United Kingdom and the United States are close military allies. The two countries share cultural similarities, as well as military research and intelligence facilities. The UK has purchased military technology from the USA such as Tomahawk cruise missiles and Trident nuclear missiles, and the US has purchased equipment from Britain (e.g. Harrier Jump Jet). The USA also maintains a large number of military personnel in the UK. In recent years, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States have often been close friends, for example Tony Blair and Bill Clinton and later with George W. Bush and in the 1980s the often like-minded Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan. Present British policy is that The United Kingdom's relationship with the United States represents Britain's "most important bilateral relationship" ref name="ft">"Ties that bind: Bush, Brown and a different relationship". FT. Retrieved 2008-12-22. </ref>

Asia and Oceania[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 1921 See Foreign relations of Afghanistan
 Australia 1936 See Australia–United Kingdom relations
 Bangladesh 1972 See Foreign relations of Bangladesh
 Bhutan No Relations See Foreign relations of Bhutan
 British Indian Ocean Territory See Foreign relations of British Indian Ocean Territory
 Brunei 1984 See Foreign relations of Brunei
 Burma 1948 See Foreign relations of Burma
 Cambodia 1953 See Foreign relations of Cambodia
 People's Republic of China 1954 See China–United Kingdom relations

Although on opposing sides of the Cold War, both countries were allies during World War II, and are members of the UN. But because of the Cold War, First and Second Opium War, and the status of Hong Kong, and other issues, China-UK relations at some points in history have been complicated, but better at other times.

 Fiji 1970 See Foreign relations of Fiji
 Hong Kong See Foreign relations of Hong Kong
 India 1947 See India–United Kingdom relations
 Indonesia 1949 See Indonesia–United Kingdom relations
 Japan 1854-10-14 See Japan–United Kingdom relations

Contact began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin) on the shores of Kyūshū at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853) there were no relations, but the treaty of 1854 saw the resumption of ties which, despite the hiatus of the Second World War, remain very strong in the present day.

 Kazakhstan 1992-01-19 See Kazakhstan–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom opened an embassy in Kazakhstan in October 1992 and Kazakhstan opened an embassy in Britain in February 1996.[39] Kazakhstan's relations with the West have greatly improved in the last few years as the Government has closely cooperated in the United States-led War on Terror. See also: Counter-terrorism in Kazakhstan

Britain is the third-largest foreign investor in Kazakhstan with British companies making up 14% of foreign direct investment. Over 100 British companies do business in Kazakhstan.[40]

 Kiribati 1979 See Foreign relations of Kiribati
 Democratic People's Republic of Korea 2000 See Foreign relations of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
 Republic of Korea 1949-01-18 See Foreign relations of the Republic of Korea
 Kyrgyzstan 1992 See Kyrgyzstan–United Kingdom relations
 Laos 1952 See Foreign relations of Laos
 Macao See Foreign relations of Macao
 Malaysia 1957 See Malaysia–United Kingdom relations
 Maldives 1965 See Foreign relations of the Maldives
 Marshall Islands 1991 See Foreign relations of Marshall Islands
 Micronesia 1992-08-31 See Foreign relations of Micronesia
 Mongolia 1963-01-23 See Foreign relations of Mongolia
 Nauru 1968 See Nauru–United Kingdom relations
   Nepal 1816-09-01 See Foreign relations of Nepal
 New Zealand 1939 See New Zealand–United Kingdom relations
 Pakistan 1947 See Pakistan–United Kingdom relations
 Palau See Foreign relations of Palau
 Papua New Guinea 1975 See Papua New Guinea–United Kingdom relations
 Philippines 1946-07-04 See Foreign relations of the Philippines#United Kingdom
  • The United Kingdom and the Philippines have good relations.
  • The Philippines has been one of the UK's major recruitment countries for nurses and over 80,000 Filipino nurses and care-givers work in the UK. The total Philippine community in the UK is estimated to be about 150,000. There are estimated to be some 15,000 British nationals living in the Philippines. About 65,000 British nationals visit the Philippines annually
  • On 2002, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo and the then Prime Minister Tony Blair met to talk about Poverty and Terrorism.
 Pitcairn Islands See Foreign relations of the Pitcairn Islands
 Samoa 1962 See Foreign relations of Samoa
 Singapore 1965 See Singapore–United Kingdom relations
 Solomon Islands 1978 See Foreign relations of the Solomon Islands
 Sri Lanka 1948 See Foreign relations of Sri Lanka
 Taiwan No Relations See Foreign relations of Taiwan
 Tajikistan 1992 See Foreign relations of Tajikistan
 Thailand 1855-04-18 See Thailand–United Kingdom relations
 East Timor 2002 See Foreign relations of East Timor
 Tonga 1970 See Foreign relations of Tonga
 Turkmenistan 1992 See Foreign relations of Turkmenistan
 Tuvalu 1978 See Foreign relations of Tuvalu
 Uzbekistan 1992 See United Kingdom–Uzbekistan relations
 Vanuatu 1980 See Foreign relations of Vanuatu
 Vietnam 1973 See Foreign relations of Vietnam

Europe[edit]

The UK has had good relations with the rest of Europe since the Second World War. It became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, which eventually evolved into the European Union through the Maastricht Treaty twenty years later.[43] Although the UK does not use the Euro and is not a member of the Eurozone,[44] it still plays a leading role in the day-to-day workings of the EU. However it has been referred to[by whom?] as a "peculiar" member of the EU, due to its often strained relations with the organisation.

Britain has a century-long alliance with France, through the Entente Cordiale, which was reconfirmed through the November 2010 Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty – setting up a joint expeditionary force, joint naval battlegroup capability and some nuclear collaboration – as well as extremely close cooperation with France over the 2011 Libyan civil war and Libyan no-fly zone.

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1920-12 See Albania–United Kingdom relations
 Andorra 1994-03-09[47] See Foreign relations of Andorra
  • The United Kingdom's Consulate-General in Barcelona handles the United Kingdom's consular activities in Andorra.[48]
 Armenia 1992-01-02[49] See Armenia–United Kingdom relations
  • Armenia has an embassy in London [50]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Yerevan.[51]
 Austria 1799 See Foreign relations of Austria

Relations between the Austrian Empire and England were established in the Middle Ages. The United Kingdom and Austria continue these relations. Both countries are full members of the European Union.

 Azerbaijan 1992 See Foreign relations of Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in London.[55]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Baku.[56]

Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE).

 Belarus 1992 See Foreign relations of Belarus
  • Belarus has an embassy in London.[57]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Minsk.[58]
 Belgium 1830 See Belgium–United Kingdom relations
  • Belgium has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Kingston-upon-Hull, Manchester, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Saint Helier and Southampton.[59]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy and a Consulate General in Brussels.[58][60]

The two countries have trading links going back to the 10th century, especially wool trade from England to the County of Flanders.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995 See Foreign relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina has an embassy in London.[61]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Sarajevo and an embassy office in Banja Luka.[62]
 Bulgaria 1879-07 See Bulgaria–United Kingdom relations
  • Bulgaria has an embassy in London and a Honorary Consulate in Dundee.[63]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Sofia,[64]

Both countries are members of the European Union and NATO.

 Croatia 1992 See Foreign relations of Croatia
  • Croatia has an embassy in London and a Consulate in Edinburgh.[65]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Zagreb and Consulates in Dubrovnik and Split.[66][67]
 Cyprus 1960 Cyprus is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. See Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland Section above
  • Cyprus has a High Commission in London and Honorary Consulates in Birmingham, Bristol, Dunblane, Glasgow, Northern Ireland and West Yorkshire.[68]
  • The United Kingdom has a High Commission in Nicosia.[69]
 Czech Republic 1993 See Czech Republic–United Kingdom relations
  • The Czech Republic has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast and Edinburgh.[70][71]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Prague.[72]

HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid a state visit to the Czech Republic in March 1996.[73]

 Denmark 1654-10-01 See Denmark–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom has an embassy in Copenhagen and Denmark has an embassy in London. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union. HM Queen Margrethe II of Denmark paid state visits to the United Kingdom in April/May 1974, and in February 2000.[74] HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Denmark in May 1957, and in May 1979.[75]

 Estonia 1991 See Foreign relations of Estonia
  • Estonia has an embassy in London and Honorary Consuls in Liverpool, Cheltenham, Paisley and Wales.[76][77]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tallinn.[78]
 Finland 1919-05-06[79] See Foreign relations of Finland
 France 1505 See France–United Kingdom relations
  • France has an embassy in London and Consulate Generals in London and Edinburgh.[81]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Paris and Consulates in Bordeaux, Lyon and Marseille.[82]
 Georgia 1992 See Georgia–United Kingdom relations
  • Georgia has an embassy in London.[83]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tbilisi.[84]
 Germany 1680 See Germany–United Kingdom relations
  • Germany has an embassy in London and a Consulate General in Edinburgh. German also has Honorary Consulates in Aberdeen, Barrow on Humber, Belfast, Coventry, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Glasgow, Guernsey, Jersey, Kirkwall, Leeds, Lerwick, Liverpool, Middlesbrough, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Plymouth and Southampton.[85][86][87]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Berlin and Consulate Generals in Düsseldorf and Munich. The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hannover, Kiel, Nürnberg and Stuttgart.[88][89][90]
  • The UK maintains a 22 000 strong British Army in Western Germany, as part of the British Forces Germany.
 Greece 1832 See Greece–United Kingdom relations
  • Greece has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Edinburgh, Gibraltar, Glasgow and Leeds.[91]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Athens and a Honorary Vice Consulate in Patras. The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Crete, Corfu, Rhodes, Thessaloniki and Zakynthos.[92][93]

The two countries share membership of the European Union and NATO.

 Holy See 1982 See Holy See–United Kingdom relations

With the English Reformation, diplomatic links between London and the Holy See, which had been established in 1479, were interrupted in 1536 and again, after a brief restoration in 1553, in 1558. Formal diplomatic ties between the United Kingdom and the Holy See were restored in 1914 and raised to ambassadorial level in 1982.[94][95]

 Hungary 1920 [96]
  • Hungary has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Liverpool and Torquay.[97]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Budapest.[98]
 Iceland 1944 See Iceland–United Kingdom relations
 Ireland 1921 See Ireland–United Kingdom relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in London and a Consulate General in Edinburgh.[102]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Dublin.[103]

Under the Ireland Act 1949 Irish citizens are treated as though they are Commonwealth citizens and not aliens for the purposes of law. See Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland Section above.

 Italy 1861 See Italy–United Kingdom relations
  • Italy has an embassy in London, two Consulate Generals in Edinburgh & London and Honorary Consulates in Belfast, Glasgow & Liverpool. Italy also has Honorary Vice Consulates in Aberdeen, Birmingham, Cardiff & Nottingham and Honorary Consular Agency in Ashford, Bristol, Chestnut, Dundee, Greenock, Guernsey, Hull, Jersey, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Peterborough, Watford & Woking.[104]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Rome, a Consulate-General in Milan and a Consulate in Rome.[105][106]

Between 4 and 5 million British tourists visit Italy every year, while 1 million Italian tourists visit the UK.[107] There are about 19,000 British nationals living in Italy, and 150,000 Italians living in the UK.[108]

  • 'Britalian' - British people of Italian descent.
 Kosovo 2008 See Kosovo–United Kingdom relations
  • Kosovo has a Consular Mission in London.[109]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Pristina.[110]

When Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008, the United Kingdom became one of the first countries to officially announce recognition of sovereign Kosovo on 18 February 2008.[111][112] The United Kingdom has had an embassy in Pristina since 5 March 2008.[113] Kosovo has an embassy in London since 1 October 2008.

 Latvia 1991 See Foreign relations of Latvia
  • Latvia has an embassy in London and Honorary Consulates in Edinburgh, Northern Ireland, Manchester and Wales.[114]
  • The United Kingdom has embassy in Riga.[115]
 Lithuania 1991-09-04[116] See Lithuania–United Kingdom relations

There are around 100,000 Lithuanians living in the United Kingdom. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union. In 2006, HM Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and Prince Philip paid an official state visit to Lithuania.[120][121]

 Malta 1964 See Malta–United Kingdom relations
  • Malta has a High Commission in London and Consulates in Gibraltar, the Isle of Man, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.[122][123]
  • The United Kingdom has a High Commission in Valletta.[124]

Malta is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. See Commonwealth of Nations & Ireland Section above.

 Moldova 1992-01-17[125] See Foreign relations of Moldova

The number of British and Moldovan citizens in Moldova and the United Kingdom respectively is insignificant. When visiting Moldova no visa obligation exists for British citizens for stays in Moldova less than 90 days, otherwise a visa is required. For Moldovan citizens a visa is required for any border crossing, except for transfer passengers.

 Montenegro 2006-06-13 See Foreign relations of Montenegro
 Netherlands 1603 See Netherlands–United Kingdom relations
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in London and Consulates in Aberdeen, Belfast, Birmingham, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Guernsey, Hamilton, Harwich, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Plymouth and Southampton. The Netherlands also has a Vice Consulate in Dover.[130][131]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in The Hague and Consulates in Amsterdam and Willemstad.[132][133]
 Norway 1905 See Norway–United Kingdom relations
  • Norway has an embassy in London and Consulate General in Edinburgh. Norway also has Consulates in Aberdeen, Ardrossan, Barrow-on-Furness, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff, Douglas, Dundee, Gibraltar, Glasgow, Grimsby, Inverness, Jersey, Kirkwall, Lerwick, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Plymouth, Southampton and Stornoway.[134]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Oslo and Consulates in Ålesund, Bergen, Stavanger and Trondheim. The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Bodø, Kristiansand and Tromsø.[135]
 Poland 1919 See Poland–United Kingdom relations
  • Poland has an embassy in London, a Consulate General in Edinburgh and Manchester. Poland also has Honorary Consulates in Bristol, Gibraltar, Hull, Kidderminster, Newry and St Helier.[136][137][138][139]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Warsaw.[140]

In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.

 Portugal 1650 See Portugal–United Kingdom relations
  • Portugal has an embassy and Consulate General in London and Consulates in Belfast, Edinburgh, Hamilton, Manchester and St Helier.[141]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Lisbon and Consulates in Lisbon and Portimão. The United Kingdom also has Honorary Consulates in Funchal, Oporto and Ponta Delgada.[142][143]

The relationship dates back to the Middle Ages in 1373 with the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance.

 Romania 1880-02-20 See Romania–United Kingdom relations
 Russia 1553 See Russia–United Kingdom relations
  • Russia has an embassy in London and a Consulate in Edinburgh.[148][149]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Moscow and Consulate Generals in Ekaterinburg and Saint Petersburg.[150][151]

Spanning nearly five centuries, the relationship has often switched from a state of alliance to rivalry. Presently there is a diplomatic row going on over extraditions.

 San Marino 1899;1961 See San Marino–United Kingdom relations
 Serbia 1837 See Serbia–United Kingdom relations
 Slovakia 1993
 Slovenia 1992 See Foreign relations of Slovenia
  • Slovenia has an embassy in London and has Consulate Generals in Belfast and Edinburgh.[158]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Ljubljana.[159]
 Spain 1509 See Spain–United Kingdom relations
  • Spain has an embassy in London and Consulate Generals in Edinburgh and London.[160][161]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Madrid and Consulate Generals in Barcelona and Madrid. The United Kingdom also has Consulates in Bilbao, Ibiza, Las Palmas, Malaga, Palma de Mallorca and Tenerife.[162][163]

During the Second World War Spain remained neutral, but were perceived to be closely aligned with Nazi Germany. Following the end of the war, frosty relations continued between the two states until the end of the Franco era and the democratisation of Spain.

 Sweden 1653 See Foreign relations of Sweden
  • Sweden has an embassy in London as well as Consulate Generals in Edinburgh and Gibraltar. Sweden also has consulates in Guernsey and Jersey as well as honorary consulates in Belfast, Birmingham, Brighton, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Glasgow, Immingham, Lerwick, Liverpool, Manchester, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Southampton and Stornonway.[164]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Stockholm and honorary consulates in Gothenburg and Malmö.[165][166]
  Switzerland 1900 See Switzerland and the European Union
  • Switzerland has an embassy in London and Consulate General in Edinburgh. Switzerland also has Consulates in Belfast, Cardiff, Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Hamilton, Manchester and St Peter Port.[167][168]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Bern.[169]
 Turkey 1793 See Turkey–United Kingdom relations
  • Turkey has an embassy and a Consulate General in London.[170][171]
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Ankara, a Consulate Generals in Istanbul, a Vice Consulate in Antalya and a Consulate in Izmir. The United Kingdom has Honorary Consulates in Adana, Bodrum, Fethiye and Marmaris.[172][173]

The United Kingdom is the second biggest importer of goods from Turkey, after Germany. Turkey exports around 8% of its total goods to the United Kingdom.[174] Around 1,000,000 Britons take holidays in Turkey every year, while 100,000 Turks travel to the UK for business or pleasure.[175]

The United Kingdom does not recognise the TRNC. The TRNC is only recognised by Turkey. The UK is also a signatory to a treaty with Greece and Turkey concerning the independence of Cyprus, the Treaty of Guarantee, which maintains that Britain is a "guarantor power" of the island's independence.[176]

 Ukraine 1991 See Ukraine–United Kingdom relations

Middle East and North Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1962 See Foreign relations of Algeria
 Bahrain 1971 See Bahrain–United Kingdom relations
  • Bahrain has an embassy in London and the United Kingdom is only one of four European countries to have embassy in Manama. Bahrain gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1971 and has since maintained diplomatic and trade relations.
 Egypt 1922 See Egypt–United Kingdom relations
 Iran 1807 See Iran–United Kingdom relations

Iran, which was known as Persia before 1935, has had political relations with England since the late Ilkhanate period (13th century) when King Edward I of England sent Geoffrey de Langley to the Ilkhanid court to seek an alliance.[179]

 Iraq 1920 See Iraq–United Kingdom relations

Sanctions against Iraq prevented any form of economic relations with the United Kingdom and any other country for thirteen years. Ties between London and Baghdad are slowly progressing, but relations between the two nations are somewhat uncertain seeing as many Iraqis remember the colonial oppression either they or their ancestors faced at the hands of the British Empire. In other words, relations between the United Kingdom and the Republic of Iraq are close, yet controversial.

 Israel 1948 See Israel–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom has an embassy in Tel Aviv and a consul in Eilat.[180] Israel has an embassy and a consulate in London.[181][182]

 Jordan 1952 See Foreign relations of Jordan
 Kuwait 1961 See Foreign relations of Kuwait
 Lebanon 1944 See Foreign relations of Lebanon
 Libya See Libya–United Kingdom relations
 Mauritania 1960 See Foreign relations of Mauritania
 Morocco 1956 See Morocco–United Kingdom relations

According to some accounts, in the beginning of the 13th century King John of England (1167–1216) sent an embassy to the Almohad Sultan Muhammad al-Nasir (1199–1213), requesting military support and an alliance against France.[183] At home, King John was faced with a dire situation, in which his Barons revolted against him, he had been excommunicated by the Pope, and France was threatening to invade. The embassy of three was led by Bishop Roger, and King John supposedly offered to convert to Islam and pay a tribute to al-Nasir in exchange for his help. Al-Nasir apparently dismissed the proposal.[184]

 Oman 1971 See Oman–United Kingdom relations

The relations between the United Kingdom and Oman are strong and strategic.[185] In April 2010 the government of Oman stated that it wanted to buy Eurofighter Typhoons from the UK.[17] The United Kingdom has an embassy in Mina al Fahal[186] and Oman has an embassy in London.[187]

 Palestinian Authority See Palestine–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom maintains a consulate in Jerusalem which handles British relations with the Palestinian Authority.[17] The Foreign and Commonwealth Office states the "Consular district covers Jerusalem (West and East), the West Bank and Gaza. As well as work on the Middle East Peace Process and other political issues, the Consulate also promotes trade between the UK and the Occupied Palestinian Territories and manages an extensive programme of aid and development work. The latter is undertaken primarily by the DFID office in Jerusalem.".[17]

The Palestinian Authority is represented in London by Manuel Hassassian, the Palestinian General Delegate to the United Kingdom.[17]

 Qatar 1971 See Foreign relations of Qatar
 Saudi Arabia 1927 See Saudi Arabia–United Kingdom relations

The UK has an embassy in Riyadh, consulate in Jeddah and trade office in Al Khobar.[188] Saudi Arabia has an embassy and consulate in London.[189]

 Tunisia 1956 See Foreign relations of Tunisia
 United Arab Emirates 1971 See United Arab Emirates–United Kingdom relations
 Yemen 1970 See Yemen–United Kingdom relations

North & Central America and Caribbean[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Anguilla See Foreign relations of Anguilla
 Antigua and Barbuda 1981 See Foreign relations of Antigua and Barbuda
 Bahamas 1973 See Foreign relations of the Bahamas
 Barbados 1966 See Barbados–United Kingdom relations
 Belize 1981 See Foreign relations of Belize
 Bermuda See Foreign relations of Bermuda
 British Virgin Islands See Foreign relations of British Virgin Islands
 Canada 1880 See Canada–United Kingdom relations
 Cayman Islands See Foreign relations of the Cayman Islands
 Costa Rica 1849 See Foreign relations of Costa Rica
 Cuba 1902 See Foreign relations of Cuba
 Curaçao See Foreign relations of Curaçao
 Dominica 1978 See Foreign relations of Dominica
 Dominican Republic 1871 See Foreign relations of the Dominican Republic
 El Salvador 1834 See Foreign relations of El Salvador
 Grenada 1974 See Grenada–United Kingdom relations
 Guatemala 1834 See Foreign relations of Guatemala
 Haiti 1859 See Foreign relations of Haiti
 Honduras 1834 See Foreign relations of Honduras
 Jamaica 1962 See Foreign relations of Jamaica
 Mexico 1822 See Mexico–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom was the first country in Europe to recognize Mexico's Independence.[190] The relationship between the two nations began after the Pastry War when the United Kingdom aided Mexico against France. Also, relations improved when Mexico joined the British alongside the Allies to fight the Japanese forces in the Pacific War.

 Montserrat See Foreign relations of Montserrat
 Nicaragua 1849 See Foreign relations of Nicaragua
 Panama 1904 See Foreign relations of Panama
  • The United Kingdom has an embassy in Panama City.[191]
  • Panama has an embassy in London.[192]
  • The UK and Panama have a strong bilateral relationship.
 Saint Helena See Foreign relations of Saint Helena
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 See Foreign relations of Saint Kitts and Nevis
 Saint Lucia 1979 See Foreign relations of Saint Lucia
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 See Foreign relations of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
 Trinidad and Tobago 1962 See Trinidad and Tobago–United Kingdom relations
 Turks and Caicos Islands See Foreign relations of Turks and Caicos Islands
 United States of America 1785-06-01 See United Kingdom–United States relations

Sub Saharan Africa[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Angola 1975 See Foreign relations of Angola
 Benin 1962 See Foreign relations of Benin
 Botswana 1966 See Foreign relations of Botswana
 Burkina Faso 1962 See Foreign relations of Burkina Faso
 Burundi 1962 See Foreign relations of Burundi
 Cameroon 1960 See Foreign relations of Cameroon
 Cape Verde 1975 See Foreign relations of Cape Verde
 Central African Republic 1960 See Foreign relations of the Central African Republic
 Chad 1962 See Foreign relations of Chad
 Comoros 1975 See Foreign relations of Comoros
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1960 See Foreign relations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Congo 1960 See Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo
 Cote d'Ivoire 1960 See Foreign relations of Côte d'Ivoire
 Djibouti See Foreign relations of Djibouti
 Equatorial Guinea 1968 See Foreign relations of Equatorial Guinea
 Eritrea 1993 See Foreign relations of Eritrea
 Ethiopia See Foreign relations of Ethiopia
 Gabon 1960 See Foreign relations of Gabon
 Gambia 1965 See Foreign relations of Gambia
 Ghana 1957 See Foreign relations of Ghana
 Guinea 1958 See Foreign relations of Guinea
 Guinea-Bissau See Foreign relations of Guinea-Bissau
 Kenya 1960 See Foreign relations of Kenya
 Lesotho 1966 See Foreign relations of Lesotho
 Liberia 1847 See Foreign relations of Liberia
 Madagascar See Foreign relations of Madagascar
 Malawi 1964 See Malawi–United Kingdom relations
 Mali See Foreign relations of Mali
 Mauritius See Foreign relations of Mauritius
 Mozambique 1975 See Foreign relations of Mozambique
 Namibia 1990 See Namibia–United Kingdom relations
 Niger 1960 See Foreign relations of Niger
 Nigeria 1960 See Nigeria–United Kingdom relations
 Rwanda 1962 See Foreign relations of Rwanda
 São Tomé and Príncipe 1975 See Foreign relations of São Tomé and Príncipe
 Senegal 1960 See Foreign relations of Senegal
 Seychelles 1976 See Foreign relations of Seychelles
 Sierra Leone 1961 See Foreign relations of Sierra Leone
 Somalia 1960 See Somalia – United Kingdom relations
 South Africa 1927 See South Africa–United Kingdom relations
 South Sudan 2011 See Foreign relations of South Sudan
 Sudan 1959 See Sudan–United Kingdom relations
  • Sudan has an embassy in London whilst the United Kingdom has an embassy in Khartoum.
 Swaziland 1968 See Foreign relations of Swaziland
 Tanzania 1964 See Foreign relations of Tanzania
 Togo See Foreign relations of Togo
 Uganda 1962 See Foreign relations of Uganda
 Zambia 1960 See Foreign relations of Zambia
 Zimbabwe 1980 See Foreign relations of Zimbabwe

South America and South Atlantic Islands[edit]

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 1823-12-15 See Argentina–United Kingdom relations
 Ascension Island See Foreign relations of Ascension Island
 Bolivia 1837 See Foreign relations of Bolivia
 Brazil 1826 See Foreign relations of Brazil
 Chile 1844 See Chile–United Kingdom relations

The UK played an important role in Chile's history. The British Admiral Lord Cochrane was the Chilean Navy's first commander who fought in the Chilean War of Independence. Britain also once played an important role in investments and diplomacy in Chile and South America as a whole but this latter declined with the disintegration of the British Empire. The importance of British settlers and investors can even be seen on the coat of arms of the city of Coquimbo which features the Union Jack.

Chile provided some assistance to Britain during the Falklands War since it was itself at risk of possible war with Argentina regarding the boundary between the two nations in the Beagle Channel.

  • The United Kingdom has embassies in Valparaíso, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas and Santiago.
  • Chile has an embassy in London.
 Colombia 1825-04-18 See Colombia–United Kingdom relations
 Ecuador 1935 See Foreign relations of Ecuador

In 2012, relations came under strain when Julian Assange, founder of the Wikileaks website, entered the Ecuadorian embassy in London and sought asylum; Assange had recently lost a legal case against his extradition to Sweden on charges of sexual assault and rape, but when within the embassy he was on diplomatic territory and beyond the reach of the British police.[197] The United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office delivered a note to the Ecuadorian government in Quito reminding them of the provisions of the Diplomatic and Consular Premises Act 1987 which allow the British government to withdraw recognition of diplomatic protection from embassies; the move was interpreted as a hostile act by Ecuador, with Foreign Minister Ricardo Patiño stating that this "explicit threat" would be met with "appropriate responses in accordance with international law".[198] Assange was granted diplomatic asylum on 16 August 2012, with Foreign Minister Patiño stating that Assange's fears of political persecution were "legitimate".[199]

 Falkland Islands See Foreign relations of Falkland Islands
 Guyana 1966 See Foreign relations of Guyana
 Paraguay 1853-03-04 See Paraguay–United Kingdom relations

Diplomatic relations between both countries were established on 4 March 1853, with the signing of a treaty of Friendship, Trade and Navigation. A dominant view in Paraguay and significant in all the Southern Cone is that the interests of the British Empire played a considerable role during the Paraguayan War.

 Peru 1827 See Foreign relations of Peru
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands See Foreign relations of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
 Suriname 1975 See Foreign relations of Suriname
 Tristan da Cunha See Foreign relations of Tristan da Cunha
 Uruguay 1825 See United Kingdom–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 1842 See Venezuela–United Kingdom relations

International Organisations[edit]

The United Kingdom is a member of the following international organisations:[202]

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, Commonwealth of Nations, CBSS (observer), CDB, Council of Europe, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, European Union, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G7, G8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD (also known as the World Bank), ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), SECI (observer), UN, United Nations Security Council, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, Zangger Committee

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Bibliography[edit]

Recent[edit]

  • Blair, Tony. A Journey: My Political Life (2010)
  • Campbell, John. Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady (Pimlico, 2003)
  • Casey, Terrence. The Blair Legacy: Politics, Policy, Governance, and Foreign Affairs (2009) excerpt and text search
  • Daddow, Oliver, and Jamie Gaskarth, eds. British foreign policy: the New Labour years (Palgrave, 2011)
  • Dickie, John. The New Mandarins: How British Foreign Policy Works (2004)
  • Dumbrell, John. A special relationship: Anglo-American relations from the cold war to Iraq (2006)
  • Finlan, Alastair. Contemporary Military Strategy and the Global War on Terror: US and UK Armed Forces in Afghanistan and Iraq 2001-2012 (2014)
  • Lane, Ann. Strategy, Diplomacy and UK Foreign Policy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
  • Lunn, Jon, Vaughne Miller, Ben Smith. "British foreign policy since 1997 - Commons Library Research Paper RP08/56 (UK House of Commons, 2008) 123pp online
  • Reynolds, David. Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century (2nd ed. 2000) excerpt and text search, major survey of British foreign policy to 1999
  • Williams, Paul. British Foreign Policy under New Labour (2005)

Historical[edit]

  • Bartlett, C. J. British Foreign Policy in the Twentieth Century (1989)
  • Bartlett, C. J. Defence and Diplomacy: Britain and the Great Powers, 1815-1914 (1993) 160pp
  • Black, Jeremy et al. The Makers of British Foreign Policy, From Pitt to Thatcher (Palgrave, Basingstoke and New York, 2002)
  • Black, Jeremy. America or Europe? British Foreign Policy, 1739-63 (1998) online edition
  • Black, Jeremy, ed. Knights Errant and True Englishmen: British Foreign Policy, 1660-1800 (2003) online edition
  • Dilks, David. Retreat from Power: 1906-39 v. 1: Studies in Britain's Foreign Policy of the Twentieth Century (1981); Retreat from Power: After 1939 v. 2 (1981)
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  • Dimbleby, David, and David Reynolds. An Ocean Apart: The Relationship Between Britain and America in the Twentieth Century (1988)
  • Horn, D. B Great Britain and Europe in the eighteenth century (1967) 411pp; detailed coverage country by country
  • Jones, J. R. Britain and the World, 1649-1815 (1980)
  • Mulligan, William, and Brendan Simms, eds. The Primacy of Foreign Policy in British History, 1660-2000(Palgrave Macmillan; 2011) 345 pages
  • Otte, T.G., The Foreign Office Mind: The Making of British Foreign Policy, 1865-1914 (Cambridge University Press, 2011)
  • Reynolds, David. Britannia Overruled: British Policy and World Power in the Twentieth Century (2nd ed. 2000) excerpt and text search, major survey of British foreign policy
  • Reynolds, David. From World War to Cold War: Churchill, Roosevelt, and the International History of the 1940s (2006) excerpt and text search
  • Taylor, A.J.P. Struggle for Mastery of Europe: 1848-1918 (1954)
  • Vickers, Rhiannon. The Evolution of Labour's Foreign Policy, 1900-51 (2003) online edition
  • Ward, A.W. and G.P. Gooch, eds. The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, 1783-1919 (3 vol, 1921–23), old classic
  • Webster, Charles. The Foreign Policy of Palmerston (1951) online edition

Primary sources[edit]

  • Wiener, Joel H. ed. Great Britain: Foreign Policy and the Span of Empire, 1689-1971: A Documentary History (1972) 876pp online edition

External links[edit]