Bigfoot

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Formal studies of Bigfoot)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Sasquatch" redirects here. For other uses, see Sasquatch (disambiguation) and Bigfoot (disambiguation).
Bigfoot
(Sasquatch)
Smalfut.jpg
Frame 352 from 1967 Patterson–Gimlin film, alleged by Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin to show a Bigfoot, was a man in a gorilla suit.[1]
Similar creatures Yeti
Country United States, Canada
Region Pacific Northwest
Habitat Mountains, forest

Bigfoot, also known as Sasquatch, is the name given to a cryptid ape- or hominid-like creature that some people believe inhabits forests, mainly in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. Bigfoot is usually described as a large, hairy, bipedal humanoid. The term sasquatch is an anglicized derivative of the Halkomelem word sásq'ets.[2][3]

Most scientists discount the existence of Bigfoot and consider it to be a combination of folklore, misidentification, and hoax,[4] rather than a living animal, because of the lack of physical evidence and the large numbers of creatures that would be necessary to maintain a breeding population.[5][6] Scientists Grover Krantz and Jeffrey Meldrum have focused research on the creature for the greater parts of their careers.

Description

Bigfoot is described in reports as a large hairy ape-like creature, in a range of 2–3 m (6.6-9.8 ft) tall, weighing in excess of 500 pounds (230 kg), and covered in dark brown or dark reddish hair.[5][7] Purported witnesses have described large eyes, a pronounced brow ridge, and a large, low-set forehead; the top of the head has been described as rounded and crested, similar to the sagittal crest of the male gorilla. Bigfoot is commonly reported to have a strong, unpleasant smell by those who claim to have encountered it.[8] The enormous footprints for which it is named have been as large as 24 inches (60 cm) long and 8 inches (20 cm) wide.[7] While most casts have five toes — like all known apes — some casts of alleged Bigfoot tracks have had numbers ranging from two to six.[9] Some have also contained claw marks, making it likely that a portion came from known animals such as bears, which have five toes and claws.[10][11] Proponents claim that Bigfoot is omnivorous and mainly nocturnal.[12]

History

Before 1958

Wildmen stories are found among the indigenous population of the Pacific Northwest. The legends existed before a single name for the creature.[13] They differed in their details both regionally and between families in the same community. Similar stories of wildmen are found on every continent except Antarctica.[13] Ecologist Robert Michael Pyle argues that most cultures have human-like giants in their folk history: "We have this need for some larger-than-life creature."[14]

Members of the Lummi tell tales about Ts'emekwes, the local version of Bigfoot. The stories are similar to each other in the general descriptions of Ts'emekwes, but details about the creature's diet and activities differed between family stories.[15]

Some regional versions contained more nefarious creatures. The stiyaha or kwi-kwiyai were a nocturnal race that children were told not to say the names of lest the monsters hear and come to carry off a person—sometimes to be killed.[16] In 1847, Paul Kane reported stories by the native people about skoocooms: a race of cannibalistic wildmen living on the peak of Mount St. Helens.[10] The skoocooms appear to have been regarded as supernatural, rather than natural.[10]

Less menacing versions such as the one recorded by Reverend Elkanah Walker exist. In 1840, Walker, a Protestant missionary, recorded stories of giants among the Native Americans living in Spokane, Washington. The Indians claimed that these giants lived on and around the peaks of nearby mountains and stole salmon from the fishermen's nets.[17]

Local legends were compiled by Indian Agent J. W. Burns in a series of Canadian newspaper articles in the 1920s recounting stories told to him by the Sts'Ailes people of Chehalis and others. The Sts'Ailes maintain, as do other indigenous peoples of the region, that the Sasquatch are very real, not legendary, and take great umbrage when it is suggested that they are. According to Sts'Ailes eyewitness accounts, the Sasquatch prefer to avoid white men, and speak the "Douglas language", i.e. Ucwalmicwts, the language of the people at Port Douglas, British Columbia at the head of Harrison Lake.[18][19] It was Burns who first borrowed the term Sasquatch from the Halkomelem sásq'ets (IPA: [ˈsæsqʼəts])[2] and used it in his articles to describe a hypothetical single type of creature reflected in the stories.[10][20][21] Burns's articles popularized the legend and its new name, making it well known in western Canada before it gained popularity in the United States.[22]

A story told to Charles Hill-Tout by Chief Mischelle of the Nlaka'pamux at Lytton, British Columbia in 1898 gives another Salishan variant of the name, meaning "the benign-faced-one".

Each language had its own name for the local version. Many names meant something along the lines of "wild man" or "hairy man" although other names described common actions it was said to perform, e.g., eating clams.[20]

After 1958

In 1951, Eric Shipton photographed what he described as a Yeti footprint,[22] which generated considerable attention and led to the story of the Yeti entering popular consciousness. The notoriety of ape-men grew over the decade, culminating in 1958 when large footprints were found in Del Norte County, California by bulldozer operator Gerald Crew. Sets of large tracks appeared multiple times around a road-construction site in Bluff Creek. After not being taken seriously about what he was seeing, Crew brought in his friend, Bob Titmus, to cast the prints in plaster. The story was published in the Humboldt Times along with a photo of Crew holding one of the casts.[10]

Locals had been calling the unseen track-maker "Big Foot" since the late summer, which Humboldt Times columnist Andrew Genzoli shortened to "Bigfoot" in his article.[23] Bigfoot gained international attention when the story was picked up by the Associated Press.[10][24] Following the death of Ray Wallace – a local logger – his family attributed the creation of the footprints to him.[5] The wife of L. W. "Scoop" Beal, the editor of the Humboldt Standard, which later combined with the Humboldt Times, in which Genzoli's story had appeared,[25] has stated that her husband was in on the hoax with Wallace.[26]

1958 was a watershed year not just for the Bigfoot story itself but also for the culture that surrounds it. The first Bigfoot hunters appeared following the discovery of footprints at Bluff Creek, California. Within a year, Tom Slick, who had funded searches for Yeti in the Himalayas earlier in the decade, organized searches for Bigfoot in the area around Bluff Creek.[27]

As Bigfoot has become better known and a phenomenon in popular culture, sightings have spread throughout North America. In addition to the Pacific Northwest, the Great Lakes region and the Southeastern United States have had many reports of Bigfoot sightings.[28] The debate over the legitimacy of Bigfoot sightings reached a peak in the 1970s, and Bigfoot has been regarded as the first widely popularized example of pseudoscience in American culture.[29]

Prominent reported sightings

Distribution of reported Bigfoot sightings in North America.

About a third of all reports of Bigfoot sightings are concentrated in the Pacific Northwest, with most of the remaining reports spread throughout the rest of North America.[10][30][31] Some Bigfoot advocates, such as John Willison Green, have postulated that Bigfoot is a worldwide phenomenon.[32] The most notable reports include:

  • 1924: Prospector Albert Ostman claimed to have been abducted by Sasquatch and held captive by the creatures in British Columbia.[33]
  • 1924: Fred Beck claimed that he and four other miners were attacked one night in July 1924, by several "apemen" throwing rocks at their cabin in an area later called Ape Canyon, Washington.[34] Beck said the miners shot and possibly killed at least one of the creatures, precipitating an attack on their cabin, during which the creatures bombarded the cabin with rocks and tried to break in. The supposed incident was widely reported at the time.[35] Beck wrote a book about the alleged event in 1967, in which he argued that the creatures were mystical beings from another dimension, claiming that he had experienced psychic premonitions and visions his entire life of which the apemen were only one component.[36] Speleologist William Halliday argued in 1983 that the story arose from an incident in which hikers from a nearby camp had thrown rocks into the canyon.[37] There are also local rumors that pranksters harassed the men and planted faked footprints.[10]
  • 1941: Jeannie Chapman and her children said they had escaped their home when a 7.5 feet (2.3 m) tall Sasquatch approached their residence in Ruby Creek, British Columbia.[38]
  • 1958: Bulldozer operator Jerry Crew took to a newspaper office a cast of one of the enormous footprints he and other workers had seen at an isolated work site at Bluff Creek, California. The crew was overseen by Wilbur L. Wallace, brother of Raymond L. Wallace. After Ray Wallace's death, his children came forward with a pair of 16-inch (41 cm) wooden feet, which they said their father had used to fake the Bigfoot tracks in 1958.[5][10] Wallace is poorly regarded by many Bigfoot proponents. John Napier wrote, "I do not feel impressed with Mr. Wallace's story" regarding having over 15,000 feet (4,600 m) of film showing Bigfoot.[39]
  • 1967: Roger Patterson and Robert Gimlin reported that on October 20 they had captured a purported Sasquatch on film at Bluff Creek, California. This came to be known as the Patterson–Gimlin film. Many years later, Bob Heironimus, an acquaintance of Patterson's, said that he had worn an ape costume for the making of the film.[10] However, Patterson and Gimlin claimed that they sought various experts to examine the film. Patterson claimed to have screened the film for unnamed technicians "in the special effects department at Universal Studios in Hollywood ... Their conclusion was: 'We could try (faking it), but we would have to create a completely new system of artificial muscles and find an actor who could be trained to walk like that. It might be done, but we would have to say that it would be almost impossible.'"[40]
  • 2007: On September 16, 2007, hunter Rick Jacobs captured an image of a supposed Sasquatch by using an automatically triggered camera attached to a tree,[41] prompting a spokesperson for the Pennsylvania Game Commission to say that it was probably an image of "a bear with a severe case of mange."[42] The photo was taken near the town of Ridgway, Pennsylvania, in the Allegheny National Forest.[43][44]

Proposed explanations for sightings

Various types of creatures have been suggested to explain both the sightings and what type of creature Bigfoot would be if it existed. The scientific community typically attributes sightings to either hoaxes or misidentification of known animals and their tracks. While cryptozoologists generally explain Bigfoot as an unknown ape, some believers in Bigfoot attribute the phenomenon to UFOs or other paranormal causes.[45]

Misidentification

A 2007 photo of an unidentified animal the Bigfoot Research Organization claims is a "juvenile Sasquatch"[46]

In 2007, the Pennsylvania Game Commission said that photos the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization claimed showed a juvenile Bigfoot were probably of a bear with mange.[43][47] Jeffrey Meldrum, on the other hand, said the limb proportions of the suspected juvenile in question were not bear-like, and stated that he felt they were "more like a chimpanzee."[48]

Hoaxes

Both scientists and Bigfoot believers agree that many of the sightings are hoaxes or misidentified animals.[9]

Bigfoot sightings or footprints are often demonstrably hoaxes. Author Jerome Clark argues that the Jacko Affair, involving an 1884 newspaper report of an apelike creature captured in British Columbia, was a hoax. Citing research by John Green, who found that several contemporary British Columbia newspapers regarded the alleged capture as very dubious, Clark notes that the Mainland Guardian of New Westminster, British Columbia, wrote, "Absurdity is written on the face of it."[49]

On July 14, 2005, Tom Biscardi, a long-time Bigfoot enthusiast and CEO of Searching for Bigfoot Inc., appeared on the Coast to Coast AM paranormal radio show and announced that he was "98% sure that his group will be able to capture a Bigfoot which they have been tracking in the Happy Camp, California area."[50] A month later, Biscardi announced on the same radio show that he had access to a captured Bigfoot and was arranging a pay-per-view event for people to see it. Biscardi appeared on Coast to Coast AM again a few days later to announce that there was no captive Bigfoot. Biscardi blamed an unnamed woman for misleading him and the show's audience for being gullible.[50]

On July 9, 2008, Rick Dyer and Matthew Whitton posted a video to YouTube claiming that they had discovered the body of a dead Sasquatch in a forest in northern Georgia. Tom Biscardi was contacted to investigate. Dyer and Whitton received $50,000 from Searching for Bigfoot, Inc., as a good faith gesture.[51] The story of the men's claims was covered by many major news networks, including BBC,[52] CNN,[53] ABC News,[54] and Fox News.[55] Soon after a press conference, the alleged Bigfoot body arrived in a block of ice in a freezer with the Searching for Bigfoot team. When the contents were thawed, it was discovered that the hair was not real, the head was hollow, and the feet were rubber.[56] Dyer and Whitton subsequently admitted it was a hoax after being confronted by Steve Kulls, executive director of SquatchDetective.com.[57]

In August 2012, a man in Montana was killed by a car while perpetrating a Bigfoot hoax using a ghillie suit.[58][59]

In January 2014, Rick Dyer, perpetrator of a previous Bigfoot hoax, claimed to have killed a Bigfoot creature in September 2012 outside of San Antonio, Texas. Dyer claims to have had scientific tests performed on the body, "from DNA tests to 3D optical scans to body scans. It is the real deal. It's Bigfoot and Bigfoot's here, and I shot it and now I'm proving it to the world."[60][61] He stated that he intended to take the body, which he has kept in a hidden location, on tour across North America in 2014. To date, he has released only photos of the body and a video showing a few individuals' reactions to seeing it,[62] but none of the tests or scans. He has refused to disclose the test results or provide biological samples, although he has stated that the DNA results, which were done by an undisclosed lab, could not identify any known animal.[63] He stated he would reveal the body and tests on February 9 at a news conference at Washington University,[64] however, the test results are still unavailable.[65] After the Phoenix tour, the body traveled to Houston.[66] On March 28, 2014, Dyer admitted on his Facebook page that his current "Bigfoot corpse" was another hoax. He paid Chris Russel of Twisted Toy Box to manufacture the prop, which he nicknamed "Hank", from latex, foam and camel hair. Dyer raked in approximately US$60,000 from the tour of his second fake Bigfoot corpse. He maintains that he really did kill a Bigfoot, but didn't take the real body on tour for fear it would be stolen.[67][68]

Gigantopithecus

Fossil jaw of Gigantopithecus blacki, an extinct primate

Bigfoot proponents Grover Krantz and Geoffrey H. Bourne believed that Bigfoot could be a relict population of Gigantopithecus. Bourne contends that as all Gigantopithecus fossils were found in Asia, and as many species of animals migrated across the Bering land bridge, it is not unreasonable to assume that Gigantopithecus might have as well.[69]

The Gigantopithecus hypothesis is generally considered entirely speculative. Gigantopithecus fossils are not found in the Americas. As the only recovered fossils are of mandibles and teeth, there is some uncertainty about Gigantopithecus's locomotion. Krantz has argued, based on his extrapolation of the shape of its mandible, that Gigantopithecus blacki could have been bipedal. However, the relevant part of mandible is not present in any fossils.[70] The mainstream view is that Gigantopithecus was quadrupedal, and it has been argued that Gigantopithecus's enormous mass would have made it difficult for it to adopt a bipedal gait.

Matt Cartmill presents another problem with the Gigantopithecus hypothesis: "The trouble with this account is that Gigantopithecus was not a hominin and maybe not even a crown-group hominoid; yet the physical evidence implies that Bigfoot is an upright biped with buttocks and a long, stout, permanently adducted hallux. These are hominin autapomorphies, not found in other mammals or other bipeds. It seems unlikely that Gigantopithecus would have evolved these uniquely hominin traits in parallel."[71]

Bernard G. Campbell wrote: "That Gigantopithecus is in fact extinct has been questioned by those who believe it survives as the Yeti of the Himalayas and the Sasquatch of the north-west American coast. But the evidence for these creatures is not convincing."[72]

Extinct hominidae

A species of Paranthropus, such as Paranthropus robustus, with its crested skull and bipedal gait, was suggested by primatologist John R. Napier and anthropologist Gordon Strasenburg as a possible candidate for Bigfoot's identity,[73] despite the fact that fossils of Paranthropus are found only in Africa.

Michael Rugg, of the Bigfoot Discovery Museum, presented a comparison between human, Gigantopithecus and Meganthropus skulls (reconstructions made by Grover Krantz) in episodes 131 and 132 of the Bigfoot Discovery Museum Show.[74] He favorably compares a modern tooth suspected of coming from a Bigfoot to the Meganthropus fossil teeth, noting the worn enamel on the occlusal surface. The Meganthropus fossils originated from Asia, and the tooth was found near Santa Cruz, California.

Some suggest Neanderthal, Homo erectus, or Homo heidelbergensis to be the creature, but no remains of any of those species have been found in the Americas.[75]

Scientific view

The scientific community discounts the existence of Bigfoot, as there is no evidence supporting the survival of such a large, prehistoric ape-like creature. The evidence that does exist points more towards a hoax or delusion than to sightings of a genuine creature.[5] In a 1996 USA Today article, Washington State zoologist John Crane said, "There is no such thing as Bigfoot. No data other than material that's clearly been fabricated has ever been presented."[14] In addition to the lack of evidence, scientists cite the fact that Bigfoot is alleged to live in regions unusual for a large, nonhuman primate, i.e., temperate latitudes in the northern hemisphere; all recognized apes are found in the tropics of Africa and Asia.

The subject of Bigfoot is not considered an area of credible science[76] and there have been a limited number of formal scientific studies of Bigfoot.

Supposed evidence, like the 1967 Patterson-Gimlin film, has provided "no supportive data of any scientific value".[77]

As with other proposed megafauna cryptids, climate and food supply issues would make such a creature's survival in reported habitats unlikely.[78] Great apes are not found in the fossil record in the Americas, and no Bigfoot remains are known to have been found. Scientific consensus is that the breeding population of such an animal would be so large that it would account for many more purported sightings than currently occur, making the existence of such an animal an almost certain impossibility.[6] In the 1970s, when Bigfoot "experts" were frequently given high-profile media coverage, the scientific community generally avoided lending credence to the theories by debating them.[29]

Researchers

Ivan T. Sanderson and Bernard Heuvelmans have spent parts of their career searching for Bigfoot.[79] Later scientists who researched the topic included Carleton S. Coon, George Allen Agogino and William Charles Osman Hill, although they came to no definite conclusions and later drifted from this research.[80]

Jeffrey Meldrum has said that the fossil remains of an ancient giant ape called Gigantopithecus could turn out to be ancestors of today's commonly known Bigfoot, but this claim hasn't been accepted by the scientific community.[81][82] John Napier asserts that the scientific community's attitude towards Bigfoot stems primarily from insufficient evidence.[83] Other scientists who have shown varying degrees of interest in the legend are David J. Daegling,[84] George Schaller,[14][85][86] Russell Mittermeier, Daris Swindler, Esteban Sarmiento,[87] and Carleton S. Coon.[88]

Jane Goodall, in a September 27, 2002, interview on National Public Radio's "Science Friday", expressed her ideas about the existence of Bigfoot. First stating "I'm sure they exist", she later went on to say, chuckling, "Well, I'm a romantic, so I always wanted them to exist", and finally: "You know, why isn't there a body? I can't answer that, and maybe they don't exist, but I want them to."[89] In 2012, Goodall said, "I'm fascinated and would actually love them to exist."[90]

Formal studies

The first scientific study of available evidence was conducted by John Napier and published in his book, Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality, in 1973.[91] Napier wrote that if a conclusion is to be reached based on scant extant "'hard' evidence," science must declare "Bigfoot does not exist."[92] However, he found it difficult to entirely reject thousands of alleged tracks, "scattered over 125,000 square miles" or to dismiss all "the many hundreds" of eyewitness accounts. Napier concluded, "I am convinced that Sasquatch exists, but whether it is all it is cracked up to be is another matter altogether. There must be something in north-west America that needs explaining, and that something leaves man-like footprints."[93]

In 1974, the National Wildlife Federation funded a field study seeking Bigfoot evidence. No formal federation members were involved and the study made no notable discoveries.[94]

Beginning in the late 1970s, physical anthropologist Grover Krantz published several articles and four book-length treatments of Sasquatch. However, his work was found to contain multiple scientific failings including falling for hoaxes.[95]

A study published in for the Journal of Biogeography in 2009 by J.D. Lozier et al. used ecological niche modeling on reported sightings of Bigfoot, using their locations to infer Bigfoot's preferred ecological parameters. They found a very close match with the ecological parameters of the American black bear, Ursus americanus. They also note that an upright bear looks much like Bigfoot's purported appearance and consider it highly improbable that two species should have very similar ecological preferences, concluding that Bigfoot sightings are likely sightings of black bears.[96]

Bigfoot claims

After what The Huffington Post described as "a five-year study of purported Bigfoot (also known as Sasquatch) DNA samples,"[97] Texas veterinarian Melba Ketchum and her team announced that they had found proof that the Sasquatch "is a human relative that arose approximately 15,000 years ago as a hybrid cross of modern Homo sapiens with an unknown primate species." Ketchum called for this to be recognized officially, saying that "Government at all levels must recognize them as an indigenous people and immediately protect their human and Constitutional rights against those who would see in their physical and cultural differences a 'license' to hunt, trap, or kill them."[98] Failing to find a scientific journal that would publish their results, Ketchum announced on February 13, 2013 that their research had been published in the DeNovo Journal of Science. The Huffington Post discovered that the journal's domain had been registered anonymously only nine days before the announcement. The only edition of DeNovo was listed as Volume 1, Issue 1, and its only content was the Bigfoot research.[98][99][100]

Bigfoot organizations

There are several organizations dedicated to the research and investigation of Bigfoot sightings in the United States. The oldest and largest is the Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization (BFRO).[101] The BFRO also provides a free database to individuals and other organizations. Their Web site includes reports from across North America that have been investigated by researchers to determine credibility.[102]

Popular culture

Bigfoot has had a demonstrable impact as a popular culture phenomenon. It has "become entrenched in American popular culture and it is as viable an icon as Michael Jordan" with more than forty-five years having passed since reported sightings in California, and neither an animal nor "a satisfying explanation as to why folks see giant hairy men that don't exist".[103]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Mag, Editors of Yes (2009). Hoaxed!: Fakes & Mistakes in the World of Science. Kids Can Press Ltd. pp. 44–. ISBN 9781554532063. Retrieved November 9, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Bright, William (2004). Native American Placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-8061-3598-4. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  3. ^ "Sasquatch". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved February 15, 2012. 
  4. ^ Daegling 2004, pp. 62–63.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Bigfoot [a.k.a. Abominable Snowman of the Himalayas, Mapinguari (the Amazon), Sasquatch, Yowie (Australia) and Yeti (Asia)]". The Skeptic's Dictionary. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008. 
  6. ^ a b Earls, Stephanie. "Bigfoot hunting". Archived from the original on January 29, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b "Sasquatch". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. 
  8. ^ "Sasquatch Smell / Aroma / Odor / Scent". Bigfoot Encounters. Retrieved August 15, 2008. 
  9. ^ a b Radford, Benjamin (March–April 2002). "Bigfoot at 50 Evaluating a Half-Century of Bigfoot Evidence". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved August 17, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nickell, Joe (January 2007). "Investigative Files: Mysterious Entities of the Pacific Northwest, Part I". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved October 20, 2009. 
  11. ^ Bear signs, San Diego Natural History Museum.
  12. ^ "Physiology". Bigfoot Field Research Organization. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  13. ^ a b Daegling 2004, p. 28
  14. ^ a b c Goodavage, Maria (May 24, 1996). "Hunt for Bigfoot Attracts True Believers". USA TODAY/bz050. 
  15. ^ Rasmus, Stacy M. (2002). "Repatriating Words: Local Knowledge in a Global Context". American Indian Quarterly 26 (2): 286–307. doi:10.1353/aiq.2003.0018. JSTOR 4128463. 
  16. ^ Rigsby, Bruce. "Some Pacific Northwest Native Language Names for the Sasquatch Phenomenon". Bigfoot: Fact or Fantasy?. Retrieved August 18, 2008. 
  17. ^ "The Diary of Elkanah Walker". Bigfoot Encounters. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  18. ^ The Hairy Giants of British Columbia, told by J.W. Burns, Indian Agent and teacher, Chehalis Indian Reserve, set down by C.V. Tench, published in The Wide World: A Magazine for Men, January 1940, Vol. 84, No. 52
  19. ^ "Shouldn't Be Captured": Nothing Monstrous About Sasquatch Says Their Pal, Alex McGillivray, Vancouver Sun, May 25, 1957
  20. ^ a b Meldrum, Jeff (2007). Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science. Macmillan. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-7653-1217-4. Retrieved February 19, 2010. 
  21. ^ "Sasquatch". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved August 7, 2007. 
  22. ^ Blu Buhs 2009, pp. 69, 75
  23. ^ Krantz, Grover (1992). Big Footprints: A Scientific Inquiry into the Reality of Sasquatch. Johnson Books. p. 5. ISBN 1-55566-099-1. 
  24. ^ Blu Buhs 2009, p. 241
  25. ^ Driscoll, John (October 30, 2008). "Birth of Bigfoot". The Times-Standard (Eureka, CA). 
  26. ^ Daegling 2004, p. 35
  27. ^ "Geographical Database of Bigfoot/Sasquatch Sightings & Reports". BFRO. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2009. 
  28. ^ a b McLeod, Michael (2009). Anatomy of a Beast: Obsession and Myth on the Trail of Bigfoot. Berkley: University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-520-25571-5. 
  29. ^ "Geographical Database of Bigfoot/Sasquatch Sightings and Reports". Bigfoot Field Research Organization. Archived from the original on August 19, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  30. ^ Cartmill, Matt (January 2008). "Bigfoot Exposed: An Anthropologist Examines America's Enduring Legend/Sasquatch: Legend Meets Science". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135 (1): 118. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20691. 
  31. ^ Green, John Willison (1978). Sasquatch – The Apes Among Us. Hancock House Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 0-88839-123-4. 
  32. ^ "Boys Life Magazine. Page 34 Published by The Boy Scouts of America". October 1980 
  33. ^ Beck, Ronald A. "I Fought the Apemen of Mount St. Helens, WA.". bigfootencounters.com. Archived from the original on June 22, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2007. 
  34. ^ "Gorilla Seeahtik Indians and prospectors," Engineering and Mining Journal-Press, August 16, 1924, p.242.
  35. ^ Beck, Fred; told to Ronald A. Beck. (1967) I Fought The Apemen of Mount St. Helens, WA.
  36. ^ Halliday, William R. (1983). Ape Cave and the Mount St. Helens Apes. ISBN 1-886168-00-8. 
  37. ^ Sanderson, Ivan T. "Sasquatch Classics: Ruby Creek". 
  38. ^ Napier 1973, p. 89
  39. ^ Hunter and Dahinden, 119.
  40. ^ "Jacobs Photos – Pennsylvania, 9/16/2007". Bigfoot Field Research Organization. September 16, 2007. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Is It Bigfoot? Hunter's Photos Ignite Debate". Foxnews.com. October 28, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  42. ^ a b "Is this Bigfoot ... or is it a bear with bad skin?". Mail Online. October 30, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2008. 
  43. ^ Hart, Josh (October 30, 2007). "Rick Jacobs Bigfoot Pictures: Multiple Photos Now Online". Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  44. ^ Boston, Rob (December 2003). "Scenes from a Bigfoot Conference". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  45. ^ "Jacobs Photos". Retrieved September 16, 2009. 
  46. ^ "Hunter's pics revive lively Bigfoot debate". MSNBC. October 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Young Sasquatch? ''Earthfiles Podcast 10-31-07''". Earthfiles333.com. October 31, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  48. ^ Clark, Jerome (1993). Unexplained! 347 Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurrences and Puzzling Physical Phenomena. Visible Ink. p. 195. ISBN 0-8103-9436-7. 
  49. ^ a b "Georgia Bigfoot body in freezer". Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  50. ^ Boone, Christian; Kathy Jefcoats (August 20, 2008). "Searching for Bigfoot group to sue Georgia hoaxers". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. 
  51. ^ "Americans 'find body of Bigfoot'". BBC News. August 15, 2008. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  52. ^ "Body proves Bigfoot no myth, hunters say". CNN. August 15, 2008. Archived from the original on March 18, 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2010. 
  53. ^ Ki Mae Heusser (August 15, 2008). "Legend of Bigfoot: Discovery or Hoax?". ABC News. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  54. ^ Wollan, Malia (September 16, 2008). "Georgia men claim hairy, frozen corpse is Bigfoot". Fox News. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  55. ^ Keefe, Bob (August 19, 2008). "Bigfoot's body a hoax, California site reveals". Cox News Service. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2010. 
  56. ^ Ki Mae Heusser (August 19, 2008). "A Monster Discovery? It Was Just a Costume". ABC News. Archived from the original on September 29, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008. 
  57. ^ Lynch, Rene (August 28, 2012). "Bigfoot hoax ends badly: Montana jokester hit, killed by car". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 24, 2013. 
  58. ^ Skeptical Inquirer, Vol. 36 #6, Nov. 2012, p. 9
  59. ^ Lee Speigel (January 5, 2014). "Bigfoot Hunter Rick Dyer Claims He Killed The Hairy Beast And Will Take It On Tour". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  60. ^ Tim Gerber (January 2, 2014). "Bigfoot hunter shares pictures of dead creature". KSAT-TV. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  61. ^ Rick Dyer. People's Reactions Seeing a Real Bigfoot. YouTube. 
  62. ^ Zoe Mintz (January 29, 2014). "Rick Dyer, Bigfoot Hunter, Shares New Photos Of Alleged 'Monster' Sasquatch". International Business Times. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  63. ^ Mucha, Peter (January 15, 2014). "Bigfoot Revealed February 9, 2014". Philly.com. Retrieved January 17, 2014. 
  64. ^ "Bigfoot On Tour". WGHP. February 8, 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  65. ^ Uhl, Norm (February 5, 2014). "Bigfoot On Tour in Houston". Interactive One. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Bigfoot Killed in San Antonio?". Snopes.com. March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 2, 2014. 
  67. ^ Landau, Joel (March 31, 2014). "Bigfoot hunter Rick Dyer admits he lied about killing the beast". Daily News (New York). Retrieved April 2, 2014. 
  68. ^ Bourne, Geoffrey H.; Cohen, Maury (1975). The Gentle Giants: The Gorilla Story. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 296. ISBN 0-399-11528-5. 
  69. ^ Daegling 2004, p. 14
  70. ^ Cartmill 2008, p. 117
  71. ^ Campbell, Bernard G. (1979). Humankind Emerging. Little, Brown and Company. p. 100. ISBN 0-673-52170-2. Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 78-78234. 
  72. ^ Coleman, Loren. "Scientific Names for Bigfoot". BFRO. Archived from the original on September 9, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008. 
  73. ^ "Bigfoot Discovery Project Media". Archived from the original on April 19, 2010. Retrieved April 4, 2010. [dead link]
  74. ^ Daegling 2004, p. 16
  75. ^ Robert B. Stewart (2007). Intelligent design: William A. Dembski & Michael Ruse in dialogue. p. 83. ISBN 9780800662189. 
  76. ^ David J. Daegling (October 30, 2004). Bigfoot exposed: an anthropologist examines America's enduring legend. ISBN 9780759105393. 
  77. ^ Sjögren, Bengt (1980). Berömda vidunder (in Swedish). Settern. ISBN 91-7586-023-6. 
  78. ^ Science 286 (5442): 1079. November 5, 1999. doi:10.1126/science.286.5442.1079c. 
  79. ^ Regal, Brian (June 2008). "Amateur versus professional: the search for Bigfoot". Endeavour 32 (2): 53–7. doi:10.1016/j.endeavour.2008.04.005. PMID 18514914. Retrieved September 11, 2009. 
  80. ^ Meldrum, Jeffrey (2006). When Legend Meets Science: A Scientific analysis to the Sasquatch – or Bigfoot – debate. Johnson Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-7653-1216-6. 
  81. ^ "Evaluation of Alleged Sasquatch Footprints and their Inferred Functional Morphology". Retrieved October 18, 2010. 
  82. ^ Napier 1973
  83. ^ Daegling 2004
  84. ^ Bailey, Eric (April 19, 2003). "Bigfoot's Big Feat: New Life". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  85. ^ Napier 1973, p. 197
  86. ^ Stein, Theo (January 5, 2003). "Bigfoot Believers". The Denver Post. 
  87. ^ Markotic, Vladimir; Krantz, Grover (1984). The Sasquatch and Other Unknown Primates. Western Publishers. p. 46. ISBN 0-919119-10-7. 
  88. ^ "National Public Radio's Science Friday, September 27, 2002, Ira Flatow interviews Dr. Jane Goodall". 
  89. ^ Moye, David (October 1, 2012). "Jane Goodall 'Fascinated' By Bigfoot (VIDEO)". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2013. 
  90. ^ Napier, John. Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality. 1973, ISBN 0-525-06658-6
  91. ^ Napier, 197
  92. ^ Napier, 205
  93. ^ Bourne, Geoffrey H, The Gentle Giants: The Gorilla Story 1975, ISBN 0-399-11528-5, p. 295
  94. ^ Buhs, Joshua Blu (August 1, 2009). Bigfoot: The Life and Times of a Legend. University of Chicago Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-226-50215-1. Retrieved November 10, 2014. 
  95. ^ Lozier, J. D.; Aniello, P.; Hickerson, M. J. (September 2009). "Predicting the distribution of Sasquatch in western North America: anything goes with ecological niche modelling". Journal of Biogeography 36 (9): 1623–1627. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02152.x. 
  96. ^ Speigel, Lee (February 14, 2013). "Bigfoot DNA Tests: Science Journal's Credibility Called Into Question". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 1, 2013. 
  97. ^ a b Nicholson, Eric (February 15, 2013). "A Texas Geneticist Apparently Invented a Science Journal to Publish Her DNA Proof of Bigfoot". Dallas Observer. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  98. ^ Ketchum, M. S.; Wojtkiewicz, P. W., Watts, A. B., Spence, D. W., Holzenburg, A. K., Toler, D. G., Prychitko, T. M., Zhang, F., Bollinger, S., Shoulders, R., Smith, R. (2013). "Novel North American Hominins, Next Generation Sequencing of Three Whole Genomes and Associated Studies". DeNovo Journal of Science 1 (1). ISSN 2326-2869(subscription required) 
  99. ^ Radford, Benjamin (February 14, 2013). "'Bigfoot DNA' Study Seeks Yeti Rights". Discovery.com. Retrieved March 1, 2013. 
  100. ^ "BFRO Animal Planet". Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  101. ^ Coleman, Loren (2003). Bigfoot!:The True Story of Apes in America. Simon and Schuster. p. 233. ISBN 1439187789. 
  102. ^ Daegling 2004, p. 4.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links