Formate dehydrogenase

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Formate dehydrogenase N, transmembrane
Identifiers
Symbol Form-deh_trans
Pfam PF09163
InterPro IPR015246
SCOP 1kqf
SUPERFAMILY 1kqf
OPM superfamily 3
OPM protein 1kqf

Formate dehydrogenases are a set of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, donating the electrons to a second substrate, such as NAD+ in formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.1.2) or to a cytochrome in formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.2.1).[1]

Biological function[edit]

NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenases are important in methylotrophic yeast and bacteria and are vital in the catabolism of C1 compounds such as methanol.[2] The cytochrome-dependent enzymes are more important in anaerobic metabolism in prokaryotes.[3] For example, in E. coli, the formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase is an intrinsic membrane protein with two subunits and is involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration.[4][5]

NAD-dependent reaction

Formate + NAD+ ↔ CO2 + NADH + H+

Cytochrome-dependent reaction

Formate + 2 ferricytochrome b1 ↔ CO2 + 2 ferrocytochrome b1 + 2 H+

Molybdopterin, molybdenum and selenium dependence[edit]

One of the enzymes in the oxidoreductase family that sometimes employ tungsten (bacterial formate dehydrogenase H) is known to use a selenium-molybdenum version of molybdopterin.[6]

Transmembrane domain[edit]

The transmembrane domain of the beta subunit of formate dehydrogenase consists of a single transmembrane helix. This domain acts as a transmembrane anchor, allowing the conduction of electrons within the protein.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ferry JG (1990). "Formate dehydrogenase". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 7 (3–4): 377–82. PMID 2094290. 
  2. ^ Popov VO, Lamzin VS (1994). "NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase". Biochem. J. 301 (3): 625–43. PMC 1137035. PMID 8053888. 
  3. ^ Jormakka M, Byrne B, Iwata S (2003). "Formate dehydrogenase--a versatile enzyme in changing environments". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13 (4): 418–23. doi:10.1016/S0959-440X(03)00098-8. PMID 12948771. 
  4. ^ Graham A, Boxer DH (1981). "The organization of formate dehydrogenase in the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli". Biochem. J. 195 (3): 627–37. PMC 1162934. PMID 7032506. 
  5. ^ Ruiz-Herrera J, DeMoss JA (1969). "Nitrate reductase complex of Escherichia coli K-12: participation of specific formate dehydrogenase and cytochrome b1 components in nitrate reduction". J. Bacteriol. 99 (3): 720–9. PMC 250087. PMID 4905536. 
  6. ^ Khangulov, S. V. et al. (1998). "Selenium-Containing Formate Dehydrogenase H from Escherichia coli: A Molybdopterin Enzyme That Catalyzes Formate Oxidation without Oxygen Transfer". Biochemistry 37 (10): 3518–3528. doi:10.1021/bi972177k. PMID 9521673. 
  7. ^ Iwata S, Byrne B, Tornroth S, Jormakka M (2002). "Molecular basis of proton motive force generation: structure of formate dehydrogenase-N". Science 295 (5561): 1863–1868. doi:10.1126/science.1068186. PMID 11884747. 

External links[edit]