Former Liang

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Former Liang (前涼)
西平, 涼
Vassal of Jin Dynasty (265-420), Han Zhao, Later Zhao, Former Qin

320–376
Capital Guzang
Government Monarchy
Prince
 -  320-324 Zhang Mao
 -  324-346 Zhang Jun
 -  346-353 Zhang Chonghua
 -  353-355 Zhang Zuo
 -  355-363 Zhang Xuanjing
 -  364-376 Zhang Tianxi
History
 -  Zhang Gui's creation as Duke of Xiping 4 March 314[1][2]
 -  Zhang Mao's issuance of general pardon, usually viewed as establishment 320 320
 -  Zhang Mao's acceptance of Prince of Liang title 323
 -  Zhang Zuo's formal rejection of Jin suzerainty 354
 -  Zhang Xuanjing's formal acceptance of Jin suzerainty 361
 -  Disestablished 26 September 376[3][4] 376
 -  Zhang Tianxi's death 406

The Former Liang (Chinese: 前涼; pinyin: Qián Liáng; 320–376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (265–420) in China. It was founded by the Zhang family of the Han Chinese. Its territories included present-day Gansu and parts of Ningxia, Shaanxi, Qinghai and Xinjiang.

All rulers of the Former Liang remained largely titularly under the court of the Jin dynasty as the Duke of Xiping except Zhang Zuo who proclaimed himself wang (prince/king). However, at times the other Former Liang rulers also used the wang title when imposed on them when they were forced to submit to Han Zhao, Later Zhao, or Former Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang under the Han Chinese ruler Zhang Gui. After this, significant Han Chinese settlement occurred in Gaochang, a major, large part of the population becoming Chinese. In 383 The General Lu Guang of the Former Qin seized control of the region.[5]

Rulers of the Former Liang[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Did not exist Ming (明 Míng) Zhang Shi (張寔 Zhāng Shí) 314-320 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 314–320
Did not exist Cheng (成 Chéng) Zhang Mao (張茂 Zhāng Mào) 320–324 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 320–324
Did not exist Zhongcheng (忠成 Zhōngchéng) Zhang Jun (張駿 Zhāng Jùn) 324-346 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 324-346
Did not exist Huan (桓 Huán) Zhang Chonghua (張重華 Zhāng Chónghuá) 346-353 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 346-353
Did not exist Ai (哀 āi) Zhang Yaoling (張曜靈 Zhāng Yàolíng) 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 353
Did not exist King Wei (威王 Wēi Wáng) Zhang Zuo (張祚 Zhāng Zuò) 353-355 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 353-354

Heping (和平 Hépíng) 354-355

Did not exist Jingdao (敬悼 Jìngdào) or Chong (沖 Chōng) Zhang Xuanjing (張玄靚 Zhāng Xuánjìng) 355-363 Jianxing (建興 Jiànxīng) 355-361

Shengping (升平 Shēngpíng) 361-363

Did not exist Dao (悼 Dào) Zhang Tianxi (張天錫 Zhāng Tiānxí) 364-376 Shengping (升平 Shēngpíng) 364-376

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%A6%E8%AE%CA&king=%B7%5D%AB%D2&reign=%AB%D8%BF%B3&yy=2&ycanzi=&mm=2&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%D0%B1G
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 89.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A4%B8&yy=1&ycanzi=&mm=8&dd=&dcanzi=%A5%D2%A4%C8
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 104.
  5. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved May 17, 2011.