Former Qin

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Former Qin (前秦)

 

 

351–394
 

 

 

Former Qin 376 CE
Capital Chang'an (351-385)
Jinyang (385-386)
Nan'an (386-394)
Huangzhong (394)
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 -  351-355 Fú Jiàn
 -  355-357 Fu Sheng
 -  357-385 Fú Jiān
 -  385-386 Fu Pi
 -  386-394 Fu Deng
 -  394 Fu Chong
History
 -  Fú Jiàn's entry into Chang'an 350
 -  Established 4 March 351[1][2] 351
 -  Fú Jiàn's claim of imperial title 352
 -  Fú Jiān's destruction of Former Yan 370
 -  Battle of Fei River 383
 -  Fú Jiān's death 16 October 385[3][4]
 -  Disestablished 394
 -  Fu Hong's death 405
Former Qin
Chinese 前秦

The Former Qin (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. Founded by the Fu[disambiguation needed] family of the Di ethnicity, it completed the unification of North China in 376. Its capital had been Xi'an up to the death of the ruler Fu Jiān. Despite its name, the Former Qin was much later and less powerful than the Qin Dynasty which ruled all of China during the 3rd century BC. The adjective "former" is used to distinguish it from the "Later Qin" state (384-417).

The defeat of the Former Qin in the Battle of Fei River and the subsequent uprisings split the Former Qin territory into two noncontiguous pieces after the death of Fu Jiān: one located at present day Taiyuan, Shanxi and was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling. The other struggled in its greatly reduced territories around the border of present day Shaanxi and Gansu until disintegration in 394 under years of invasions by the Western Qin and the Later Qin.

In 327, the Gaochang commandery was created by the Former Liang under the Han Chinese ruler Zhang Gui. After this, significant Han Chinese settlement occurred, a major, large part of the population becoming Chinese. In 383 The General Lu Guang of the Former Qin seized control of the region.[5]

All rulers of the Former Qin proclaimed themselves "Emperor" except for Fu Jiān, who claimed the title "Heavenly Prince" (Tian Wang) but was posthumoustly considered an emperor.

Rulers of the Former Qin[edit]

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Gaozu (高祖 Gāozǔ) Jingming (景明 Jǐngmíng) Fu Jiàn (苻健 Fú Jiàn) 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 Huángshǐ) 351-355
Did not exist King Li (厲王 Lìwáng) ¹ Fu Sheng (苻生 Fú Shēng) 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 Shòuguāng) 355-357
Shizu (世祖 Shìzǔ) Xuanzhao (宣昭 Xuānzhāo) Fu Jiān (苻堅 Fú Jiān) 357-385 Yongxing (永興 Yǒngxīng) 357-359

Ganlu (甘露 Gānlù) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 Jiànyuán) 365-385

Did not exist Aiping (哀平 āipíng) Fu Pi (苻丕 Fú Pī) 385-386 Taian (太安 Tàiān) 385-386
Taizong (太宗 Tàizōng) Gao (高 Gāo) Fu Deng (苻登 Fú Dēng) 386-394 Taichu (太初 Tàichū) 386-394
Did not exist Houzhu (後主 Hòuzhǔ) Fu Chong (苻崇 Fú Chóng) several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 Yán Chū) 394

¹ Fu Sheng was posthumously given the title "wang" even though he had reigned as emperor.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%BFp%AB%D2&reign=%A5%C3%A9M&yy=7&ycanzi=&mm=1&dd=&dcanzi=%A4%FE%A8%B0
  2. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 99.
  3. ^ http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ftms-bin/kiwi1/luso.sh?lstype=2&dyna=%AAF%AE%CA&king=%A7%B5%AAZ%AB%D2&reign=%A4%D3%A4%B8&yy=10&ycanzi=&mm=8&dd=&dcanzi=%A8%AF%A4%A1
  4. ^ Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 106.
  5. ^ Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
    Society for the Study of Chinese Religions (U.S.), Indiana University, Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center (2002). Journal of Chinese religions, Issues 30-31. the University of California: Society for the Study of Chinese Religions. p. 24. Retrieved 17 May 2011.