Former countries in Europe after 1815

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A map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day. Each country has information separated into columns: name of the distinct country, its lifespan, the country or countries that hold all or some of the territory it once did, and further information about it.[1][2]

Article scope[edit]

Further information: Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe

The scope of this article begins in 1815, after a round of negotiations about European borders and spheres of influence were agreed upon at the Congress of Vienna.[3] The Congress of Vienna was a nine-month, pan-European meeting of statesmen who met to settle the many issues arising from the destabilising impact of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.[4]

The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to twenty-five years of nearly continuous war during which France had caused the annexation or geopolitical reorganisation of myriad European microstates as well as some larger. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe,[5] including restoring or reorganising many of the states which had previously been removed from Europe's political map.

Sovereign countries[edit]

This is a list of all the independent countries or puppet states that existed between 1815 and the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country's sovereignty. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but not under full independence.)

Former countries Lifespan of sovereignty Today part of Notes
Albania (kingdom) 1928–1939 Albania The president of the Albanian Republic during the 1920s decided to reinstate the monarchy along with social darwinism but instead of reinstating the previous dynasty{{fact}} he became the new monarch, laying claim to the dynasty that ruled Albania in the Middle Ages; the country and his power were overthrown in 1939 by Fascist Italy.
Albania (military occupation) 1939–1943
1943–1944
Albania, Serbia, Macedonia Albania was occupied by Axis Powers during World War II first by Fascist Italy and then by Nazi Germany
Albania (People’s Republic) 1946–1992 Albania Communist government of Albania after World War II.
Principality of Albania 1912–1925 Albania Gained independence from the Ottoman Empire during its final years of decline; was only actually ruled by a prince until the outbreak of World War I and was dissolved into a republic shortly after the war due to him being of German ethnicity
Albanian Republic 1925–1928 Albania Predecessor of the Albanian Kingdom
Anhalt (Duchy) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State.
Armenia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Armenia The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Armenia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922.
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia The first unified empire under the Habsburg Monarchy until Hungarian uprisings in 1848 and the Hungarian Compromise of 1867.
Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina Successor state of the Austrian Empire with Hungarian self-government within the Habsburg Empire.
Avar Khanate 1200s–1864 Russia Comprised Circassia and Dagestan; it was the last country in the Caucasus to be annexed by the Russian Empire: Dagestan in 1859 and Circassia in 1864.
Azerbaijan (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Azerbaijan The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922
Baden (Grand Duchy) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members.
Bavaria (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members.
Belarus (People's Republic) 1918–1919 Belarus Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets
Bremen (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Brunswick (Duchy) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Bulgaria (Kingdom) 1908–1946 Bulgaria, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece One of the last countries under the Ottoman Empire to gain independence; it suffered badly after World War I due to fighting as part of the Central Powers and lost some of its territory; it attempted to regain all of its territory and more during World War II
Bulgaria (People's Republic) 1946–1990 Bulgaria Communist government of Bulgaria after World War II behind the Iron Curtain
Cospaia 1440–1826 Italy By error, a small strip of land went unmentioned in a sale treaty, and its inhabitants promptly declared independence; nearly 400 years later it was absorbed into the Papal States and Tuscany equally.
Couto Mixto 1200s–1864 Spain Neutral territory between Portugal and Spain which was granted to Spain entirely in 1864
Cretan State 1898–1913 Greece Gained independence after several rebellions against the Ottoman Empire and after only 15 years of independence joined the Kingdom of Greece
Crimea (Republic) 2014 Russia (disputed with Ukraine) Unrecognized state which gained independence after a referendum and then joined Russia a day later
Croatia (puppet state of Nazi Germany) 1941–1945 Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Czechoslovakia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1938
1938–1939
1945–1948
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine Democratic unified government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War I
Czechoslovakia (People's Republic) 1948–1992 Czech Republic, Slovakia Communist government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War II behind the Iron Curtain
Danzig (League of Nations) 1920–1939 Poland Protectorate of the League of Nations; annexed by Nazi Germany during the invasion of Poland in World War II
Gurian Republic 1905-06 Georgia Part of the Russian Empire
German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 Germany Also known as East Germany; was the Soviet-controlled government of Germany after World War II.
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Russia A puppet state of the Soviet Union during World War II created from southern Finland which was quickly annexed into the Soviet Union
France (Kingdom) 1815–1830
1830–1848
France Even though the French Revolution had intentionally ended the French crown in 1792, monarchical systems were in power for long periods of time between 1800 until finally ending in 1870.
French State 1940/1942–1944 France, Belgium In 1940, Nazi Germany occupied France and Belgium, unifying Belgium with northern and western France and a neutral puppet state called Vichy France was set up in the south until it, too, was invaded by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy two years later.
France (Imperial Monarchy) 1852–1870 France President Napoleon III declared himself Emperor, but was swiftly defeated after 18 years of rule; France also lost Alsace-Lorraine and it returned to the Germanic lands now unifying under the first national state.
Frankfurt (Free City) 1816–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
German Empire 1871–1918 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia, France, Belgium, Lithuania Germany at its greatest extent
Georgia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1921 Georgia The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Georgia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922
Greece (Kingdom) 1832–1924
1935–1941
1944–1974
Greece, Turkey Wavering between monarchy and dictatorship the Kingdom of Greece existed three times in history always on rocky foundations
Hamburg (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Hanover (Kingdom) 1814–1866 Germany In personal union with the United Kingdom until accession of Queen Victoria in 1837; annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866.
Hesse (Grand Duchy) 1806–1867/1871 Germany Northern part became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State and then the German Empire, with the southern part joining the German Empire as well.
Hesse-Homburg 1622–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Hesse-Kassel 1813–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Hohenzollern-Hechingen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850
Hungary (Regency) 1920–1946 Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine Hungarian experiment with restoring the monarchy, which ended up only having a regent, and became a puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Hungary (People's Republic) 1946–1989 Hungary Communist government of Hungary after World War II behind the Iron Curtain.
Hungarian Democratic Republic 1918–1919 Hungary Short-lived experiment of Hungary with democracy after the fall of the Habsburg Empire.
Hungarian Soviet Republic 1919 Hungary Short-lived experiment of Hungary with Communism after the fall of the Habsburg Empire.
Iceland (Kingdom) 1918–1944 Iceland In personal union with the Kingdom of Denmark; previously a Danish colony since 1380
Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Italy A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
Italy (Unified Kingdom) 1861–1946 Italy, Slovenia, Croatia Italian unification progressed to its fullest from 1861-1870 adding the territory of the Italian unified state in central Italy and the Two Sicilies to Sardinia as well as the annexations of Austrian Italy and the Papal States; during 1922-1943 it was the period of fascist dictatorship in Italy under Benito Mussolini
Irish Free State 1922–1937 Ireland Dominion of the British Empire after independence movements in the early 20th century from the former United Kingdom
Irish Republic 1919–1922 United Kingdom, Ireland Partly recognized, revolutionary state. Declared independence from the United Kingdom after the 1918 election during the Irish War of Independence. Partitioned into the Irish Free State and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Kraków (Free City) 1815–1846 Poland Protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Empire of Austria, later annexed into the Austrian Empire
Kuban People's Republic 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until it was annexed by the Russian SFSR it existed as a small short-lived country in the Northern Caucasus and has never regained its independence
Lichtenberg (Principality) 1815–1834 Germany Owned by a branch of the Saxe-Coburgs; sold to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1834
Lippe (Principality) 1123–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Lübeck (Free City) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Lucca (Duchy) 1815–1847 Italy Annexed by Tuscany in 1847
Luxembourg (Duchy) 1839–1867 Luxembourg Predecessor of the Grand Duchy of Luxemburg which still exists today
Massa and Carrara (Duchy) 1473–1829 Italy Annexed by Modena and Reggio in 1829
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1352–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Mecklenburg-Strelitz 1701–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Modena and Reggio (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Moldavian Democratic Republic 1918 Moldova From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the Versailles Treaty which added this territory to the Kingdom of Romania the Moldavian Democratic Republic existed as one of the Imperial Russian successor countries in Europe
Montenegro (Kingdom) 1910–1918 Montenegro A kingdom which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia
Montenegro (Principality) 1878–1910 Montenegro Predecessor of the Kingdom of Montenegro
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1920 this country existed for a short time before annexation by the Russian SFSR and never has regained independence
Nassau (Duchy) 1806–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Nazi Germany 1933–1945 Germany, Poland, Russia, Austria, Czech Republic, France, Luxembourg, Ukraine Was the period of fascist dictatorship in Germany under Adolf Hitler before and until the end of World War II.
North German Confederation Federal State 1867–1871 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia First federal German state and predecessor of the German Empire
Oldenburg (Grand Duchy) 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Turkey, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece one of the greatest and longest lasting empires of all time this empire rose out of the Near East and fluctuated drastically in territory and economic status throughout its history; it was radically dissolved after World War I by a republican leader after the Allies had nearly annexed all of its remaining territory
Papal States 752–1870 Italy The entire eastern region joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy); however, the remaining strip of land along the west coast did not join Italy until it was annexed in 1870
Parma (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Poland (People's Republic) 1944–1990 Poland Communist government of Poland after World War II behind the Iron Curtain
Portugal (Kingdom) 1139–1910 Portugal After centuries of existence, revolution toppled the Portuguese monarchy in 1910.
Prussia (Kingdom) 1701–1867 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Reuss Junior Line 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt)
Reuss Elder Line 1778–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt)
Romania (Kingdom) 1881–1947 Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Bulgaria The Romanian monarchy was finally dissolved
Romania (People’s Republic) 1947–1989 Romania communist government of Romania after World War II behind the Iron Curtain
Romania (Principality) 1878–1881 Romania Predecessor of the Kingdom of Romania
Russian Empire 1721–1917 Russia, Finland, Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan one of the great powers of the 18th and 19th centuries as well as the second largest modern empire in history
Russian SFSR 1917–1922 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1922 the Russian SFSR was an independent communist state comprising almost all of the territory the Russian Empire had possessed in its final years; in 1922 it became the leading and dominating state in the Soviet Union until the union’s end in 1991
Saar (League of Nations) 1920–1935 Germany League of Nations mandate within Weimar Germany
Saar (French protectorate) 1947–1956 Germany French-administered region which was later given to West Germany
Sardinia (Kingdom) 1720–1861 Italy, France Comprised the Italian regions of Sardinia and Piedmont; the leading state that unified the Italian Peninsula.
Saxe-Altenburg 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1699–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1680–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826
Saxe-Meiningen 1675–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1809–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxony (Kingdom) 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Schaumburg-Lippe 1643–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Schleswig (Duchy) 1864–1866 Germany, Denmark Independence from Denmark in 1864; annexed by Prussia in 1866
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Serbia (Kingdom) 1882–1918 Serbia, Macedonia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was formed from the annexations of other states
Serbia (Principality) 1878–1882 Serbia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia and Montenegro 2003–2006 Serbia, Montenegro Re-instated constitution of Yugoslavia ending that title and giving semi-autonomy to Montenegro before its independence from Serbia in 2006.
Septinsular Republic 1800–1815 Greece An archipelagic republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands and then under the French Empire.
Slovak State 1939–1945 Slovakia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
Spanish Republic 1873–1874,

1931–1939

Spain Spain has been a republic at two occasions; the Second Republic was defeated in the Spanish Civil War.
Spanish State 1939–1975 Spain Was the period of fascist dictatorship in Spain under Francisco Franco
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia A short-lived, independent country which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia
Swiss Restoration 1815–1848 Switzerland From the crush of Napoleon to a new constitution which still exists today
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic 1918 Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the temporary breakup of the Transcaucasian DFR, it was an independent state comprising Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan all three of which gained independence and then rejoined together in 1922 to form the Transcaucasian SSR.
Trieste (Free Territory) 1947–1975 Italy, Slovenia, Croatia De facto split in 1954 between neighbouring countries Italy and Yugoslavia, it was formally removed in 1975 with an agreement between these two countries
Tuscany (Grand Duchy) 1815–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Two Sicilies (Kingdom) 1816–1860 Italy Comprised the Italian regions of Naples and Sicily; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860
Ukraine (People’s Republic) 1918–1920 Ukraine Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets
Ukraine (puppet state of Nazi Germany) 1941–1944 Ukraine A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
United Baltic Region (puppet state of Nazi Germany) 1941–1944 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania One of the greatest superpowers in modern times comprising most of the territory that once was under the Russian Empire including some new territory after World War II in Europe annexed from Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1801–1922 United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland Unified sovereign state of the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland until the Irish independence movements in the early 20th century
United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815–1839 Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Unified sovereign state of the Dutch lands after the crush of Napoleon; only the area of Luxembourg was part of the German Confederation
United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Italy First step of Italian unification comprising Tuscany, Parma, Modena and Reggio, and the eastern region of the Papal States; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860
United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864 Greece Was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom. It was the successor state of the Septinsular Republic
Waldeck-Pyrmont 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Weimar Germany 1919–1933 Germany, Poland, Russia First German democracy
West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Ukraine Successor state of Ukrainians after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Württemberg (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members
Yugoslavia (Federal Republic) 1992–2003 Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina Democratic Yugoslavia after the fall of communism; Bosnia & Herzegovina gained independence between 1991 and 1993
Yugoslavia (Kingdom) 1918–1941 Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia Unified Slavic country after World War I
Yugoslavia (People's Republic) 1944–1992 Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, Macedonia Communist government of the south Slavic ethnicities after World War II outside of the Iron Curtain

Autonomous countries or incorporated protectorates[edit]

This is a list of all the dependencies of countries that existed between 1815 to the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country’s autonomy. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but as independent countries).

Former dependencies Lifespan of dependency Within present-day countries Further information
Abkhazia (Principality) 1810–1864 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 12th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1864
Bulgaria (Principality) 1878–1908 Bulgaria, Serbia during the Russian-Turkish Wars of 1878, and the independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania, Bulgaria gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire; the principality gained complete independence in 1908
Erivan (Khanate) 1604–1828 Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1604 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Finland (Grand Duchy) 1809–1918 Finland, Russia was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its grand duke
Guria (Principality) 1810–1829 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 15th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1829
Lombardy–Venetia (Kingdom) 1815–1866 Italy comprised the Italian regions of Lombardy and Venetia; an autonomous kingdom within the Austrian Empire
Montenegro (Principality) 1815–1878 Montenegro after being a puppet state of Napoleon’s Europe it regained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support
Nakhchevan (Khanate) 1747–1828 Azerbaijan, Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1747 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Poland (protectorate) 1815–1830 Poland, Lithuania was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its king; at home it was called the ‘Kingdom of Poland’ but internationally known as Congress Poland and functioned more like a protectorate
Romania (Principality) 1859–1878 Romania in 1859 Moldovia and Wallachia unified into the United Principalities and gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support
Samegrelo (Principality) 1803–1857 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 4th century BC and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1803 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1857
Serbia (Principality) 1817–1878 Serbia a rebellion broke out in 1804 and 1817 Serbia gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support

Proposed states[edit]

This is a list of all the independent countries that could or would have existed between 1815 to the present day that for some reason or another never did.

Proposed states Proposed formation Current states Notes
United Baltic Duchy 1918 Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania idea first brought forth by the Germans but was rejected after the Versailles Treaty and the Baltic Region became the three present day countries
United States of Greater Austria 1905 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia concept brought forth by the Habsburgs in reaction to tensions within the empire of autonomy; the autocratic empire would be changed into a united autonomous country where each nation governed itself with some support from a much weaker Habsburg monarchy

See also[edit]

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ This information is based on the main articles on these former countries.
  2. ^ http://www.progenealogists.com/germany/articles/ganatomy.htm
  3. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  4. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  5. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 

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