Formerly Used Defense Sites
Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) are properties that were owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Defense. The term also refers to the U.S. military program created in 1986 for assessment and environmental restoration, if any, led by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Of the potential 10,000 FUDS that have been used for military training, production, installation and testing of weapon systems the U.S. military has reviewed over 9,800 sites in the US and "its territories" for contamination by the Department of Defense; around 2700 of these properties were determined to be in need of environmental cleanup with restoration projects planned or ongoing, at an estimated cost of $14-18 billion.  
The Defense Environmental Restoration Program statute (10 USC 2701) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabilities Act CERCLA direct the assessment, eligibility for clean up and clean up, as does the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan. One funding eligibility criteria is that the contamination must have occurred prior to 17 October 1986.  EPA determines if a site qualifies as Superfund site to be listed on the National Priority List (NPL)L per National Contingency Plan (NCP), 40 CFR Part 300. If it is not listed on NPL, the state or tribe is the lead regulator while DoD is the lead agency.The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) drives clean up process.:18
- "Formerly Used Defense Sites". website. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. undated. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- "FUDS". Fact sheet. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Poirier, David R. (2001). Dangerous Places: Health, Safety, and Archaeology. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 170–171. ISBN 978-0-89789-801-0.
- Albright, Richard D. (2008). Cleanup of chemical and explosive munitions: locating, identifying contaminants, and planning for environmental remediation of land and sea military ranges and ordnance dumpsites. William Andrew. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-8155-1540-1.
- Mauroni, Albert J. (2003). Chemical demilitarization: public policy aspects. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-275-97796-2.
- "Environmental Quality FORMERLY USED DEFENSE SITES (FUDS) PROGRAM POLICY". Engineer Regulation 200-3-1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 10 May 2004. p. 297. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Stephenson, John B. (2010). Formerly Used Defense Sites: The U. S. Army Corps of Eng. Needs to Improve Its Process for Reviewing Completed Cleanup Remedies to Ensure Continued Protection. DIANE Publishing (GAO). ISBN 978-1-4379-2494-7.