Fort Gorges

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Not to be confused with Fort George, Maine

Fort Gorgés
Fort gorges.jpg
Fort Gorges
Location E of Portland on Hog Island, Portland Harbor
Nearest city Portland, Maine
Coordinates 43°39′47″N 70°13′17″W / 43.66306°N 70.22139°W / 43.66306; -70.22139Coordinates: 43°39′47″N 70°13′17″W / 43.66306°N 70.22139°W / 43.66306; -70.22139
NRHP Reference # 73000114
Added to NRHP August 28, 1973

Fort Gorges is a United States military fort built on Hog Island Ledge in Casco Bay, Maine.

History[edit]

Fort Gorges as seen from the sea.

Following the War of 1812, the United States Army Corps of Engineers proposed that a fort be built on Hog Island Ledge, in Casco Bay at the entrance to the harbor at Portland, Maine. Named for the colonial proprietor of Maine, Sir Ferdinando Gorges, it was constructed to support existing forts, including Fort Preble in South Portland and Fort Scammel built on nearby House Island in 1808. Congress, however, did not fund construction of Fort Gorges until 1857. The walls of the fort were begun the next year, and when the American Civil War broke out in 1861, work quickly advanced.

The fort was designed by Colonel Reuben Staples Smart. The chief architect in charge of construction was Thomas Lincoln Casey, who later became Chief of Engineers. It is similar in size and construction to Fort Sumter, but is built of granite instead of brick.

The fort was completed in 1865 as the war ended. Modern explosives made the fort obsolete by the time it was completed. A modernization plan was begun in 1869, but funding was cut off in 1876, with the third level of the fort still unfinished. During the modernization project, sod-covered sand was added to the top level of the fort to protect gun encasements and powder magazines from attacks.

The Fort's armament consisted of thirty-four 10-inch Rodman guns mounted in the fort's casemates. In 1898, all guns were removed from the fort except a large 10-inch Parrott rifle which was emplaced on the top of the fort. The 10-inch Parrott rifle still remains in place and is one of the largest surviving specimens of Civil War vintage artillery.

The fort was last used by the Army during World War II, when it was used to store submarine mines.

It was acquired by the city of Portland in 1960 and placed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is now open to the public as a park, and is accessible only by private boat. Visitors are recommended to carry a flashlight to enter the powder magazines.

Accessing the island involves crossing areas with strong tidal currents and should thus be attempted only under the right conditions, by people with sufficient experience, using a proper boat. (i.e. don't try it with a canoe.)

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