Bay Ridge, Brooklyn

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Bay Ridge" redirects here. For the unincorporated community in Northampton County, Virginia, see Bay Ridge, Virginia.
Night view of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge across from John Paul Jones Park
Typical street in Bay Ridge

Bay Ridge is a neighborhood in the southwest corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, New York City. It is bounded by Sunset Park on the north, Dyker Heights on the east, the Narrows and the Belt Parkway on the west, and the Verrazano Bridge on the south. While some consider Fort Hamilton a separate neighborhood, it is usually considered a part of Bay Ridge. Fort Hamilton and most of Bay Ridge share the ZIP code of 11209; the remainder is in 11220, where the Bay Ridge Post Office is.[1]

History[edit]

George Bradford Brainerd, Bay Ridge, c. 1872 – c. 1887 Brooklyn Museum

The first Dutch settlers began farming here in the 17th century.[2] Well into the 19th century, what’s now considered Bay Ridge consisted of two sister villages: Yellow Hook to the north, named for the color of the soil, and Fort Hamilton to the south, named for the military installation at its center. The latter, considered by some to be a part of Bay Ridge, began to develop in the 1830s as a resort destination to lodge visitors to the army base. The former began to develop after 1850, when a group of artists moved to the area and founded a colony called Ovington Village; before that, it was mostly farmland.

Yellow Hook and Fort Hamilton were struck repeatedly by yellow fever in the 19th century; by 1853, village leaders met and decided to change the community’s name to avoid association with the color, choosing "Bay Ridge," which had been suggested by local horticulturist James Weir after the area’s most prominent geographic features: the high ridge that offered views of New York Bay.[3][4] Such natural beauty attracted not only artists but also the wealthy, who built mansions along Shore Road, overlooking the water, some of which still stand and are worth millions of dollars.[5]

Ovington Avenue

In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many Norwegian and Danish sailors emigrated to Brooklyn, including Bay Ridge and neighboring Sunset Park; Lapskaus Boulevard was the nickname of Eighth Avenue in this area. Development took off after the Fourth Avenue subway (today's R train) arrived in 1916, and accelerated through the 1920s, when the number of apartment buildings increased fivefold, replacing old farms, homesteads and houses.[6]

Construction of the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, which connects Bay Ridge to Staten Island, was completed in 1964. Though now an iconic structure, it was bitterly opposed by residents because it would require the demolition of many homes and businesses. Eight hundred buildings were destroyed, displacing 7,000 people, to make room for the bridge and its approach. Also destroyed was Fort Lafayette, part of New York City's defense system along with Fort Hamilton and Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island, replaced by the base of the bridge's east tower.[7]

The Senator Street Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002.[8] The Houses at 216-264 Ovington Ave. was listed in 2007.[8]

The 2007 Brooklyn tornado hit this area, specifically 68th Street and Bay Ridge Avenue between Third and Fourth avenues.[9] Eleven houses had to be vacated after they suffered significant damage, and many of the trees on the two blocks toppled, landing on cars and stoops. The 4th Avenue Presbyterian Church had its very large stained glass window blown out.[10] As the tornado lifted, it peeled the roof of a nearby Nissan dealership and deforested 40% of Leif Ericson Park. The tornado has been rated an EF-2 on the Enhanced Fujita scale, with winds between 111 and 135 MPH.[11]

Culture[edit]

68th Precinct, NYPD
Firehouse on Third Avenue

Bay Ridge is a largely middle-class neighborhood. With its strong family presence, it is not uncommon to see third or fourth generation families living in the region. Until the early 1990s Bay Ridge was a primarily Irish, Italian, and Norwegian[12] neighborhood.

This area used to be highly Norwegian in particular. Its Nordic heritage is still apparent in the neighborhood. For instance, there's an annual Norwegian Constitution Day Parade, also known as the Syttende Mai Parade, featuring hundreds of people in folk dress who parade down Third Avenue. It ends in Leif Ericson Park, named for the Viking explorer, where "Miss Norway" is crowned near the statue of Leif Ericson. The statue was donated by Crown Prince Olav, Prince of Norway on behalf of the nation of Norway in 1939.[13][14] There is also a Norwegian gifts-and-groceries store.

Today, Bay Ridge maintains a sizable Irish, Italian, and Greek population, but like other areas in South/Southwest Brooklyn, late in the 20th century it saw an influx of Russian, Polish, and Lebanese, and lesser numbers of Chinese. In recent decades many Middle Eastern and Arab Americans have moved to Bay Ridge. Bay Ridge has many international restaurants and bars, especially along 3rd and 5th Avenue, its main commercial strips. Many refer to the community as "Little Palestine" due to its large Palestinian population and "Brooklyn's Gold Coast."[citation needed]

Bay Ridge has a high elderly population. It has been called a NORC or a naturally occurring retirement community because many of its families have grown up in the neighborhood while their children move away. In 2006 it was reported that 20% of the population of Bay Ridge is 60 or over.[15] Local newspapers include The Home Reporter-Sunset News and Bay News (a merger of The Bay Ridge Courier and Kings Courier). The neighborhood is often covered by The Brooklyn Daily Eagle and The Brooklyn Paper.

Bay Ridge was chosen as an "Editor's Pick" in This Old House magazine April 2011, as a good neighborhood to buy an old house.[16]

Locations[edit]

Landmarks and points of interest[edit]

Hurricane damage in Owl's Head Park
69th Street Pier
From harbor
  • Step streets are streets that are composed entirely of steep steps. As a rule they were placed on hills that were too steep to build a road, yet in a rare concession to pedestrians, it was determined to allow them access to the streets denied to motor transportation", at 74th and 76th Streets, recalling the Montmartre section of Paris.[17]
  • Owl's Head Park (also known as Bliss Park), in the neighborhood's northwest corner, was previously the private estate of the Bliss Family, the namesake for nearby Bliss Terrace. Before them, the property was owned by Henry C. Murphy, a United States senator for whom the nearby Senator Street is named. Remnants of their estate were still visible into the 1970s, when they were finally demolished, having fallen into considerable disrepair. It is a 27-acre (110,000 m2) walking park that has a state of the art skate park, dog run, children's playground and basketball courts; it has the first concrete skatepark built in Brooklyn.[18] Owl's Head Park. This park was once the home of Senator Murphy of the City of Brooklyn and it was also the Bliss Estate.
  • 69th Street Pier at 69th St. and Shore Road, is the community's key seaside recreation spot. Sports fishermen travel across the borough and from the other boroughs to fish the waters of "The Bay Ridge Anchorage" and along the seawall promenade that runs south from the pier to the Verrazano Narrows Bridge and east along Gravesend Bay. Years prior to the construction of the bridge, commuter ferry service was operated between this Bay Ridge pier and the St. George Ferry Terminal in Staten Island. It features a sculpture that emits a beam of light as a memorial to those who lost their lives on September 11, 2001.
  • Farrell House, which has been at 125 95th St. since the early twentieth century, is one of many old mansions in Bay Ridge, and it is now an official landmark. An accompanying structure, thought to have been used as a barn, was unable to be saved and was demolished. Legend has it the house was turned so that its "widow's walk," a balcony that traditionally faces the sea so women left at home could watch for their husbands' ships, would no longer face the Narrows.[19]
  • Fort Hamilton, an active military base near the Verrazano Bridge, houses one of the neighborhood's few cultural attractions, the Harbor Defense Museum.[20]
  • Other notable locations include the St. John's Episcopal Church on Fort Hamilton Parkway, St. Patrick's Church on 4th Avenue, and Fort Hamilton Memorial Park at 4th Avenue and 101st Street. There are also a handful of houses dating back to the 19th century.

Fort Hamilton neighborhood[edit]

This article is about the Brooklyn neighborhood. For the U.S. Army fort located nearby, see Fort Hamilton.
The park strip between the shore road and Narrows

This area stretches from around 90th Street as its northern border to 101st Street at the south, and is bounded by New York Bay on the west, and 7th Avenue on the east. It is named for the United States Army installation of the same name, which bears the name of Alexander Hamilton.[21] Fort Hamilton, like Bay Ridge, is patrolled by the NYPD's 68th Precinct.[22]

Services[edit]

Bay Ridge is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 68th[23] Precinct. It is served by Engine 241, Engine 242, and Ladder 109 of the New York City Fire Department. Bay Ridge is also served by a BRAVO Volunteer Ambulance.

Transportation[edit]

The area is served by the R train of the BMT Fourth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway between Bay Ridge Avenue and 95th Street.[24]

Additionally, there are MTA express bus routes X27 and X37, which mainly serves for the commute to Manhattan, but also runs during off-peak hours on weekdays. The X27 also runs on weekends. The routes X28 and X38 also serve the eastern part of Bay Ridge. Many Bay Ridge commuters opt for the relative comfort and convenience of the express bus. Bay Ridge is readily accessible by car, encircled by the Belt Parkway and Gowanus Expressway. Local bus routes include B1, B4, B8, B9, B16, B37, B63, B64, B70, S53, S79 SBS, and S93.[25]

The freight-only Bay Ridge Branch connects car floats to the Long Island Rail Road.

Education[edit]

Breaking ground on Bay Ridge High School, 1914
High School of Telecommunications

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

New York City Department of Education operates area public schools. Educational institutions in Bay Ridge include; P.S. 102, P.S. 170, P.S. 127, P.S. 185 (Walter Kassenbrock Elementary School), P.S. 104 (called the Fort Hamilton School), Lutheran Elementary School, St. Anselm's Roman Catholic School, I.S. 30 (also known as Mary White Ovington), I.S.259 (also known as William McKinley Junior High School) Holy Angels Catholic Academy Bay Ridge Preparatory School, Fort Hamilton High School, High School of Telecommunications (originally all-girls Bay Ridge High School), Poly Prep Country Day School, Visitation Academy, Adelphi Academy, Fontbonne Hall Academy, St. Patrick Elementary School, D., G. Kaloidis Parochial School, and Xaverian High School. Fort Hamilton High School, between 83rd and 85th streets, was erected in the 1940s on the grounds of the Crescent Athletic Club, a country club. The High School of Telecommunications was formerly Bay Ridge High School, which was once an all-girls school.

Public libraries[edit]

Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) operates the Bay Ridge Library. The Bay Ridge Reading Club first organized the library in 1880. It opened on its present site in 1896 and became a BPL branch in 1901. The current two story facility opened in 1960. In 2004 it received a $2.1 million renovation, including new furniture and shelving, new lighting equipment, a new roof, and 27 additional public access computers.[26]

A smaller public library is the Fort Hamilton Library, built with money gift from Andrew Carnegie in 1906. The current branch's predecessor was founded over 100 years ago. It became a part of the BPL system in 1901 and moved to its current location in 1905. Since then it has gone through numerous renovations. The most recent renovation was completed in March 2011, with a ribbon cutting ceremony held on April 11, 2011.[27]

Politics[edit]

Bay Ridge is recognized as politically conservative.[28] Mike Long, Chairman of the Conservative Party of New York, resides there. However, it has been known to elect Democrats to office as well, such as City Councilman Vincent J. Gentile. Bay Ridge is represented in the New York State Senate by Republican Marty Golden, and New York State Assembly by Republican Nicole Malliotakis and Democrat Alec Brook-Krasny. Republican Michael Grimm was elected to represent the community in Congress in 2010. The neighborhood is served by Brooklyn Community Board 10.

Development has been a passionate issue for Bay Ridge residents, as in recent years they saw many of the decades-old two-family houses being demolished, replaced by condominiums known colloquially as "Fedder Homes," after the branded air conditioners poking out from the buildings' facades. In 2005, local community leaders and community activists from across the political spectrum united to issue rezoning laws.[29]

Notable people[edit]

In popular culture[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NYC Dept. of City Planning, District 10.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Owl's Head Park – Historical Sign". 
  4. ^ Donovan, Aaron (June 10, 2001). "If You're Thinking of Living In Red Hook; Isolated Brooklyn Area Starts to Awaken". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  5. ^ Fowler, Brenda (July 26, 1987). "If You're Thinking of Living In Bay Ridge". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 August 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  6. ^ Stewart, Henry (November 6, 2014). "The First Gentrifiers". BKLYNR. 
  7. ^ "The definitive history of the building of the bridge is Gay Talese's The Bridge". 
  8. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  9. ^ "Photos and a story of the aftermath of the Bay Ridge tornado". 
  10. ^ The Phantom. "Bay Ridge Tornado: Fourth Avenue Presbyterian Church". 
  11. ^ Newman, Andy (August 9, 2007). "That Wind That Left Part of Brooklyn Upside Down? It Was a Tornado, All Right". The New York Times. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Find the Classic Bay Ridge at Nordic Delicacies". 
  13. ^ "Leif Ericson Park & Square (New York City Department of Parks & Recreation)". 
  14. ^ "17th of May Parade (Norwegian-American 17th May Committee of Greater New York)". 
  15. ^ Mooney, Jake (January 1, 2006). "Counting Graying Heads". The New York Times. p. 6. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Best for Urbanites - Best Old House Neighborhoods 2011 - This Old House". This Old House. 
  17. ^ Step Streets, accessed February 26, 2007
  18. ^ "Project of the Month September 2001; Millennium Skate Park Owl's Head Park". 
  19. ^ "An extensive history of the Farrell House". 17 August 1997. 
  20. ^ "Harbor Defense Museum of Fort Hamilton". 
  21. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 129. 
  22. ^ 68th Precinct, NYPD.
  23. ^ NYPD 68th Precinct, NYPD.
  24. ^ Subway Map
  25. ^ Brooklyn Bus Map
  26. ^ "Bay Ridge." Brooklyn Public Library. Retrieved on September 23, 2009.
  27. ^ "[2]"Brooklyn Public Library. Retrieved on April 16, 2011
  28. ^ http://observer.com/2014/08/a-tale-of-two-boroughs-bill-de-blasio-rarely-visits-brooklyn-gop-strongholds/
  29. ^ http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/html/zone/zh_special_purp_bk.shtml
  30. ^ Thomas, Landon Jr. (February 12, 2007). "Questions Grow About a Top CNBC Anchor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved October 13, 2007. 
  31. ^ Lambert, Bruce (November 11, 1992). "Chuck Connors, Actor, 71, Dies; Starred as Television's 'Rifleman'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2007. 
  32. ^ Newman, Andy (August 16, 1999). "klyn Mourns Dodger Who Anchored a Borough". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2013. 
  33. ^ Decades-old signs on 5th Avenue, Bay Ridge, Forgotten New York
  34. ^ Stewart, Henry (October 10, 2014). "Fifty Years Later, Looking for Last Exit". 
  35. ^ Fernandez, Manny (February 28, 2011). "When Players Like Duke Snider Were Also Neighbors". The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, 2013. 
  36. ^ Stewart, Henry (August 11, 2014). "Gilbert Sorrentino, the Lost Laureate of Brooklyn". 
  37. ^ Yee, Vivian (October 9, 2013). "A Glimpse of Yellen's Career, Chronicled in Her High School Newspaper". New York Times. 
  38. ^ "White Irish Drinkers Director: "I Love Saturday Night Fever!"". The L Magazine. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Rygg, Andreas Nilsen. Norwegians in New York, 1825–1925 (Brooklyn, New York: Norwegian News Co. 1941)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 40°37′37″N 74°01′52″W / 40.627°N 74.031°W / 40.627; -74.031