Fort Jones, California
|City of Fort Jones|
|Siskiyou County and the state of California|
|• Total||0.602 sq mi (1.560 km2)|
|• Land||0.602 sq mi (1.560 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2) 0%|
|Elevation||2,762 ft (842 m)|
|• Density||1,400/sq mi (540/km2)|
|Time zone||Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC-7)|
|GNIS feature ID||0277519|
Fort Jones is a city in the Scott Valley area of Siskiyou County, California, United States. The population was 839 at the 2010 census, up from 600 as of the 2000 census. This made it the largest town by population In the Scott Valley.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2013)|
Scottsburg, Scottsville, Wheelock, Ottitiewa and Fort Jones
Fort Jones is registered as a California Historical Landmark. It takes its name from the frontier outpost once located less than a mile to the south of the city's corporate limits. The town was originally named Scottsburg (ca. 1850), but was changed to Scottsville shortly afterward. In 1852, the site was again renamed, this time in honor of Mr. O. C. Wheelock who, with his partners, established the area's first commercial enterprise. In 1854, a post office was established and the town was renamed again, becoming known as Ottitiewa, the Indian name for the Scott River branch of the Shasta tribe. The name remained unchanged until 1860 when local citizens successfully petitioned the postal department to change the name to Fort Jones, a name that is retained to the present day. 
The earliest permanent building at the town site was built in 1851 by two Messrs. Brown and Kelly. It was purchased soon after construction by O. C. Wheelock, Captain John B. Pierce, and two other unknown partners. Wheelock and his partners established a trading post, a bar, and a brothel at this site, which primarily served the troopers stationed at the fort. Near the end of the 1850s, the nearby mining camps of Hooperville and Deadwood began to disband as a result of the dwindling stores of placer gold, epidemic illness and decimating fires.
The mines around Scott Valley attracted many immigrants from many parts of the United States and the world, attracted to the area by news of the California Gold Rush of the 1850s. Irish and Portuguese immigrants remained as ranchers in the area after making enough on the gold fields to purchase property tracts in the valley. In the early years of the Twentieth Century, the northern Scott River tributaries of Moffitt and McAddams creeks were extensively settled by the Portuguese. The Irish surname Marlahan lives on after that family received a shipment of British hay seed infected with the seed of a plant known as Dyers Woad. Those seeds spread their spawn throughout Scott Valley, culturing a plant known in the area as Marlahan Mustard. The plant has a beautiful, canary plume in the spring which matures to small, black, hard seeds. Unfortunately, the herbivore beasts of burden will not eat hay in which this plant exists, and ever since it has been a scourge on the ranchers of Scott Valley.
On December 14, 1894, Billy Dean, a Native American accused of shooting co-worker William Baremore near Grinder Creek outside of Happy Camp, California on December 5, 1894 was lynched by unknown persons while in the custody of Constable Fred Dixon. Constable Dixon and Dean were staying at a hotel in Happy Camp while on their way the Yreka, California jail, where Dean would be safe from vigilantes in Happy Camp. Baremore’s friends were tailing the pair and waited for their moment. At two in the morning on December 14, 1894, a dozen masked men stormed the room and disarmed Constable Dixon. They tied Dean’s hands and carried him to the Wheeler Building which was under construction where they strung him up by the neck from a derrick. His body was left hanging until 11:00 am. That day’s headlines in the Scott Valley News boasted, “He Is Now A Good Indian. Billy Dean Kills a White Man Without Cause and Is Summarily Hoisted to the Happy Hunting Ground.” 
The post at Fort Jones was established by its first commandant, Captain (brevet Major) Edward H. Fitzgerald, E Company, 1st U.S. Dragoons. Such military posts were to be established in the vicinity of major stage routes, which would have meant locating the post in the vicinity of Yreka, sixteen miles to the Northeast. Yet the areas around Yreka did not contain sufficient resources, such as forage for their animals, and Capt. Fitzgerald located his troop some sixteen miles to the southwest, in what was then known as Beaver Valley. Fort Jones was established on October 18, 1852, named in honor of Colonel Roger Jones, who had been the Adjutant General of the Army from March 1825 to July 1852, and would continue to serve Siskiyou County's military needs until the order was received to evacuate some six years later. Fort Jones ceased to exist as a military garrison on June 23, 1858.
The history of Fort Jones would not be complete without the short list of officers stationed there who would attain national prominence in ensuing years. Among them were Phil Sheridan (Union Army); William Wing Loring (Confederate); John B. Hood (Confederate); Ulysses S. Grant (Union) was named to Fort Jones, but was Absent Without Leave for whatever his tenure would have been; George Crook (Union), who would arguable become one of the greatest leaders for the Grand Army of the Republic less than a decade later; and George Pickett (Confederate).
Fort Jones is located at .(41.607303, -122.841817)
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2), all of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Fort Jones had a population of 839. The population density was 1,393.1 people per square mile (537.9/km²). The racial makeup of Fort Jones was 650 (77.5%) White, 33 (3.9%) African American, 61 (7.3%) Native American, 8 (1.0%) Asian, 0 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 23 (2.7%) from other races, and 64 (7.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 103 persons (12.3%).
The Census reported that 710 people (84.6% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 129 (15.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 304 households, out of which 88 (28.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 130 (42.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 30 (9.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 23 (7.6%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 32 (10.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 0 (0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 94 households (30.9%) were made up of individuals and 34 (11.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34. There were 183 families (60.2% of all households); the average family size was 2.91.
The population was spread out with 168 people (20.0%) under the age of 18, 65 people (7.7%) aged 18 to 24, 266 people (31.7%) aged 25 to 44, 230 people (27.4%) aged 45 to 64, and 110 people (13.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females there were 136.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 146.7 males.
There were 344 housing units at an average density of 571.2 per square mile (220.5/km²), of which 182 (59.9%) were owner-occupied, and 122 (40.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 426 people (50.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 284 people (33.8%) lived in rental housing units.
As of the census of 2000, there were 660 people, 298 households, and 185 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,096.7 people per square mile (424.7/km²). There were 328 housing units at an average density of 545.0 per square mile (211.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.64% White, 0.15% African American, 3.18% Native American, 0.45% Pacific Islander, 1.52% from other races, and 6.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.03% of the population.
There were 298 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.6% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.81.
In the city the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $21,563, and the median income for a family was $25,625. Males had a median income of $31,058 versus $16,875 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,301. About 23.3% of families and 26.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over.
- Lauran Paine, ed., Preface and The Fort and Its Dependencies, The Siskiyou Pioneer, Vol. III, No. 3. Yreka, CA: Siskiyou County Historical Society, 1960.
- Gary D. Stumpf, Gold Mining in Siskiyou County 1850-1900. Yreka, CA: Siskiyou County Historical Society, 1979.
- Michael Hendryx, O. Silva, & R. Silva, Historic Look at Scott Valley. Yreka, CA: Siskiyou County Historical Society, 2003.
- U.S. Census
- "Fort Jones". Office of Historical Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
- Frickstad, Walter N., A Century of California Post Offices 1848-1954, Philatelic Research Society, Oakland, CA. 1955, pp.184-193.
- Ed Marlahan, 1965
- Kulczyk,David. (2008). California Justice: Shootouts, Lynching and Assassinations in the Golden State. Word Dancer Press. P58 ISBN 1-884995-54-3
- The California State Military Museum, Historic California Posts: Fort Jones (Siskiyou County)
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- All data are derived from the United States Census Bureau reports from the 2010 United States Census, and are accessible on-line here. The data on unmarried partnerships and same-sex married couples are from the Census report DEC_10_SF1_PCT15. All other housing and population data are from Census report DEC_10_DP_DPDP1. Both reports are viewable online or downloadable in a zip file containing a comma-delimited data file. The area data, from which densities are calculated, are available on-line here. Percentage totals may not add to 100% due to rounding. The Census Bureau defines families as a household containing one or more people related to the householder by birth, opposite-sex marriage, or adoption. People living in group quarters are tabulated by the Census Bureau as neither owners nor renters. For further details, see the text files accompanying the data files containing the Census reports mentioned above.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Senators". State of California. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
- "Members Assembly". State of California. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
- "California's 1st Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.