Fort Knox (Maine)
Fort Knox, Maine painting by Seth Eastman done between 1870 and 1875
|Area||124 acres (0.50 km2)|
|Architectural style||No Style Listed|
|Governing body||State (Maine Bureau of Parks and Lands)|
|NRHP Reference #||69000023|
|Added to NRHP||October 01, 1969|
|Designated NHL||December 30, 1970|
Fort Knox, now Fort Knox State Park or Fort Knox State Historic Site, in Maine was built from 1844-1869. It is located on the western bank of the Penobscot River in the town of Prospect, Maine, about 5 miles (8.0 km) from the mouth of the river. It was the first fort in Maine built of granite (instead of wood). It is named after Henry Knox, the first US Secretary of War, who at the end of his life lived not far away in Thomaston, Maine. The fort was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970. Fort Knox also serves as the entry site for the observation tower of the Penobscot Narrows Bridge, which opened to the public on May 19, 2007.
Local memory of the humiliation of Maine at the hands of the British contributed to subsequent anti-British feeling in Eastern Maine. The Penobscot Expedition of 1779 aimed to force the British from Castine, but ended in a debacle. The Americans lost 43 ships and suffered approximately 500 casualties in the worst naval defeat for the United States prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Then in autumn 1814, during the War of 1812, a British naval force and soldiers sailed up the Penobscot and defeated an outnumbered American force in the Battle of Hampden. The British followed their victory by looting both Hampden and Bangor. The American defeat contributed to the post-war movement for Maine's statehood, which occurred in 1820, as Massachusetts had failed to protect the region.
The Aroostook War of 1838-1839 revived anti-British feeling and concern over the vulnerability of the region to another attack like that of 1814. The response was the inclusion of the Penobscot in the Third System of coastal fortifications, and so the building of a large, expensive granite fort, Fort Knox, at the mouth of the Penobscot River.
The fort's purpose was to defend the Penobscot and Bangor, Maine, a major source of shipbuilding lumber. Construction funding from Congress was intermittent, and the fort's design was never fully completed despite an expenditure of a million dollars. Granite was quarried five miles (8 km) upriver from Mount Waldo in Frankfort, Maine.
It had two batteries facing the river, each equipped with a furnace to heat cannon balls hot enough that they could set wooden ships on fire if the ball lodged in the vessel. These furnaces became obsolete with the changeover from wooden ships to ironclads.
Fort Knox never saw battle, though it was manned during times of war.
During the U. S. Civil War, volunteers from Maine, mostly recruits in training before assignment to active duty, manned the fort. Thomas Lincoln Casey supervised work on the fort, including adapting the batteries to use the recently invented Rodman cannon, and oversaw its completion.
A regiment from Connecticut manned Fort Knox during the Spanish-American War. The garrison was reduced to one man, the "Keeper of the Fort", upon their departure at the end of the war. The keeper attended to the condition and maintenance of the fort, and reported to Fort Preble, in Portland.
In 1923, the federal government declared the fort excess property and put its 125-acre (0.51 km2) grounds up for sale. It was bought by the state of Maine for $2,121. It is now a Maine state historic site and was declared a U.S. National Historic Landmark on December 30, 1970.
Friends of Fort Knox
The Friends of Fort Knox, a nonprofit group formed in the 1990s, has been responsible for many fort repairs and improvements. Friends of Fort Knox projects include the transformation of the Torpedo Storage Shed into the Visitor and Education Center, restoration of the Officer's Quarters, installation of interpretive panels, repair of Battery A powder magazine, restoration and display of four 24-pound flank defense howitzers, repair and opening of the enlisted men's quarters, cistern, rooms and extensive masonry repair.
The Friends reached an agreement with the State Department of Conservation to take over day-to-day operations of the Fort, and began doing so on April 15, 2012. The State retains ownership of the fort as part of the agreement. The lease runs through 2015 and requires the Friends to be responsible for all maintenance of the grounds as well as the interior and exterior of buildings on the property. The Friends may also improve or alter the fort as long as any changes are consistent with the law.
After 2012 the Friends can set the entrance fee to the fort, with the approval of the Bureau of Parks and Lands, and such fees must be consistent with the goal of keeping entry affordable for Maine residents. In exchange, the Friends can keep 85 percent of entrance fee revenue, with the rest going to the State General Fund.
In popular culture
An episode of the reality paranormal investigation TV series Ghost Hunters investigated Fort Knox for signs of a paranormal presence during one episode.
Sally Port-entrance to the fort
View of Bucksport
A passage between casemates
A medium sized (10 inch) Rodman cannon
View from Bucksport, Maine waterfront
- Charles W. Snell (July 10, 1970). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Fort Knox State Park / Fort Knox. National Park Service. and PDF (1.85 MB)
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23.
- "Fort Knox". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-05-15.
- "Bucksport History". .umaine.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-09.
- Curtis, Abigail (April 12, 2012). "Details of Fort Knox privatization lease released". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
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