Fort Larned National Historic Site
Fort Larned National Historic Site
Fort Larned Flagpole and Commissary Building
|Location||Pawnee County, Kansas, Kansas route 156, USA|
|Nearest city||Larned, Kansas|
|Area||718 acres (2.91 km²)|
|Architect||Quartermaster Dept.,U.S. Army|
|Governing body||National Park Service|
|NRHP Reference #||66000107|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHS||August 31, 1964|
Fort Larned was established in 1859 to protect traffic along the Santa Fe Trail from hostile American Indians, and as an agency for the administration of the Central Plains Indians by the Bureau of Indian Affairs under the terms of the Fort Wise Treaty of 1861. The fort's service ended as a combination of the tribes' relocation to reservations and the completion of railroads across Kansas that ended the need for the Santa Fe Trail.
Fort Larned was the site of a meeting between General Winfield Scott Hancock and several Cheyenne chiefs on April 12, 1867, in which Hancock intended to impress the Dog Soldier chiefs with his military power. Following that meeting, Hancock, along with George Armstrong Custer and the 7th U.S. Cavalry traveled west of Fort Larned to a combined Cheyenne and Lakota camp, inciting the villagers to flee. Hancock ordered the village burned, beginning a summer of warfare known as Hancock's War. Fort Larned assisted in bringing Hancock's War to an end by supplying the Medicine Lodge Treaty. The fort was decommissioned in 1878, and from 1885 to 1966, the buildings were used to house the headquarters of a ranch, with the owners living in the house of the commanding officer and the employees residing in what had been the officers' quarters.
With nine historic buildings, the fort survives as one of the best-preserved examples of Indian Wars-period forts. Most of the buildings, including the barracks, commissary, and officers quarters, are furnished to their original appearance. Fort Larned National Historic Site is open daily, year-round, and admission is free. The park offers several special events throughout the year, living history demonstrations, and ranger-guided tours.
Units stationed at Fort Larned
The following units were stationed at Fort Larned during its 19 years of operation:
- 1st U.S. Cavalry - 1859
- 2nd U.S. Infantry - 1859-1863
- 2nd U.S. Dragoons - 1860-1861
- 2nd Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry - 1862
- 9th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry - 1862-1864
- 2nd Colorado Volunteer Cavalry - 1862-1865
- 9th Battery, Wisconsin Light Artillery - 1862-1865
- 1st Colorado Volunteer Cavalry - 1862-1864
- 12th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Infantry - 1863
- McLain’s Independent Colorado Volunteer Battery - 1864
- 15th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry - 1864-1865
- 3rd Wisconsin Volunteer Cavalry - 1864
- 11th Regiment Kansas Volunteer Cavalry - 1864-1865
- 2nd U.S. Volunteer Infantry - 1865
- 48th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment - 1865
- 17th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Cavalry - 1865
- 2nd U.S. Cavalry - 1865-1866
- 13th U.S. Infantry - 1865
- 3rd U.S. Infantry - 1866-1872
- 37th U.S. Infantry - 1867
- 10th U.S. Cavalry - 1867-1869
- 6th U.S. Infantry - 1871-1872
- 5th U.S. Infantry - 1872-1874
- 19th U.S. Infantry - 1874-1878
The 10th US Cavalry, stationed at Fort Larned from 1867 to 1869, was one of the first two all-black cavalry units utilized in the country, along with the 9th US Cavalry. Together, the units earned the nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" for their toughness in combat. They faced racism in the segregated US military, and on January 2, 1869, the 10th Cavalry's stables at Fort Larned burned to the ground, possibly the result of racially-motivated arson. The fire killed dozens of horses, destroyed equipment, and caused the unit to be reassigned to Fort Zarah. In 1999, magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic conductivity surveys were conducted at the fort to attempt to determine the location of the stables, which had been lost. The surveys identified several areas of anomalies consistent with locations of buildings, as well as evidence of disturbances to the land that occurred after the buildings were no longer used as a fort.
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
- "History and Culture". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "Hancock's War". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "Things to Do". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "Regiments and Years Served at Fort Larned". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-15.
- "10th Cavalry at Fort Larned". National Park Service. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
- "Cavalry Stable Area (Fort Larned National Historic Site)". North American Database of Archaeological Geophysics. Retrieved 2013-12-16.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fort Larned National Historic Site.|
- National Park Service: Fort Larned National Historic Site
- Extensive photos of Fort Larned
- 1957 Kansas Historical Quarterly article
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) No. KS-21, "Fort Larned, Barracks (West), Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 12 photos, 5 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-22, "Fort Larned, Barracks (East), Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 8 photos, 5 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-23, "Fort Larned, Blacksmith & Wheelwright Shop, Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 6 photos, 4 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-24, "Fort Larned, Bakery & Mess Hall, Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 5 photos, 4 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-25, "Fort Larned, Commissary Storehouse & Stables, Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 8 photos, 4 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-26, "Fort Larned, Quartermaster Storehouse, Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 6 photos, 7 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-27, "Fort Larned, Officers' Quarters (South), Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 11 photos, 6 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-28, "Fort Larned, Commanding Officer Quarters, Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 6 photos, 7 measured drawings
- HABS No. KS-29, "Fort Larned, Officers' Quarters (North), Larned, Pawnee County, KS", 3 photos, 6 measured drawings